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BP3o^./ ^:'^.cS///X£ 

l^arfaarD College i^ibrarg 



itlmmm of 191S). 

This fund is $ao,ooo, and of its income three quarters 

shall be spent for books and one quarter 

be added to the principal. 

Digitized by 


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a/l Semi'Montbly Journal of 

Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information. 

May 1 TO December 16, 1892. 




Digitized by 


A' ^ 


' y:^: 

Digitized by 



America, A New History of Frederick J. Turner .... 389 

America, The Discovery of Easmus B. Anderson ... 9 

American Periodicals 203 

American Revolution, Finances of the Henry C. Adams 73 

Antique Art, The Evolution op Sara A, Hubhard 74 

Architecture in America, Recent .... ... Bryan Lathrop 136 

Artists and Poets, A Circle of Famous E,G.J, 382 

Botanist's Journeyings, A Anna B, McMahan .... 15 

Canada, The Future of Charles G. JD. Roberts , . . 385 

Chicago's Higher Evolution 206 

Chicago University, The 128 

Columbian Exposition, Higher Aspects of the 263 

Constitution, Our Unwritten James 0. Pierce 18 

Critical Faculty, The Evolution of the Marian Mead 276 

Decorative Art, Meaning and Use of Sara A, Hubbard 212 

DL4.L, The New 127 

Diplomatist's Memoirs, A Veteran JE. G.J. 300 

Eighteenth Century Character, An C. A, L. Richards .... 97 

England's Industrial and Commercial History . . . Jeremiah W. Jenks .... 76 

English and Canadian Fiction, Recent William Morton Payne . . . 309 

Ehf^GLiSH Literature and Language, Books on ... . Oliver Farrar Emerson . . . 106 

Ethics, Two Notable Books on John Bascom 307 

Evolution, The Present Battle-Ground of David Starr Jordan .... 242 

Fall Publications, Announcements of 162, 195 

Fiction, Recent Books of William Morton Payne . . . 101 

Fortunate Old Author, A Octave Thanet ...... 342 

France Under Louis Philippe F. G.J. 178 

Freeman's Historical Essays Charles H. Haskins .... 100 

Freeman's Unfinished History of Sicily F. W. Kelsey 214 

Frenchman and His Notebook at an English Court, A F. G.J. 271 

Geology and Archaeology Mistaught T. C. Chamberlin .... 303 

German Explorer in Central Africa, A F. G.J. 208- 

GiDDiNGS, Joshua R Samuel Willard 138 

Gossip of the Century F. G.J. 239 

Greek Papyri in Egyptian Tombs Fdward G. Mason .... 49 

Henry, Patrick W. F. Poole 41 

Holiday Publications 348, 391 

Jowett's Dialogues of Plato W. S. Hough 183 

Landor MelvUle B. Anderson ... 71 

Literature on the Stage 336 

Mason, George, op Virginia A. C. McLaughlin . . . . 181 

McMaster's History, More of Charles H. Haskins .... 13 

Microscope and Biology, The Henry L. Osbom 11 

Modern Medlsvalism, The Principles of Marian Mead 143 

Paine, Tom, The "True" F.G.J. 132 

Pictures from the Pacific William Morton Payne . . . 244 

Plantation Life, Old-Time Alexander C McClurg ... 46 

" Platform " in England, The Woodrow Wilson 213 

Digitized by 

Google — 



Poetry, Recent Books op William Morton Payne 61, 186, 344 

Poets' Tributes to a Poet: Poems to Whittier 176 

Prehistoric Peoples, Manners and Monuments op . . Frederick Starr 387 

Prose Dithyramb by Renan : Translation of the Famous 

Prayer at the Acropolis 267 

Religion and Philosophy, Some Recent Discussions in . Williston S. Hough .... 77 

Renan, Ernest 234 

Shelley, A Century of • 129 

Simians, Conversations with the Joseph Jastrow 216 

Teacher, A Typical American Edward Playfair Anderson . 17 

Tennyson, Alfred , 231 

Tennyson and Renan: Biography and Bibliography 236 

Tennysoniana : Tributes in Prose and Verse 266 

Tennyson, Ruskin, and Browning, Memories of ...E.G.J. 339 

Thoreau's Seasons Loivis J. Block 274 

Threefold Loss of American Letters: Whittier, Par- 
sons, Curtis 173 

University Extension, Problems of 296 

University of Chicago, Opening of the 206 

University Press, The 295 

Whittier and Slavery Samivd Willard 176 

Whittier, Parsons, and Curtis : Biography and Bibliog- 
raphy 175 

World's Congress Auxiliary, The 377 

Young, Books for the 362, 394 


Emerson's Obtuseness to Shelley. Anna B. Mc- 

Mahau 130 

University Extension Work in Chicago. W. F. 

Poole 130 

Who Reads a Chicago Book ? J. K 130 

The Vacant "Easy Chair." E. W. S 193 

Has America a Laureate ? £. P. Anderson . . 194 

Who Reads a Chicago Book ? J. M 194 

The Shelley Memorial Subscription. E. C. Sted- 194 

man and R. W. Gilder 194 

Who Reads a Chicago Book ? Stanley Waterloo 206 
Western Indifference to Western Authors : A 

Reviewer's View. E. J. H 237 

Neglected Traits in the Character of a Virginia 

Statesman. William Henry Smith ... 238 

Longfellow's First Book. Samuel Willard . . 238 

A Proposed Memoir of the Late Prof. E. A. Free- 
man. Justin Winsor 238 

The Ills of Authorship. H. W. E 269 

Mistakes about Tennyson. Eugene Parsons . . 270 

The Decline of Ibsenism. Daniel Kilham Dodge 270 

Longfellow's First Book. A. J. Bowden . . . 270 

A Curious Piece of Literary History. H. W. Fay 298 

A "Time-Long "Copyright . J. K 338 

Enquiry regarding Editions of Udall. George 

Hempl 338 

Man and the Glacial Period : A Reply. G. Fred- 
erick Wright 380 

" Like Cerberus, Three Gentlemen at Once." Sam- 
uel Willard 380 

The Shelley Memorial Subscripton : An Ac- 
knowledgement 381 


A New Phase of the Rights of Authors . . . 131 

Purchase and Gift of a Great English Library . 131 

Plans for the Tilden Library in New York . . 131 

The Shelley Memorial at Viareggio 131 

Omar Khiiyyiim 131 

Lord Tennyson's Funeral 236 

The Vacant Laureateship 236 

The Theft of the Columbian Ode 236 

The Chicago University's Observatory and Great 

Telescope 236 

The Proats of PubUshers 237 

Our Public Schools 237 

Newspaper Discussions of the Literary Work and 

Workers of Chicago 299 

The Syndicate of Associated Authors .... 299 

The Question of Duty upon Re-bound Imported 

Books 299 

A Valuable Acquisition of the University of Chi- 
cago ..... 299 

The « Stamp Plan " for Checking Royalty Frauds 337 

A New Theme for Poets 337 

The Dilatoriness of the Columbian Exposition in 

Providing for an Educational Exhibit . . . 338 
Defects of the Copyright Law of 1891 .... 338 
Mr. Stead's Recent Character Sketch of Ten- 
nyson 379 

Tennyson and his Publishers 379 

Enrollment of Students at the University of Chi- 
cago 379 

The Close of Luther's Famons Address at Worms 379 

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Death of Shelley. W. R. Perkins 130 

Whittier. James Vila Blake 173 

Ballad of Books Unborn. Francis F. Broume . 207 

The SUent Singer. Hattie Tyng Oriswdd . . 231 
The Scarlet Letter. WiUiam Morton Payne . . ' 263 
«Ej Blot til Lyst." William Morton Payne . . 336 

Briefs on New Books 20, 56, 82, 146, 190, 216, 246, 279, 311, 356, 397 

Briefer Meotion 150, 192, 219, 249, 281, 313, 339 

Literary Notf-s and News 161, 192, 220, 250^ 282, 314, 367, 400 

Topics in Leading Periodicals 24, 60, 86, 156, 221, 283 

Lists of New Books 24, 60, 86, 111, 157, 197, 221, 251, 284, 315, 358, 401 


Abbott, Charles C. Recent Rambles .... 279 

Adams, Oscar Fay. Story of Jane Austen's Life 342 

Adams, Oscar Fay. The Presumption of Sex 57 

Adler, Felix. Moral Instruction of Children 356 
Aitken, George A. The Life and Works of John 

Arbuthnot 97 

Alger, Horatio, Jr. Digging for Gold . . . 355 
Allen, James Lane. Blue-Grass Region of Ken- 
tucky 192 

Allen, Willis Boyd. Gulf and Glacier . . . . 355 

Applegarth, A. C. The Quakers iti Pennsylvania 250 

Appleton's Evolution Series 249 

Armies of To-Day 392 

Arnold, Sir Edwin. Potiphar's Wife .... 52 

A. R. G. Gleams and Echoes 393 

A. R. G. Night Etchings 400 

Atkinson, Canon. Scenes in Fairyland . . . 397 

Austen, Jane, Novels of 342 

Baby John 366 

Ball, Sir Robert S. In Starry Realms . . . 191 

Barbour, L. G. The End of Time 400 

Barrie, J. M. An Edinburgh Eleven .... 150 

Barrie, J. M. Auld Licht Idylls 219 

Barrie, J. M. The Little Minister, ** Kirriemuir " 

Edition 394 

Bascom, John. The New Theology .... 77 

Bates, Arlo. Told in the Gate 189 

Bates, Clara Doty. From Heart's Content . . 346 

Besant, Walter. Dorothy Wallis 309 

Besant, Walter. Loudon 312 

Besant, Walter. The Ivory Gate 310 

Bigelow, Poultney. Paddles and Politics Down 

the Dannbe 216 

BirreU, Augustine. Res Judicatie 83 

Black, J. W. Maryland's Attitude in the Strug- 
gle for Canada 219 

Blantschli, Prof. The Theory of the State . . 192 

Bolton, Sarah K. Famous Types of Womanhood 219 

Bosanquet, Bernard. A History of Esthetic 276 

Bouvet, Marguerite. Prince Tip-Top .... 353 

Bowne, Borden P. The Principles of Ethics . . 307 

Boyesen, H. H. Boyhood in Norway .... 355 

Boyesen, H. H. Essays on German Literature . 20 

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett. Poems .... 352 

Bucheim, C. H. Faust, Part 1 150 

Burnett, Frances H. Giovanni and the Other . 353 

Butler, Arthur J. The Hell of Dante Alighieri 56 

Bntterworth, Hezekiah. The Boyhood of Lincoln 395 
Bntterworth, Hezekiah. Little Arthur's History 

of Rome 395 

Bntterworth, Hezekiah. Zigzag Journeys on the 

Mississippi 396 

Caird, Edward. Philosophy and Literature . . 146 

Caldwell, G. C. Elements of Chemical Analysis 314 

Calmire 101 

Calverly, C. S. Theocritus Translated into En- 
glish Verse 56 

Carlyle, Thomas. The History of Literature 21 
Carpenter, William B. The Microscope and its 

Revelations 11 

Carryl, Charles E. The Admiral's Caravan . . 397 

Carter, Franklin. Mark Hopkins 17 

Case, Mary E. The Love of the World . . . 281 

Cassell's Children's Library 353, 397 

Castlemon, Harry. Marcy the Refugee . . . 355 

Cathcart, George R. Literary Reader . . . 150 

Cavazza, Elizabeth. Don Finimondone . . . 103 

Chambers's EncyclopiBdia, Vol. IX 150 

Champney, Elizabeth W. Three Vassar Girls in 

the Holy Land 396 

Cheney, John Vance. The Golden Guess . . 108 

Chesterfield, Ijord, Letters of, Lippincott Edition 394 

Child, Theodore. The Desire of Beauty ... 281 

Child, Theodore. The Praise of Paris . . . 392 

Choate, Isaac B. Wells of English .... 22 
Church, A. J. Pictures from Roman Life and 

Story 395 

Church Club Essays 149 

Clarke, William. Walt Whitman 150 

Gierke, Agnes M. Familiar Studies in Homer . 147 

Clifford, Mrs. W. K. Aunt Anne 310 

Coffin, C. C. Life of Abraham Lincoln . . . 395 

(/ole, T., and W. J. Stillman. Old Italian Masters 348 

Colomb, Madame C. Hermine's Triumphs . . 396 

Digitized by 




Colambiifl," First Letter ''of 312 

CoDstantinidefl, Michael, and H. T. Bogeis. Keo- 

hellenica 246 

Conwaj, Moncure D. The Life of Thomas Paine 132 

Cook, A. M. Shorter Latin Course .... 2d0 

Cook, A. S. The Bible and English Prose Style 248 
Coolidge, Susan. Rhymes and Ballads for Girls 

and Boys 397 

Cochran, Alice. The Poets' Comer .... 350 

Corson, Hiram. A Primer of English Verse 106 
Cox, Maria M. Jack Brereton's Three Months' 

Service 355 

Crane, Walter. The Claims of Decorative Art . 212 
Crump, C. G. Landor's Imaginary Conversations 71 
Curtis, George W. Prue and I, Holiday Edition 350 
Dallas, Susan. Diary of George Mifflin . . . 216 
Dall, Caroline H. Barbara Fritchie .... 398 
Davidson, Thomas. Aristotle and Ancient Edu- 
cational Ideals 83 

Davis, Rebecca Harding. Kent Hampden . . 355 
Davis, Richard Harding. Van Bibber and Others 103 
Davis, Richard Harding. The West from a Car- 
Window 280 

Dawes, Anna L. The Life of Charles Sumner . 150 
Days with Sir Roger De Coverley, iUustrated by 

Hugh Thomson 393 

Dear 366 

Deems, Charles F. My Septuagint .... 400 

Deighton, K. Shakespeare's Plays 23 

Deland, Margaret. Story of a ChUd .... 396 

De la Ram^y Louisa. Bimbi 354 

Dickens's Novels. MacmUkn's DoUar Edition 249, 399 

Dickens, Mary A. Cross Currents 219 

Dobson, Austin. Eighteenth Century Vignettes . 351 

Dorr, Julia C. R. The Fallow Field .... 393 

Dougall, L. Beggars All 310 

Doyle, A. Conan. Adventures of Sherlock Holmes 311 

Doyle, A. Conan. The Doings of Raffles Haw . 219 

Early Bibles of America 312 

Edwards, Amelia B. Pharaohs, Fellahs, etc. . 23 
Edwards, M. Betham. France of To-day . . 217 
Ellis, Edward S. From the Throttle to the Pres- 
ident's Chair 365 

Ellis, Edward S. On the Trail of the Moose . 355 

Ellwood, J. K. Table Book and Test Problems 260 

Englishman in Paris, An 178 

Evans, Edward W. Walter Savage Landor . . 23 

Elmslie, Theodora. His Life's Magnet . . . 219 

Fabbri, Cora. Lyrics 63 

Farrar, C. A. J. Through the Wilds .... 364 

Farrer, James A. Books Condemned to be Burnt 68 

Fearing, L. Blanche. In the City by the Lake . 53 

Fisher, Prof. The Colonial Era 147 

Fiske, John. The Discovery of America ... 9 
Flagg, tJared B. Life and Letters of Washington 

AlUton 391 

Foot, Mrs. The Rovings of a Restless Boy . . 356 

Fowler, W. Warde. Julius Csesar 148 

Fox, Norman. Life of Thomas Rambaut . . 149 

Francis, J. G. A Book of Cheerful Cats . . . 397 

Francis, L. H. The Boys of Mirthfield Academy 354 

Freeman, Edward A. Historical Essays . . . 100 

Freeman, Edward A. History of Sicily, Vol. 3 214 

French, Harry W. Through Arctics and Tropics 396 

Froude, J. A. Spanish Story of the Armada 110 

Fuller, Henry B. The Chevalier of Pensieri-Vani 103 

Garland, Hamlin. A Member of the Third House 102 

Garner, R. L. The Speech of Monkeys . . . 216 

Gamett, Richard. Peacock's Novels . 104, 105, 248 

Gentleman's Magazine Library 249 

George, A. J. Wordsworth's Prefaces ... 311 

Gerard, Dorothea. Etelka's Vow 219 

GUve, E. J. In Savage Africa 396 

Goddard, Julia. Fairy Tales in Other Lands . 353 

Good, Arthur. Magiod Experiments .... 397 

Grourme, George L. Ethnology and Folklore . . 149 

Gordon, F. P. Land of the Almighty DolUtr . 190 

Gordon, Julien. Marionettes 102 

Gosse, Edmund. Grossip in a Library .... 22 

Gossip of the Century 239 

Goss, Warren Lee. Tom Clifton 395 

Grant, Robert. Reflections of a Married Man . 148 

Great Streets of the World ^. . 351 

Greene, Homer. The River-Park Rebellion . . 355 
Green, Mrs. Short History of the English Peo- 
ple, new illustrated edition 392 

Griffis, W. E. Japan in History, Folklore, and Art 396 

Hadow, W. H. Studies in Modem Music . . 397 

Hale, George W. Police and Prison Cyclopedia . 218 

Hall, John Leslie. Beowulf 107 

Harland, Marian. Conunon-Sense in the House- 
hold 400 

Harris, Joel Chandler. On the Plantation . . 46 

Harrison, Frederic. New Calendar of Great Men 84 

Harte, Bret. Colonel StarbotUe's Client ... 103 

Hawthorne's Wonder Book, illustrated by Crane 363 

Hazlitt, W. C. The Livery Companies of London 161 

Hazlitt, William. Lectures on English Poetry . 106 

Henty, G. A. Condemned as a Nihilist . . . 394 

Henty, G. A. In Greek Waters 395 

Henley, W. E. The Song of the Sword ... 186 
Henry, William Wirt. Patrick Henry ... 41 
Herrick, Christine T. The Little Dinner . . 400 
Herron, George D. A Plea for the Gospel . . 282 
Holder, Charles F. Along the Florida Reef . . 396 
Holmes, Oliver W. Dorothy Q. and Other Poems 349 
Hibbard, George A. The Governor .... 103 
Higginson, Thomas W. Concerning All of Us . 23 
Hogg, Jas. Uncollected Writings of De Quincey 84 
Hoppin, James M. The Early Renaissance . . 21 
Horton, George. Songs of the Lowly .... 188 
Hosken, J. D. Phaon and Sappho, and Nimrod . 186 
Howells, W. D. A Letter of Introduction . . 160 
Howells, W. D. A Little Swiss Sojourn . . . 281 
Howells, W.D. The Quality of Mercy . . . 102 
Hughes, Thomas. Lo^la and the Jesuit Educa- 
tional System 84 

Humphrey, Maud. Calendars 352 

Hunting, Miss J. D. Rocquain's The Revolution- 
ary Spirit Preceding the French Revolution . 86 
Huse, Harriet P. Roland's Squires .... 352 
Hutchison, G. A. Boys' Own Book of Out-Door 

Games 356 

Hutton, Laurence. Letters of Charles Dickens 

to Wilkie Collins 21 

Hutton, Laurence. Literary Landmarks of Lon- 
don 110 

Huxley, Thomas. Controverted Questions . . 190 
Irving, Washington. Conquest of Granada, "Aga- 

pida" Edition 361 

Jackson, D. W. Drainage of Chicago .... 250 

Jacobs, Joseph. Indian Fairy Tales .... 362 

James, Bushrod W. Alaskana 400 

James, George F. University Extension . . . 219 

James, Henry. Daisy Miller, Holiday Edition . 350 

Jefferson, Samuel. Columbus 400 

Digitized by 




Jephson, Henry. The Platform 213 

Jerome, Irene E. Suii Prints in Sky Tints . . 350 

Jessopp, Augustus. The Coming of the Friars . 249 

Jewett, John H. The Bunny Stories .... 397 

Johnson, Amy. Sunshine 151 

Johnson, Clifton. The New England Country . 393 

Johnson, £. G. Best Letters of Charles Lamb . 23 

Johnson, Francis Howe. What Is Reality? . . 79 

Johnson, R. M. Mr. Fortner's Marital Claims . 219 

Johnson, Rossiter. The End of a Rainbow . . 354 

Johnson, Virginia W. Genoa the Superb . . . 350 

Jowett, B. The Dialogues of Plato .... 183 

Julian, George W. Life of Joshua R. Giddings 138 

Junker, Wilhelm. Travels in Africa .... 208 
Jusserand, J. J. A French Ambassador at the 

Court of Charles II 271 

Kaplan, A. O. The Magic Laugh 351 

Kipling, Rndyard. Ballads and Barrack-Room 

Ballads 186 

Kipling, Rndyard, and Wolcott Balestier. The 

Naulahka 104 

King, Heniy T. The Idealist 67 

Keene, H. G. The Literature of France ... 58 

Knowles, Canon. To England and Back . . . 357 

Knox, T. W. Boy Travellers in Central Europe 396 

La Bt^te, Jean. Mon Oncle et Mon Cur^ . . 352 

Lanciani, Rodolpho. Pagan and Christian Rome 393 

Lang, Andrew. The Green Fairy Book . . . 352 

Lang, Andrew. Helen of Troy 188 

Lang, Andrew. The Library 398 

Lang, Andrew. Selected Poems of Robert Bums 55 

Lathrop, George Parsons. Dreams and Days 189 

Layard, G. S. Life and Letters of Charles Keene 247 

Leaf, Walter. A Companion to the Iliad . . . 246 

Le Conte, Jos. Evolution and Religious Thought 81 
Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography, 

Vol. XXXII 399 

Lee, Vernon. Vanitas 310 

Leighton, Robert. The Thirsty Sword ... 395 
Lewia, Abram H. Paganism Surviving in Chris- 
tianity 399 

Lewis, Eleanor. Famous Pets of Famous People 349 
Lockwood, IngersoU. Baron Trump's Marvellous 

Underground Journey 397 

Loftos, Lord Augustus. Diplomatic Reminiscences 300 

Longfellow, H. W. Hyperion, Holiday Edition 350 

Lome, Marquis of. Life of Viscount Palmerston 59 

Luders, Charles H. The Dead Nymph ... 53 

Lunimis, C. F. Strange Corners of Our Country 395 

Lyall, Edna. The Autobiography of a Shmder . 352 

Maehar, Agnes M. Roland Graeme, Knight . . 310 

Mackay, Eric. Love Letters of a Violinist . . 188 

Mackay of Uganda, Story of the Life of . . . 396 

Magazine of Art 394 

Mahaffy, John P. The Flinders-Petrie Papyri . 49 

Markham, Clements R. History of Peru ... 218 

Marsh, Marie More. Vic 396 

Mather, J. M. Studies of 19th Century Poets . 107 
Matthews, Brander. Americanisms and Briti- 
cisms 313 

Matthews, Brander. Tom Paulding .... 354 

McMahan, Anna B. The Study Class .... 106 
McMaster, John Bach. History of the People of 

the United States 13 

Meade, Mrs. L. T. A Ring of Rubies ... 356 

Meade, Mrs. L. T. Four on an Island ... 356 

Melville, Herman. Omoo 245 

Melville, Herman. Typee 245 

Meredith, Owen. Marah 52 

Meriwether, Lee. Afoot and Ashore on the Med- 
iterranean 356 

Meserole, A. Selections from the Spectator . . 85 

Miller, J. R. The Every Day of Life ... 313 

MiUett, F. D. A Capillary Crime 103 

Millett, F. D. The Danube from the Black For- 
est to the Black Sea 248 

Milman, Helen. Uncle Bill's Children ... 354 

Mmto, W. William Bell Scott 382 

Mivart, St. George. Essays and Criticisms . . 143 

Molesworth, Mrs. Robin Redbreast .... 353 

Molesworth, Mrs. The Next Door House . . 354 
MoUoy, J. F. Life and Adventures of Peg 

Woffington 394 

Monroe, Harriet. Valeria 346 

Montgomery, W. Tales of Ancient Troy . . . 396 

Morley, Henry. English Writers, Vol. VIII. . 84 

Morris, Charles. Tales from the Dramatists 393 

Morris, E. J. Prayer-Meeting Theology . . . 400 

Morris, Harrison S. Tales from Ten Poets . . 393 

Morris, William. Poems by the Way .... 51 

Moulton, Louise Chandler. S¥rallow Flights 189 

Mtiller, F. Max. Anthropological Religion . . 79 

Munroe, Kirk. Canoemates 355 

Nadaillao, Marquis de. Prehistoric Peoples . . 387 
Nelson, Anson and Fanny. Memorials of Sara 

Childress Polk 357 

Nesbit, E. Lays and Legends 187 

Nichol, John. Thomas Carlyle 191 

Nichol, Prof., and W. S. McCormick. Manual 

of English Composition 60 

North, Marianne. Recollections of a Happy Life 15 
Norton, Charles E. The Divine Comedy of 

Dante Alighieri 56, 190, 399 

Ober, Fred A. Knockabout Club in Search of 

Treasure 396 

Oberholzer, Sara L. Souvenirs of Occasions 400 

Oliphant, Mrs. The Makers of Venice . . . 392 

Optic, Oliver. Fighting for the Right .... 355 

« Oxford "Shakespeare 400 

Page, Thomas Nelson. Marse Chan .... 352 
Page, Thomas Nelson. The Old South ... 108 
Palgrave, R. H. I. Dictionary of Political Econ- 
omy, Part III 192 

Paton, Story of John G 396 

Pattison, Mark. Isaac Casaubon 151 

Parker, George F. The Life of Grover CleveUnd 281 
Parker, George F. Writings and Speeches of 

Grover Cleveland 192 

Parker, Theodore. Lessons from the World of 

Matter and of Man 191 

Parker, Theodore. West Roxbury Sermons . . 59 

Parkman, Francis. The Oregon TraU .... 349 

Parloa, Maria. Original Appledore Cook-Book 400 

Payne, E. J. History of the New World ... 389 

Pennell, Jos. and Elizabeth R. Play in Provence 281 

Pennell, Joseph. The Jew at Home .... 109 
Perrot, Georges, and Chas. Chippiez. Art in 

Phriggia, etc 74 

Perrot, Georges, and Chtis. Chippiez. Art in Persia 74 

Perkins, William R. Eleusis and Lesser Poems 347 

Perry, Nora. A Rosebud Garden of Girls . . 355 

Phelps, Elizabeth Stuart. A Lost Winter . . 350 

Pike, W. Barren Ground of Northem Canada . 399 
Pollock, Sir F. Leading Cases Done into English . 187 

Porter, Rose. A Gift of Love 352 

Powers, Horatio N. Lyrics of the Hudson . . 53 

Digitized by 




Prevost, Sir 6. Autobiographj of Isaac WilltamB 111 
Price, Julius M. From the Arctic Ocean to the 

Yellow Sea 82 

Putnam, M. Louise. Children's Life of Abraham 

Lincoln 395 

Putnam's Literary Gems 394 

Ramsey, Samuel. The English Language and 

Grammar 107 

Ramsey, Sir James H. Lancaster and York 218 

Rawnsley, Hardwicke D. Notes for the Nile . 312 

Ray, Anna C. In Blue Creek Ca&on .... 355 

Ray, Anna C. The Cadeto of Fleming Hall . . 355 

Raymond, Evelyn. Monica, the Mesa Maiden . 356 

RensseUer, Mrs. S. Van. English Cathedrals . 349 

Repplier, Agnes. Essays in Miniature . . . 313 

Revell, William F. Browning's Criticism of Life 150 

Richards, Laura E. Hildegarde's Home . . . 356 
Ridpath, John Chirk. History of the United States 

(Columbian Edition) 249 

Ritchie, Anne T. Records of Tennyson, Ruskin, 

and Browning 339 

Robinson, Charles. The Kansas Conflict ... 150 
Roberts, Morley. The Reputation of George 

Saxon 311 

Rogers, Thorold. Industrial and Commercial His- 
tory of England 76 

Roundabout Books 396 

Rowland, S^ate M. The Life of George Mason . 181 

Royoe, Josiah. The Spirit of Modem Philosophy 82 

Roy, John. Helen Treveryan 310 

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VoL,XIIL MAY, 1892. 

No. 145. 


derson 9 


Osborn 11 


Haskins 13 



fair Anderson 17 


Fierce 18 


Boyesen's E^ssays on German Literature. — Spenoer*8 
Social Statics, Abridgred and Reyised.— Hoppin's The 
Eariy Renaissance, and Other Essasrs.— Carlyle's His- 
tory of Literatore. — Hutton's The Letters of Charles 
Dickens to Wilkie Collins. — Hopkinson Smith's A 
Day at Laguerre's, and Other Days. — (rosse's G^Msip 
in a Library. — Choate's Wells of English. — Evans's 
Walter Savage I^andor, a Critical Study.— Higgin- 
son's Concerning All of Us. — Johnson's The Best 
Letters of Charles Lamb.— Miss Edwards's Pharaohs, 
Fellahs, and Explorers. — Deighton's The Pkys of 



The Discovery of America.* 

In coarse of time we shall doubtless get from 
the pen of John Fiske a complete history of 
America, or, at all events, of the United States. 
*' The Discovery of America " forms the be- 
ginning of such a work, and is, as his publish- 
ers indicate, the most important single portion 
yet written by him. The author has already 
published two volumes on the American Revo- 
lution, one on the Beginnings of New England, 
and one on the Critical Period of American 
History. Thus at least six volumes of a com- 
plete and consecutive American history are al- 
ready in print. The work when finished will, 
we think, outrank in merit and interest every 
other American history yet published. 

"The Discovery of America" is an intensely 
interesting work, and gives the results of a vast 

* Thk Disoovebt of Amebica. With some accoant of 
Andent America and the Spanish Conquest. By John Fiske. 
In two Tolumes. Boston : Honghton, Mifflin <& Co. 

amount of research. As has been well said of 
Professor Fiske, " he is the master of a cap- 
tivating style and an expert in historical phil- 
osophy," and nowhere has he given more evi- 
dence of this mastership than in the volumes- 
now before us. 

The work embraces a somewhat exhaustive 
survey of aboriginal America, and embodies 
the results of the researches of Morgan, Pow- 
ell, Bandelier, and many other eminent schol- 
ars. Professor Fiske writes wholly from orig- 
inal sources of information. While he freely 
quotes modem scholars either in the text or in 
notes, he has invariably taken pains to verify 
everything from original sources. His mod- 
eration is most charming, and forms in his 
reader the habit of looking for the truth within 
the extremes. This feature is particularly con- 
spicuous in his treatment of the character of 
Columbus. While he fearlessly discards all 
the absurdities of Soselly de Lorgues and oth- 
ers who have tried to make a saint of Colum- 
bus, he enters an energetic protest against 
Justin Winsor, who treats Columbus as a fee- 
ble, mean-spirited driveller, unworthy of any 

Professor Fiske thinks it probable that the 
people whom the Spaniards found in America 
came by migration from the Old World, but 
he believes that North America has been con- 
tinuously inhabited by human beings during 
the past 800,000 years, and rejects all proba- 
bility of any immigration within so short a 
period as five or six thousand years. This 
practically makes him look upon the aborig- 
inal American, with his language and legends,, 
his physical and mental peculiarities, his social 
observances and costumes, as a native and not 
an imported article. He says the aborigines 
belong to the American continent as strictly 
as its opossums and armadillos, its maize and 
its golden-rod, or any members of its aborig- 
inal fauna and flora belong to it. He further- 
more holds that all the aborigines south of the 
Eskimo region, all the way from Hudson's 
Bay to Cape Horn, belong to one and the same 
race. Both the opening chapter and parts of 
the second volume contain graphic descriptions 
of ancient Mexico and Central America. 

In treating of pre-Columbian voyages. Pro- 
fessor Fiske merely mentions the claims of the 
Chinese, the Irish, the Welsh, etc., and does 

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not find them worthy of any serious diseussion. 
He says : 

« There is no good reason why any of them may not 
liave done what is ckimedyvhut at the same time the 
proof that any one of them did do it is ver}- far from 
•satisfactory. . . . Moreover, the questions raised 
are often of small importance, and belong not so much 
to the serious workshop of history as to its limbo pre- 
pared for learned trifles, whither we will hereby rele- 
gate them." 

But when he comes to the voyages of the 
Norsemen in the tenth and eleventh centuries, 
it is quite a diflferent affair. To these he de- 
votes more than one hundred pages, and also 
frequently alludes to them in his chapters on 
Columbus. The Norse voyages have never be- 
fore received so elaborate, impartial, and schol- 
arly treatment, in any history of America. It 
is most gratifying to see that justice is at 
length being done to those hardy navigators of 
the North, who crossed the Atlantic and found 
America in the tenth century. Professor Fiske 
has gone over the whole field, and has studied 
the Icelandic sagas most thoroughly, and he 
finds that in dealing with the subject of the 
Norse discoveries he " stands for a great part 
of the time upon firm historic ground." Here, 
as elsewhere, the author is not dogmatical. He 
gently brushes away many of the extravagant 
claims made by enthusiasts in this field of re- 
search, and makes a clear and concise state- 
ment of all that is absolutely beyond dispute. 
Extreme views have been taken on the one 
side by Professor Rafn of Denmark and Pro- 
fessor Horsford in this country, and on the 
other side by Justin Winsor and by Professor 
Storm of Norway. Professor Fiske easily finds 
the truth between these extremes. His argu- 
ments against Professor Storm will be sus- 
tained^ and we think he might with advantage 
have exposed more of that scholar's blunders. 
Professor Fiske puts Vinland with confidence 
somewhere between Point Judith and Cape 
Breton, and is inclined to say that it was some- 
where between Cape Cod and Cape Ann. 

Fiske takes great pains to show that Colum- 
bus owed nothing to the Norsemen. He is hon- 
est in his convictions, and states his reasons 
very freely. We cannot agree with him, but 
at tibe same time we refrain from entering into 
a discussion of this point once more in these 
columns. At another time and in another 
place we shall re-state our views on this subject 
and examine Fiske's objections in detail and 
more fully than would be desirable or possible 
in this notice. 

The chapters on the mediaeval trade between 

Europe and Asia and its partial stoppage by 
the Turks, and the attempts made by the 
Portuguese and by Columbus to find an out- 
side route to the Indies eastward and west- 
ward, are full of interest and contain many 
new and original views. Fiske has profited 
by the recent researches made by Harrisse and 
others in regard to Columbus, but he does not 
follow them in a slavish manner. 

The reader will find in this work a full ac- 
count of the discoveries of the Cabots and of 
Vespudus, of the conquests of Mexico and Peru, 
of the society and government of the Incas, 
of the deeds of the Spaniards in the West In- 
dies, and of the career of Las Casas. The last 
chapter describes the explorations of North 
America by De Soto and Coronado ; the Hu- 
guenots in Florida; the marches of Cham- 
plain, La Salle, La Verendrye, Lewis and 
Clark, in the interior of America ; the discov- 
ery of the strait separating Asia from America 
by Vitus Bering in 1728, his account of the 
explorations of this Danish discoverer being 
based mainly on Lauridsen's work translated 
into English by Professor Julius E. Olson in 
1889. Thus tie author pursues this import- 
ant subject of explorations until the whole of 
the American continent was discovered. 

Hawthorne spoke of American history as 
merely the scene of "commonplace prosperity," 
and Lowell says that the details of our early 
annals are "essentially dry and unpoetic." 
While both Hawthorne and Lowell wrote much 
to refute these charges themselves, Professor 
Fiske has invested his work with all the fresh 
and absorbing interest of a first-class novel. 
His narrative is picturesque in the highest de- 

The work abounds in pleasant digressions 
and in side lights borrowed from the histo- 
ries of all countries and all ages. Thus, in dis- 
cussing the aborigines of America, he gives 
us glimpses of savages and barbarians in other 
countries, instituting instructive comparisons. 
He also twice makes allusions to the lively 
discussion now going on in regard to the cra- 
dle of the Aryan race. He seems hospita- 
bly disposed to the new views presented by 
Latham, Rydberg, Penka, and Schrader, and 
says that it is eminently probable that the cen- 
tre of diffusion of Aryan speech was much 
nearer to Lithuania than to any part of Cen- 
tral Asia, — that is, he favors the shores of the 
Baltic as the original home of our Aryan an- 
cestry. No other man in America is moi*e 
competent than Professor Fiske to investigate 

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this subject, and we ventare to suggest that 
he should seize upon his first leisore and give 
us a volume on the Aryan question. We want 
a volume from him giving us the result of his 
study of Latham, Penka, Rendal, Schrader, 
and Kydberg, with his own researches into 
this interesting field. 

"The Discovery of America" contains a 
fine portrait of the author, a large number of 
old maps, several modem maps, and facsim- 
iles and other illustrations of great help to the 
reader. No scholar can afford to neglect this 
work, which constitutes one of the most im- 
portant contributions ever made to the histori- 
<?al literature of our country. 

Easmus B. Anderson. 

The Microscope and Biology.* 

Everybody is surprised the first time he 
enters the immense world of little things that 
lies just beyond the range of ordinary vision 
— a world of variety of shape and form and 
<5olor for the curious, of symmetry and won- 
derful finish and adaptation of parts to uses 
for the deeper student, whether he be utilita- 
rian in his motives, or purely philosophical. 
When in early days the navigators of the 
j^lobe had sailed hither and yon, and discov- 
ered the great continental boundaries, they 
were followed by scores of explorers who scru- 
tinized every darkest cranny, some in greed of 
material gain which they often secured, others 
in desire of pure knowledge ; and these were 
always rewarded. So the early students of na- 
ture discovered continents of knowledge, and 
hosts of later followers are exploring their dark- 
est depths in hope of gain or love of truth. 

Perhaps the first who used a microscope in 
this search was Galileo. On this point there 
is some dispute ; but the first one whose dis- 
•coveries by means of that instrument were 
considerable enough to notably enlarge the 
sum of knowledge was Anton Leeuwenhoeck, a 
Hollander. In 1678 he began sending to the 
Royal Society of Great Britain, then in its 
infancy, accounts of the numerous surprising 
discoveries he made with an instrument of the 
crudest simplicity, it being merely a glass bead 
set in a brass plate, through which he viewed 
specimens carried on a needle mounted in a 

*The Mioboscofb and Its Rbvelationb. By the late 
Williaza B. Carpenter^ C.B. Seyenth edition, with text re- 
•eoDstnicted by the Key. W. H. Dallingrer, LL.D. Philadel- 
pltu: P. Blaldston, Son & Co. 

post fixed to the opposite side. His instrument 
was in efiFect much like the little ^^watch- 
charms " which surprise us by a view of St. 
Peter's at Rome or tie full text of the Declar- 
ation of Independence. With this simple little 
instrument this man of immense industry 
showed that popular dictum was in error when 
it declared that fresh-water mussels were made 
from mud, for he discovered that they grow 
from eggs, and, perhaps for the first time, 
watched the now familiar phenomena of their 
development. He first proved that fleas de- 
velop, not from " heaps of moist dust," but 
from eggs ; he saw the scales of a butterfly's 
wing, the claws of the spider's foot and her 
spinnerets, also the insect's compound eye, and 
hundreds of other facts now perfectly familiar 
and commonplace. 

With the use of the microscope and the 
needs of improvement a constant development 
has taken place, and microscopic construction 
has been pushed forward from the single lens 
magnifying only a few diameters, to the mod- 
em instrument magnifying ten thousand diam- 
eters and improved in every part. It is little 
wonder, in view of the technical excellence 
required by the needs of modern research, that 
technique in the microscope has suffered at 
times from the danger which besets technique 
in all art, of becoming an end in itself ; and 
that in consequence a department of pseudo 
" microscopy " has sprung up. The unscientific 
microscopist, companion of the coleopterist 
whom Holmes satirizes for his interest in mere 
collecting, is a man who adds continually to his 
treasures of specimen or appliance, but uses 
none for the purpose of quizzing Nature ; he 
sees only what others tell him, and limits his 
ambition by the ownership of a homogeneous 
immersion objective and a fine collection of 
mounted slides. He cannot find you a speci- 
men of amceba, or demonstrate its nucleus 
after you have found it for him. Yet technique 
is of the most fundamental importance to mod- 
em biological research. Not so many years 
ago the biological problems were largely what 
one may call " tissue problems " ; the shapes 
of cells were studied as components of tissues, 
but the phenomena within the cells were not 
studied or thought of. To-day all the biolog- 
ical problems are of the cells. Biology has at 
last become thoroughly informed by the idea 
that the cells are not only the units of struc- 
ture but also the units of function, and that it 
is all-important that the condition of life and 
growth, action and death, of these individuals 

Digitized by 





shall be thoroughly understood. So new is 
this department of biological study that the 
young science of cytology, or the biology of the 
cell, is not separately represented in as modern 
a work as the " EncyclopaBdia Britannica," 
which includes separate and very valuable ar- 
ticles on histology, or tissue science, and path- 
ology, or tissue disease. Investigations of cells, 
however, require the utmost attention to tech- 
nique, — in fact, to every detail of using the 
microscope and preparing the object. 

The revision of that standard work, " Car- 
penter on the Microscope," is, on the technical 
side, brought thoroughly down to date. The 
first half of the book (459 pages) presents a 
very exhaustive and most valuable treatise 
upon every aspect of technique, optical princi- 
ples, theory of vision and the compound micro- 
scope, history of the instrument, various mod- 
em models, measuring and drawing, devices 
and sundry accessory apparatus, including the 
life-slide, for cultivating living micro-organ- 
isms where they can be kept under continuous 
observation, and the preparation of objects for 
observation by a great variety of methods, in- 
cluding many of the most modern. This part 
of the book is so clear and detailed that any 
interested and patient student can acquire 
from it the necessary principles of microscopic 
manipulation in all departments better than 
from any other single work we know of. In 
this portion of the work the optical and me- 
chanical side have received more attention than 
histological technique, or the preparation of 
the object for examination. The preservation 
of biological material is so large a department 
of technique to-day, and so many individual 
methods exist, that only in special works on 
the subject can it be fully elucidated ; but the 
subject deserves more space than it has re- 
ceived, even at the expense of curtailing some- 
what the description of the instrument. A 
place should have been given for the formulas 
of various pi*eparation fluids, many of which 
the working microscopist must learn to make 
for himself as the need of them arises. It is 
only just, however, to say that the care and 
preparation of the object has received very 
detailed and considerable attention, and that 
enough methods have been given for the ma- 
jority of readers, while the specialists who use 
the work will not be likely to go to it for such 

The second half of the book is devoted to 
an account of the revelations of the micro- 
scope. This is a volume in itself, thoroughly 

and finely illustrated. In it the plant and then 
the animal kingdoms are reviewed by typical 
forms, representing principal groups, beginning 
at the simpler and advancing through the sim- 
pler multicellular to the highest organisms in 
both kingdoms. The microscopic plants and 
animals receive most attention, and are de* 
scribed in detail, together with their life histo- 
ries, and with numerous references to import- 
ant and generally accessible monographs in 
which the subject can be more fully investi- 
gated if desired. The myriad forms of pond 
life, both plant and animal, are many of them 
described and figured, and abundant sugges- 
tions for collection are given, together with 
many biological details. Here the microscop- 
ist who has found some curiosity of life — may- 
hap a chain of emerald beads, with one, two, or 
three large ones in the centre— can learn that 
it is Nostoc^ an alga akin to Spirogyra^ the 
beautiful long green filamentous plant so com- 
mon in running water, and can further learn 
details about its mode of life ; or he sees an 
elongate creature swimming about with a pair 
of small-sized whirlpools at one end, and he 
can readily find among the pictures a rotifer 
enough like his specimen to assist his identifi- 
cation, and then by search he can find out a 
great deal about his specimen, — and this every 
microscopist is anxious to do. The higher or- 
ganic forms, both plant and animal, are treated 
histologically rather than cytologically, so that 
the modem biological standpoint is not fully 
attained, though it is constantly bordered upon. 
In the opening paragraphs of Chapter XXII.,. 
on the Vertebrata, the importance of proto- 
plasmic units, the cells, as the real agents, is- 
dilated upon, and foot-note references to the 
general literature of the subject are given ; 
but the writer goes on to say that as the work 
is not designed ^' for the professional student 
in histology, but to supply scientific informa- 
tion to the ordinary microscopist," no attempt 
is made ^^ to do more than describe the most 
important of those distinctive characters which 
the principal tissues present." This is to be 
regretted, for the ordinary microscopist is not 
only interested in seeing the significance of 
tissue structure as an outcome or result of cell- 
life, but is inspired for further researches by 
having a motive for study supplied him, — for 
this problem of the meaning of structure is 
sure to add real interest, and is perfectly appre- 
hensible. The admirable manner in which the 
general anatomy of the minuter animals and 
histology of the larger ones has been set forth 

Digitized by 





does accomplish the aim of the editor and his 
co-workers, and the " ordinary microscopist " 
can find in it the help he needs for his re- 
searches ; and yet we must regret that in ad- 
dition the scientific standpoint of to-day was 
not constantly expounded. 

We have written as if the microscope were 
the tool of biologists solely. Until of late it 
was very largely so, but within a few years its 
use has opened a new and most important field 
of study in geological science. The new sci- 
ence of petrography, also bom since the last 
edition of the ^^ Encyclopaedia Britannica," re- 
ceives a very brief but valuable notice in Chap- 
ter XXIII. It has been found possible to sec- 
tionize specimens of rocks, study their struc- 
ture, and, by the appearances of the component 
minerals, to read much of the previous history 
of the mass, — a feat impossible before the ap- 
plication of this method. The opinion is daily 
gaining ground that some of the schistose 
rocks are not metamorphosed sediments, but 
true igneous rocks which have been altered by 
pressure into schists. The optical methods 
now in use enable the petrologist to determine 
the constituents of rock-masses with astonish- 
ing success, and the microscope is employed in 
the study of fossil botany and zoology with 
valuable results. The departments of chem- 
ical crystallization and polarization do not re- 
ceive notable attention in the work, for the 
reason that they do not interest the ordinary 

The number of those who use the micro- 
scope as a toy rather than a tool — that is, as 
amateurs rather than professionally — is very 
large, both in this country and in England; 
and there is a large sphere of usefulness for 
this revision of a popular work now in its 
seventh edition. It can be used safely, for it is 
as accurate as any work in so new a science as 
biology can be, and contains a vast amount of 
useful and stimulating matter. But its sphere 
of usefulness is by no means confined to the 
class to whom its editors so modestly recom- 
mend it, for students of biology can hardly 
find a more generally useful and handy book, 
both for its valuable table and for its technical 
matter, for its very numerous anatomic and his- 
tological figures, many from the best and most 
recent writers, and for its very numerous bib- 
liographical references. All the details of the 
bookmaker's art have received the most scru- 
pulous attention, and a very comfortable vol- 
ume is the result. 

Henry L. Osborn. 

Mori: of McMaster's History.* 

Nine years ago Professor McMaster began 
the publication of his " History of the People 
of the United States." "Much," he announced, 
"must be written of wars, conspiracies, and 
rebellions ; of presidents, of congresses, of em- 
bassies, of treaties, of the ambition of political 
leaders in the senate-house, and of the rise of 
great parties in the nation." Yet his chief 
theme should be the history of the people : 
their dress, occupations, and amusements ; the 
changes in their manners and morals ; the im- 
provements in their economic and social con- 

The third volume of this notable work has 
now appeared, covering the years from 1808 to 
1812. While not so conspicuously important 
as the preceding twenty years, the period is 
still significant. In the purchase of Louisiana, 
Jefferson and his party abandoned their prin- 
ciples of strict construction. They strained, 
if they did not violate, the Constitution, and 
made the Union, in the late Alexander John- 
ston's phrase, " a fixed fact." Then came the 
Embargo and its arbitrary enforcement, until 
by 1808 the political somersault seemed com- 
plete. Democrats now stood where the Fed- 
eralists had stood ten years before, while Fed- 
eralists adopted the language of the Virginia 
and Kentucky Resolutions and openly advo- 
cated a dissolution of the Union. Placed be- 
tween the combatants in the great European 
struggle, attacked by English orders in coun- 
cil and French decrees, yet determined to re- 
main neutral and " conquer without war," the 
United States drifted from embargo into non- 
intercourse and from non-intercourse into war. 
These, with Burr's conspiracy and the war 
with the Barbary powers, are probably the 
most obvious features of the period ; yet they 
form but a part of its real history. The pur- 
chase of a vast empire beyond the Mississippi, 
and the extinguishment of Indian titles in the 
Northwest and the region south of the Ohio, 
opened a new territory to settlement. West- 
ward emigration increased rapidly. Up the 
Mohawk valley toward the Great Lakes, over 
the mountains, down the Ohio, went the streams 
of population, settling western New York and 
Pennsylvania, southern Ohio and Indiana, 
overflowing Kentucky and Tennessee, and 
reaching northern Georgia and Alabama. 

•A History of the Peopub of the United States, 
from the Revolution to the Civil War. By John Bach Mc- 
Master, Wharton School, University of Penosylvania. In five 
volumes. Volume III. New York : D. Appleion <& Co. 

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<<From this rush of people into the new country 
came economic consequences of a most serious nature. 
The rapidity of the movement and the yastness of the 
area covered made it impossible ' for the States to do 
many of the things they ought to have done for the 
welfare of their new citizens. The heaviest taxes that 
could have been laid would not have sufficed to cut out 
half the roads, or build half the bridges, or clear half 
the streams necessary for easy communication between 
the new villages, and for the successful prosecution of 
trade and commerce." 

Along the coast, capital was drawn to inter- 
nal improvements, but on the outbreak of the 
European war turned quickly to shipping. 

. " But the movement of the people westward not only 
went on, but went on with increasing rapidity. The 
high price of wheat, of corn, of flour, due to the de- 
mand for exportation, sent thousands into the Genesee 
countiy and the borders of Lake Champlain to farm, 
and from them came back the cry for better means of 
transportation. The people of the shipping towns were 
quite as eager to get the produce as the farmers were 
to send it, and with the opening of the century the old 
rage for road-making, river improvements, and canals 
revived. The States were still utterly unable to meet 
the demand, and one by one were forced to follow the 
policy begun by Pennsylvania in 1791 and spend their 
money on roads and bridges in the sparsely settled 
counties, and, by liberal efaartei's and grants of tolls, 
encourage the people of the populous counties to make 
such improvements for themselves." 

In every part of the country were sought 
'^ better means of communication, shorter chan- 
nels of inland trade, and less costly ways of 
transportation." Gallatin prepared his famous 
report on internal improvements. Congress 
founded the coast survey and began the Cum- 
berland Road. " After twenty years of cold 
indifference, the people . . . found use 
for the steamboat." The number of banks in- 
creased. Manufactures began to thrive, stim- 
ulated by the exclusion of foreign goods and 
the necessity of supplying the home market. 
Political ideas changed, too. Democracy spread 
rapidly. Property qualifications were abol- 
ished, religious tests were removed, life tenure 
of judges and the use of common law in the 
courts were attacked. A body of young Re- 
publicans arose, bent on war with England 
and '* willing to face debt and probable bank- 
ruptcy on the chance of creating a nation, con- 
quering Canada, and carrying the American 
flag to Mobile and Key West." Debate was 
checked in Congress by the introduction of the 
previous question. Henry Clay transformed 
the Speaker from a presiding officer into the 
leader of the House. 

The account of such economic and social 
movements is the most distinctive part of the 
third volume of Professor McMaster's work. 

Newspapers, pamphlets, and statute-books have 
been explored, and the mass of material thus 
collected has been presented in a manner which 
shows clearly its relation to later events, and 
particularly to the "American system" of 
Henry Clay. Professor McMaster is an avowed 
protectionist, and is sometimes led into extreme 
statements. Thus : 

« The protective system of the United States began 
on the fourth day of July, 1789, when Washington 
signed the first of our many tariff acts. The day was 
well chosen, for that act was a second declaration of in- 
dependence. It was a formal statement that hence- 
forth domestic manufactures were to be encouraged in 
the United States, that henceforth we were to be in- 
dustrially independent, and that the goods, wares, and 
merchandise of foreign nations should come into our 
ports on such terms as best suited our interests. . . . 

"The framing of the Constitution of the United 
States was the direct and immediate consequence of the 
ruin of every kind of trade, commerce, and industry 
that followed the close of the Revolution. Nothing did 
so much to break down the old confederation as its in- 
ability to regulate trade and encourage manufactures. 
It is not surprising, therefore, that the moment Con- 
gress met under the Constitution urgent calls were 
made for the immediate exercise of the ample powers 
that had been given it." 

This is strong doctrine, and we doubt 
whether many qualified scholars would main- 
tain that the Confederation failed in any con- 
siderable degree for lack of power to encour- 
age manufactures. It is easy to exaggerate 
the demand for a protective policy before the 
war of 1812 ; American manufactures were 
largely the creation of the Embargo, and owed, 
as Mr. Henry Adams says, " more to Jefferson 
and Virginians, who disliked them, than to 
Northern statesmen, who merely encouraged 
them after they were established." 

The other parts of the volume do not call 
for extended comment. The political and dip- 
lomatic history of the period is told in a pleas- 
ant and interesting style, which preserves its 
distinct flavor of Macaulay, with somewhat 
less of the flaring contrasts and forced transi- 
tions that mar the earlier volumes. Charac- 
terizations of men or events we rarely find, ex- 
cept so far as these are implied in the selection 
and grouping of material. To discover the 
author's opinion of Jefferson, we must combine 
widely scattered comments. Thus, we are told 
of his scientific tastes, of his "sluggish na- 
ture " at last " roused to feeble action," of his 
" manly courage," of his proneness to intrigue, 
of his devotion to popularity; his idealism, 
perhaps his most significant characteristic, is 
not mentioned. Perhaps Professor McMaster 
shrank from attempting the portrait of a man 

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whom even Mr. Henry Adams's sure hand 
found a bundle of contradictions. Where a 
judgment is ventured, it is not always fortu- 
nate, and sometimes suggests the tone of the 
contemporary pamphlet. Thus, Governor Win- 
throp Sargent is represented as " holding the 
Federal doctrine that none but New England- 
ers were fit to be free " ; General Wilkinson's 
three volumes of memoirs are '' as false as any 
yet written by man " ; " no act so arbitrary, 
so illegal, so infamous," as the removal of 
Judge Pickering, "had yet been done by the 
Senate of the United States." Another ex- 
ample of hasty conclusions may be found in 
the account of the Georgia land cession of 
1802, where the author says : 

''The three Commissionera for the United States 
were, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the 
Treasury, and the Attorney-General. They were nom- 
inated on the last day of December, 1799. They fell, 
therefore, under Jefferson's rule, that all appointments 
made after the result of the election was known should 
be treated as null. But he chose to find another reason 
for getting rid of them. They were Heads of Depart- 
ments, and, construing the action of Adams to mean 
that the Commissioners should be chosen from the 
Heads of Departments, he removed them and nomi- 
nated his own Secretaries and Attorney-General in 
their stead." 

Neither of these explanations of Jefferson's 
conduct is in accordance with the facts. The 
third commissioner appointed by Adams was 
not the Attorney-General, but Samuel Sit- 
greaves of Pennsylvania. The nominations 
made December 31, 1799, were not made after 
the result of the presidential election was 
known, for the election did not take place un- 
ta 1800. 

Taken as a whole, the third volume is an 
improvement on the first and second, although 
it shares with them a certain deficiency in his- 
torical perspective, implying the lack of a well 
thought out and clearly defined plan. Even 
the introductory announcement is at times dis- 
regarded. More space than was promised is 
given, and rightly, to " presidents, congresses, 
embassies, and treaties," and even more is 
said of ^^wars, conspiracies, and rebellions." 
Thirty-five pages are devoted to a detailed ac- 
count of Burr's conspiracy, and this in a his- 
tory which dismisses the formation of the Con- 
stitution in less than half this space. It is 
diffictilt to see on what principle this can be 
defended ; one can hardly keep down the sus- 
picion that the picturesqueness of the subject 
has something to do with the extended treat- 
ment it receives. Such disproportion is the 
more to be regretted since matters of so much 

importance as the schism in the Democratic 
party are omitted entirely or given but brief 
mention. The neglect of political institutions 
is particularly noticeable. Something more is 
needed than outlines of acts of Congress or 
summaries of political pamphlets and debates. 
Social and economic facts can be properly un- 
derstood only when we have a " bony frame- 
work" of institutions to fit them to, and no 
history of a people can be adequate which does 
not furnish such an institutional framework. 

Charles H. Haskins. 


The title of the recently published autobiog- 
raphy of Marianne North, " Recollections of a 
Happy Life," is hardly indicative of the real 
character of the book. In fact, it is a work of the 
same nature as Charles Darwin's " Naturalist's 
Voyage Round the World," and, though of 
lesser interest and importance, has nevertheless 
considerable significance as a contribution to 
science and to knowledge of foreign lands. 
Miss North's chief interest in life was flower- 
hunting, her ambition being to examine and 
paint on the spot specimens of the flora of 
every country of the world. 

The accomplishment of this purpose led her 
through many and long wanderings. One of 
the results is the magnificent collection of bot- 
anical paintings made and presented by her to 
the Kew Gardens, together with the building 
in which they are housed ; another is this diary 
of adventures on her sketching toui*s, which 
embraced Jamaica, South America, Japan, 
India, Borneo, Australia, Seychelles Islands, 
Africa, and many other localities. A " happy" 
life truly, since any successful achievement of 
a life purpose is a great happiness ; yet sui'ely 
it demanded an unusual gift for seeing the 
bright side of things, to carry one through these 
long and toilsome journeys, often in poisonous 
climates, with bad food, perils by laud and 
sea, by fire and flood, and enduring hardships 
which few women travelling absolutely alone 
would have dared to face. One of Miss North's 
friends speaks of her faculty of finding pearls 
in every ugly oyster ; a driver in California 
left her with the parting recommendation that 
" she was one of the right sort ; she neither 
cared for bears nor yet for Injuns." Warned 

* Recollections of a Happt Life : Being the Aatobi- 
ography of Marianne North. Edited by her sister, Mrs. John 
Addington Symonds. In two Tolumes. New York : Mao- 
millan & Co. 

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of difficulties and dangers at nearly every step 
of the way, she always persevered, almost al- 
ways finding the difficulties vanish as she ap- 
proached the spot. It was after she had already 
travelled extensively, and had made arrange- 
ments for transferring her collection to Kew, 
that she met Charles Darwin for the first time. 
In her eyes, as in the eyes of many, he was the 
greatest man living, and she was much flattered 
at his wish to see her. When he told her that 
he thought she ought not to attempt any rep- 
resentation of the vegetation of the world until 
she had seen and painted that of Australia, 
because of its unlikeness to any other, she de- 
termined to take it as a royal command and 
to go at once. 

On the way thither, she took occasion to 
make another visit at Borneo. On her first 
visit, she had found pitcher-plants growing 
wild and winding themselves amongst ^e trop- 
ical bracken of the untouched forest. The pic- 
tures of it which she had carried home had led 
to sending out a traveller for the seeds from 
which plants had been raised in England, Sir 
Joseph Hooker naming the species Nepenthes 
Northiana. At a state dinner with which she 
was honored on her present return to Borneo, 
the whole centre of the table was covered with 
pitcher-plants enough to make the fortune of 
an English nurseryman, but which were little 
appreciated in their native country. But more 
memorable than this dinner festivity was an- 
other day in Borneo, which is so favorable an 
illustration of the manner in which the unex- 
pected constantly happened to our traveller that 
an account of it shall be given in her own 
words : 

« One morning I picked a huge branch of the petrsea 
meaning to spend the day in painting it, though it was 
so common there, when I came on a lovely spray of 
white orchid and picked it grudgingly to paint, then 
suddenly found that every tree was loaded with the 
same, and the boathouse roof looked as if there had 
been a sudden snowstorm. The air was scented with 
it, so I got more, and when I reached the house found 
the drawing-room full of it. They called it the Turong 
Bird, and said it came out spontaneously into bloom 
three times in the ^''ear, and only lasted a day, and that 
I must be quick and draw it, for I should find none the 
next day. It was true; the next day the lovely flowers 
were hanging like rags. 

" When I went to finish another sketch, I was as- 
tounded at the sight of a huge lily, with white face and 
pink stalks and backs, resting its heavy head on the 
ground. It grew from a single-stemmed plant, with 
grand curved leaves above the flowerf*^id was called 
there the Brookiana lily, but Kew magnates call it 
Crinum augustum; its head was two feet across, and 
I had to take a smaller specimen to paint, in order to 
get it into my half-sheet of paper life-size. It was 

scented like vanilla. Another crinum has since been 
called Northiana, after myself. It has a magnificent 
flower, growing ^most in the water, each plant becom- 
ing an island at high tide, with beautiful reflections 
under it, and its perfect white petals enriched by the 
bright pink stamens which hang over them." 

The Australian tour was an inexhaustible 
series of delights. At one point, she found 
twenty-five different species of wild-flowers in 
ten minutes, close to the house where she was 
stopping, and painted them. In Western Aus- 
tralia were flowers such as she had never seen 
nor dreamed of before, the whole country being 
a natural flower-garden, where she could wan- 
der for miles and miles among the bushes and 
never meet a soul. Most of the flowers were 
very small and delicate ; it was impossible to 
paint half of them, and the only difficulty was 
to choose. 

The Australian journey ended, a year was 
spent in fitting and framing and patching and 
sorting the pictures, the building at Kew hav- 
ing been completed during her absence. It 
was opened to the public June 7, 1882. 

It might naturally be expected that a woman 
who was fifty years old, somewhat deaf, and 
not a little broken in health, would now be 
content to stay at home, enjoying the fruit of 
her own labors and intercourse with persons of 
similar tastes. But there was still one conti- 
nent — Africa — without representation in her 
gallery, and she resolved to begin painting 
there without loss of time. Two months after 
the opening of the gallery she was on her way 
to South Africa, and soon hard at work again 
in the ways she loved best. Here, as in Aus- 
tralia, she was overwhelmed by the extraordi- 
nary novelty and variety of the different spe- 
cies ; it seemed impossible to paint fast enough 
in a land where the hills were covered with low 
bushes, heaths, sundews, geraniums, lobelias, 
salvias, babanias and other bulbs, daisies grow- 
ing into trees, purple broom, polygalas, trito- 
mas, and crimson velvet hyobanche. 

With only brief periods of rest at home, two 
more long voyages followed, — one to Seychelles 
Islands, and another to Western South Amer- 
ica. Just before starting on the last one, a 
great pleasure came to her in a letter from 
the Queen expressing her appreciation of Miss 
North's benefaction to the English nation, and 
regretting her inability to make a public rec- 
ognition of it (by knighthood or otherwise). 

Such an interesting personality as this ener- 
getic and scholarly woman could not fail to 
attract to herself other interesting personali- 
ties. There are pleasant pictures of her ac- 

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quaintance with Sir Joseph Hooker, Charles 
Darwin, Professor Owen, Asa Gray and his 
wife. Miss Gordon Gumming, besides many 
distinguished foreigners and English officials 
abroad, who were ever ready to serve her in 
all her plans. 

The book is edited by Mrs. John Addington 
Symonds, the sister of Miss North ; but, ex- 
cept the last half-dozen pages, scarcely any- 
thing has been added by the editor's hand. 
The " Recollections " end with the year 1886, 
when from the rural home she had made for 
herself at Alderley she writes : 

<< I have found the exaet place I wished for, and al- 
ready my garden is becoming famous among those who 
loYe plants; and I hope it may serve to keep my en- 
emies, the so-called « nerves,' quiet for the few years 
which are left me to live. The recollections of my happy 
life will also be a help to my old age. No life is so 
charming as a country one in England, and no flowers 
are sweeter or more lovely than the primroses, cows- 
lips, bluebells, and violets, which grow in abundance all 
round me here." 

Four years later, at the age of sixty, she 
died, these last years having been shadowed 
by painful illness. But into her life had al- 
ready been compressed work sufficient for the 
lives of four ordinary women. A natural stately 
presence, a simple yet dignified manner, helped 
her in facing all sorts and conditions of men ; 
she inspired respect everywhere, and found 
everywhere persons eager and glad to help her. 
She travelled, not to pass the time, but because 
she had a self-appointed task, and she would 
not allow herseU to rest until she had accom- 
plished it. Her memory is perpetuated through 
the names of five different plants, four of which 
were first figured and introduced by her to Eu- 
ropean notice. The Nepenthes Northiana^ the 
large pitcher-plant of Borneo, appears as a 
cover design on these handsome and thoroughly 
attractive volumes. 

Anna B. McMahan. 

A Typical. American Teacher.* 

Mark Hopkins, whilom President of Will- 
iams College, — so well known as President 
Garfield's ideal instructor, — has appropriately 
found a biographer in Franklin Carter, now 
President of Williams College, and a classifi- 
cation among our ^' American Religious Lead- 
ers.*' President Hopkins was a reverent and 
devout soul, and an inspirer of reverence and 
devoutness in others ; he was a teacher of mor- 

*Mark HoPKHTB. By Franklin Carter. "American Reli- 
gions Leaden.'' Boston : Hongrhton, Mifflin & Co. 

als and Christian evidences ; he was the author 
of several text-books, composed chiefly of lec- 
tures prepared for his classes in these subjects ; 
he was an earnest and uplifting preacher of 
chapel discourses and of solemn baccalaureate 
sermons ; he was president for many years of 
the American Board of Commissioners for 
Foreign Missions ; he was a cheerful Christian 
theologian, defining faith to be " confidence in 
a personal being," dwelling but lightly upon 
man's original sin and total depravity, regard- 
ing the incarnation as an expression of God's 
thought of the value of man, the atonement as 
the wonderful divine way of purifying those 
whom God could not let go, and election, not 
as the arbitrary choosing of "worms to be 
sons," but the acceptance by God of a being 
made in his image, on the ground of trust in 
the divine Son, and the foreknowledge that 
certain persons would exercise that trust. 

« A peculiar beauty and sweetness is in the farewell 
words to the class of 1872, the last of thirty-six classes 
graduated under Dr. Hopkins's presidency : — * And 
now, my beloved friends, the time has come when, in 
some respects, that which has been is to be no longer. 
Not only is the peculiar and most pleasant relation 
which has existed between us the past year to cease, 
but also the relation which I have so long held to this 
college. During the thirty-six years of that relation I 
have failed but twice, once from sickness and once 
from* absence, to address each successive class as I now 
address you. Hereafter other classes will come, an- 
other voice will address them, the circular movement 
will go on, but you and I pass into the onward move- 
ment, you to your work, and I to what remains to me 
of mine. Behind us is that past, fixed forever, which 
God will require. Before us — what? Definitely 1 
know not ; but I do know that there is One above us 
whom we may safely trust. I do know that " God is 
love." Whatever else I hold on to, or give up, I will 
hold on to that. That I will not give up. To the God 
of love, therefore, who has hitherto been so much bet- 
ter to me than my fears, do I commit myself; to the 
God of love do I commend you, every one of you, praying 
that in all your pilgrimage He will bless you and keep 
you ; that " He will make his face shine upon you, and 
be gracious unto you ; that He will lift up his counte- 
nance upon you, and give you peace." ' " 

Though most of Dr. Hopkins's published 
writings (a list of ninety of which is given at 
the end of the book under review) are either 
sermons or lectures upon moral or religious 
questions, yet it is not as a religious leader, 
but as an educator, as president of Williams Col- 
lege, that he is destined to be best known and 
longest remembered. His mpral, religious, and 
philosophical views were not in any sense 
epoch-making or in advance of his times, — 
perhaps in some respects hardly up with his 
times. Just as he aimed to make of Williams 
College an eminently safe and sound and 

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wholesome place for the traditional "liberal 
education" of young men, so he aimed to make 
of himself an eminently safe and sound and 
wholesome instructor, whose views should be 
only liberal enough to prevent them from be- 
coming unattractive or repellant to young 
minds. It might be interesting to trace in 
the development of his own character and 
views an evidence of that evolutionary adapta- 
tion to environment and to the task to be per- 
formed, and of that survival of the fittest, 
which he rejected and repudiated as Darwinian 

The amount of strictly biographical matter 
in Mr. Carter's book is but small. Indeed, 
the work should hardly be called a biography, 
for it is rather a series of detached lectures 
upon different phases and aspects of the char- 
acter and activity of Dr. Hopkins. The meager 
stock of information and anecdote touching 
his earlier years is to be explained, partly, as 
suggested, by the fact that, since he lived to 
old age (eighty-five years), most of the friends 
of his youth died before him, and partly by 
the fact that there was nothing so extraordin- 
ary about his early doings and sayings as to 
make them memorable. Later on in life he is 
treated, not continuously as the man, but 
successively as the professor, administrator, 
teacher, author, preacher, friend, theologian. 
Two events in his life are deemed of sufficient 
importance to call for treatment each in sepa- 
rate chapters. These events are the rebellion 
of the students at Williams College in 1868 
against the grading system, and the action of 
the American Board touching candidates who 
believed in a probation after death. In the 
first of these crises Dr. Hopkins was foui^d 
upon the conservative side, and yet appeared 
more liberal than his colleagues; in the sec- 
ond, he was found upon the liberal side, and 
yet appeared as conservative as any. 

It is as the teacher and as the friend that 
Dr. Hopkins appears in the most charming 
and enviable light. He gave himself gener- 
ously to his work, perhaps sacrificing even 
more than he should of his own personal de- 
velopment in his devotion to the task of devel- 
oping more immature minds. We are told 
how, in the early days of a presidency which 
he held for thirty-six years, he assumed, in 
order the better to teach anatomy in a college 
which had no money to buy apparatus, the re- 
sponsibility of buying a six-hundred-dollar 
manikin and of paying for it by itinerant lec- 
turing and by showing his man. 

*<It was in December when the president started 
out with his manikin carefully packed in the box to go 
to his native town, Stockbridge, and there to lecture to 
secure money wherewith to pay for his apparatus. It 
was good sleighing, but the box so filled up the sleigh 
that the lecturer had to ride with his feet hanging out- 
side of the vehicle. It was not a dignified or comfort* 
able position for a college president, who was to drive 
thirty miles on a cold day, but at this distance of time 
there is something impressive in the picture. That 
lonely ride, with its stem purpose, is the expression of 
the solitude and earnestness that marked his career as 
a college president. It is an epitome of many years 
of patient self-denying devotion to the institution to 
which he had given his life, and to depart from which 
flattering calls to positions of comparative ease did not 
seem to tempt him. . . It appears that the lectures 
were successful so far as the satisfaction of the audi- 
ence was concerned, but how much threatened still to 
come out of the President's salary, at that time about 
#1,100, to pay for the manikin, does not appear." 

Abundant testimony is given to prove that 
his tact, his kindliness, his reverence for relig- 
ion, produced a lasting effect upon the young 
minds entrusted to his care. He bestowed on 
his pupils a friendly personal interest that was 
unflagging, and is now rewarded by a grateful 
personal loyalty that is undying. Perhaps no 
one deserves better than Mark Hopkins to be 
held up to the world as the typical American 
teacher of the nineteenth century, and in clos- 
ing a review of his life no citation could be 
more fitting than one given by Mr. Carter be- 
fore the chapter headed " The Teacher," and 
taken from Cardinal Newman's " St. Philip in 
his School": 

" Love is his bond, he knows no other fetter, 

Asks not our all, hot takes whatever we spare him. 
Willing to draw ns on from good to better. 
As we can bear him. 

** When he comes near to touch us and to bless ns. 
Prayer is so sweet that hours are but a minute ; 
Mirth IB so pore, though freely it possess ns. 
Sin is not in it. 

" Thus he conducts by holy paths and pleasant 
Innocent souls, and sinful souls forgiven, 
Toward the bright palace where our God is present. 
Throned in high heaven." 

Edward Playfair Anderson. 

Our Unwritten Constitution.* 

It is a much-mooted question, among jurists 
and constitutional students, whether we have, 
in this land of written constitutions, any addi- 
tions thereto in the character of unwritten con- 
stitution. Professor C. G. Tiedeman has taken 

• The Unwrittbn Constitution of the United States : 
A Philoeophical Inquiry into the Fundamentals of American 
Constitutional Law. By Christopher 0. Tiedeman, A.M. 
New York : 0. P. Putnam's Sons. 

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the affirmative of this question, and his latest 
treatise, " The Unwritten Constitution of the 
United States,*' is a thesis in support of his 

There is a fundamental difference between 
the British and the American type of consti- 
tution, outside of the feature that one is un- 
written and the other written. The unwritten 
constitution of Great Britain is a flexible ag- 
gregation of rules and principles, changeable 
by Parliament from time to time, according to 
the popular will as contemporaneously ascer- 
tained. These rules and principles are said to 
be fundamental, but they are not fundamental 
in the American sense. As Professor Tiedeman 
states, — 

<* There is no binding force in the prohibitions of 
Magna Ch&rta, except so far as they are now voiced by 
public sentiment; if an act of Parliament should be 
passed in accordance with some great public demand, 
the fact that it violated these principles would not pre- 
vent its enforcement by the courts." 
These remarks will apply to all the princi- 
ples of the English Constitution. Many of 
them are administered by the courts while they 
remain in force. They have not, however, 
the characteristics of fundamental law in the 
American sense. The principles of the Amer- 
ican Constitution may be built upon to a larger 
extent. The term '^ fundamental" must be 
differently understood in examining the two 
systems; and hence the idea of a ^'constitu- 
tion " is not the same in both. It is for this 
reason that Great Britain has no such body 
of constitutional law as that which forms so 
important a part of American jurisprudence. 

Professor Tiedeman's thesis seems to have 
been written to illustrate an American "un- 
written constitution " in the British sense of 
the term, — that '* unwritten constitution whose 
flexible rules reflect all the changes in public 
opinion." It is true, he expects to find that 
** unwritten constitution " in " the decisions of 
the courts and acts of the legislature which are 
published and enacted in the enforcement of 
the written constitution," — a development, as 
it were, out of the latter. But what he there 
finds, he characterizes as '^constantly changing 
with the demands of the popular will," and thus 
he imputes to it the same characteristics as 
those of the unwritten constitution of Great 
Britain. It is a question worthy of serious 
consideration, whether any rules or princi- 
ples, however well established to present ap- 
pearance, can be considered a part of our con- 
stitation, unless they have been so adopted 
and made fundamental as to be enforceable in 

the courts. The constitution in the American 
sense is fundamental in this respect ; its every 
rule and principle is so enforceable, because 
our system makes it a legal rule. Can any 
practice or usage, not so enforceable, be re- 
garded as any part of an American constitu- 
tion, written or unwritten ? 

The illustrative instances of supposed un- 
written constitution collected by Professor 
Tiedeman are presented without reference to 
this distinction. Among them are the change 
in the practical working of the electoral col- 
lege, and the general public sentiment against 
a third presidential term. These, however, are 
usages, not laws. They correspond to what 
Professor Dicey calls, under the English sys- 
tem, ^^ the conventionalities of the constitution," 
as distinguished from the law of the constitu- 
tion. The test-question is : Does either of these 
usages establish or confer a right which the 
judicial department of the government will 
undertake to protect? The essayist argues 
that the practice of selecting presidential elec- 
tors by a strict party vote is " the real, living, 
constitutional rule," and that "the popular 
limitation upon the re-eligibility of the presi- 
dent can be taken as a constitutional limita- 
tion," found in the " unwritten constitution." 
So to argue is to lose sight of the basic rule 
that every constitutional right in America is 
under the protection of the judiciary. In the 
chapter on Natural Rights, there is a hint at 
the disposition of the courts to condemn legis- 
lation which interferes with the natural rights 
of individuals, even when such rights are not 
within the specific protection of the written 
constitution ; but no instances of such condem- 
nation are noted. In respect to citizenship, 
sovereignty, and secession, certain variations 
in the judicial decisions are pointed out, which 
seem to be attributable to a diversity of views 
on unsettled questions of interpretation and 
construction, rather than to any changes in the 
national will. What the essayist supposes to 
be " a decided shifting of the position " of the 
Supreme Court iu reference to the constitu- 
tional inhibition of legislation impairing the 
obligation of contracts, is presented by him as 
a "change in the constitutional rule"; but 
this supposed change of judicial view many 
constitutional lawyers declare to be wholly im- 

Two rules of American fundamental law 
are cited in this essay, which are enforced by 
the courts upon the basis of constitutional 
rules, and are thus entitled to be considered 

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as constitutional in the strict American sense, 
but which are not established in terms in the 
written constitution. These are, the rule that 
the courts have jurisdiction to declare a law 
constitutional which is in conflict with the 
written constitution, and the rule that in time 
of war the military power of the government 
becomes supreme of necessity. Beyond these, 
the "unwritten constitution" elucidated in this 
work is of the British rather than the Amer- 
ican type. j^^j,g o. Pierce. 

Bbisfs ox Kew Books. 

The volume of " Essays on German Literature " 
•(Scribner), by Professor H. H. Boyesen, comprises 
six papers on Goethe, one on Schiller, two on the Ger- 
man novel, three on the Grerman Romantic School, 
and one on ^' Carmen Sylva." Several of these are 
in almost the best style of the literary essay.' In 
addition to his ripe and accurate Grerman scholar- 
ship, — a point in which he yields to no other for- 
eign critic of Grerman literature, — Professor Boye- 
sen brings to his task an ability to express himself 
clearly in terse idiomatic English, with a sense for 
the finer shadings and values of words, and an ab- 
stention from the stock jargon and verbal pseudo- 
profundities of critical exposition, that may well 
put to the blush many who are, in respect of the 
language, "to the manner born." The best chap- 
ters, perhaps, are those devoted to Goethe, the Zeus 
of the author's literary Pantheon ; and here the En- 
glish Goethe-student — a "white blackbird," the 
Professor thinks — may profitably amend his aver- 
age estimate of the poet derived from the jealous 
appraisals of Matthew Arnold and Edmond Scberer, 
the sounding periods of the hero-worshipping Car- 
lyle, and the gushing futilities of Mr. G. H. Lewes, 
by reckoning in the warmly sympathetic though 
generally discriminating summary of Professor 
Boyesen. Mr. Arnold's famous essay our author 
regards as " the most notable English estimate of 
Goethe," though he is plainly a little impatient at 
the comparatively niggard dole of praise weighed 
out upon the apothecary's scales of that cautious 
critic. With the frigid M. Scherer (whom he 
styles " a malignant, disgruntled Frenchman ") Pro- 
fessor Boyesen is plainly exasperated ; and we con- 
fess he seems to us to treat the Gallic contemner of 
Werther's blue coat and yellow breeches, the un- 
sparing wielder of the critical cold-water douche, 
unfairly in attributing his strictures on the German 
poet to his hatred of the German race. M. Scherer 
has, after all, accorded Goethe a measure of generous 
— and for him warm — praise ; and his general tone 
toward this " one of the exceeding great among the 
sons of men," as he terms the poet, does not strike us 
as on the whole more carping than that in his es- 
says on Milton and on Wordsworth. Upon several 

points Professor Boyesen is at odds with Mr. Ar- 
nold and M. Scherer. Mr. Arnold, we remember, 
was of opinion that Part I. of "Faust'* is "the 
only one that counts " ; and the candid Frenchman 
styled its continuation ( if Part II. is fairly to be 
considered as such) a "mere mass of symbols, hie- 
roglyphics, and even mystifications." Professor 
Boyesen, on the other hand, holds that Part II. 
"contains the quintessence of its author's philos- 
ophy of life, the summary of his worldly wisdom "; 
that it is " organically coherent with the First Part 
and is an essential part of the grand design." If 
this be true, it is certainly one of the greatest mys- 
teries, as well as misfortunes, of literature, that 
Goethe, a man eminently capable of the most direct 
lucid expression, a truth-lover who died with the 
words " Light I more light I " upon his lips, should 
have deliberately left us in darkness, in a region 
where effort, lacking a criterion, is ever, to adapt 
Kant's words, "ein blosses Herwmtappen" as to 
the real purport of this " essential part of his grand 
design." We have indicated very imperfectly the 
scope of Professor Boyesen's critical, scholarly, and 
matterf ul volume ; and can only add that the essays 
on the " Life and Works of Schiller," on the evolu- 
lution of the German novel, and on the social and 
literary aspects of the Romantic School, will prove 
of the greatest interest and value to American stu- 
dents of German literature. The book is clearly 
and in general correctly printed, though there are 
a few instances of hasty proof-reading. By a com- 
ical misprint on page 179 an oft^uoted Scotch 
matron is credited with aspiring to see her son one 
day " wag his paw in a pu'pit," — an emendation 
probably of the thoughtful compositor. 

Under the title " Social Statics, Abridged and 
Revised ; and The Man versus the State," Messrs. 
Appleton & Co. issue a definitive edition of Herbert 
Spencer's much cited "Social Statics" originally 
published in 1850. . A relinquishment of some of 
the views presented in the original, and the fact 
that certain conclusions therein set forth are incon- 
sistent with and have led to misinterpretations of 
his later writings, induced Mr. Spencer in 1890 to 
go through the work carefully, erasing some por- 
tions, abridging others, and subjecting the whole to 
a thorough verbal revision. Portions of the earlier 
work are, therefore, now to be regarded as can- 
celled, — a fact to be especially noted by those who 
find occasion to cite this book in support of their 
own theses. To the new volume four essays, — 
"The New Toryism," "The Coming Slavery," 
"The Sins of Legislators," and "The Great Polit- 
ical Superstition," — originally published ( 1884) in 
"The Contemporary Review," have been added 
under the collective title "The Man versus the 
State." The general trend and purpose of these 
papers will be readily inferred by those familiar 
with the author's opinions as to the nature and 
sphere of governments. In 1860, during the agi- 
tation for parliamentary reform, Mr. Spencer pre- 

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dieted certain results of changes then proposed. 
Reduced to its simplest terms, the thesis he main- 
tained was that unless due precautions were taken 
increase of freedom in form would be followed by 
decrease of freedom in fact ; and, as he states in 
the preface to the new volume, ^^ nothing has oc- 
curred to alter the belief then expressed . . . 
Regulations have been made in yearly-growing 
numbers, restraining the citizen in directions where 
his actions were previously unchecked, and com- 
pelling actions which previously he might perform 
or not as he liked ; and at the same time heavier 
public burdens, chiefly local, have further re- 
stricted his freedom by lessening that portion of 
his earnings which he can spend as he pleases, 
and augmenting the portion taken from him to 
be spent as public agents please." In the four 
essays added to the present volume, the author 
sets forth and emphasizes kindred conclusions re- 
specting the future ; and to meet certain criticisms 
and remove some of tlie objections likely to be 
raised, a postscript has been added. Bearing as it 
does so directly upon problems that present them- 
selves daily to thoughtful intelligent people, '< So- 
cial Statics " is one of the most usefully suggestive 
and generally interesting of Mr. Spencer's books. 

Ix '^ The Early Renaissance, and Other Essays" 
(Houghton), we have an attractive volume cpntain- 
ing a series of twelve papers on art subjects, — 
" Principles of Art," "Tendencies of Modem Art," 
**French Landscape-Painting," ''Murillo," '^Critique 
of a Greek Statue," " Hellas," etc., — by Professor 
James M. Hoppin of Yale University. The papers 
are throughout more critical than one is led to ex- 
pect from the preface, wherein, after a rather ex- 
travagant estimate of the direct art-teachings of 
Mr. Ruskin, the author tells us that he ( Mr. Rus- 
kin) has shown us that the <' deepest foundations of 
Art are moral," etc., etc.; a Ruskinian flourish 
which, as it stands, seems to us about as capable of 
being rendered into actual thought as the Trinita- 
rian mystery. If Professor Hoppin had chosen to 
tell us directly and simply that art should never be 
put to immoral and may sometimes be put to moral 
uses, — which is, perhaps, what he means, — all would 
understand him and few would dispute him. And 
we may add that since the advent of a class of art- 
writers who, like Mr. Hamerton, Professor Brown, 
and M. Chesneau, deign to state a plain fact in a 
plain way, without mysticism or mannerism, the 
curious notion, for which Mr. Ruskin is largely re- 
sponsible, that Art is a sort of occult compound of 
religion, morals, political economy, and what not, 
is happily giving way to something more definite. 
Art is a spontaneous activity indulged in for its 
own sake — at bottom a refined handicraft, — hav- 
ing, originally and essentially, no more to do with 
** morals" than it has with cookery; and, as we 
have before had occasion to suggest, the first step 
in the direction of intelligent art-appreciation is 
the disengaging of the purely artistic from other 

standards; the cultivation of the capacity to dis- 
cern in a work of art the presence of or the lack 
of the fruit of that hard-won manipulative skill 
which belongs to the painter as painter, to the 
sculptor as sculptor. Happily, after having piously 
sacrificed at Mr. Ruskin *s altar in the preface, our 
anthor elects to steer his own course ; and the Es- 
says, notably the excellent papers on "French 
Landscape Painting" and "Art in Education," are 
scholarly, discriminative, and independent in tone, 
implying throughout the writer's special knowledge 
of his theme. In point of style. Professor Hoppin 
is not always happy ; and we trust his fashion of 
occasionally stringing together the elements of a 
sentence haphazard, and regardless of logical con- 
nections, will not be adopted by the young gentle- 
men who meet in his class-rooms. 

Cablyle was not fond of the lecture as a me- 
dium of expressing himself. In one of his letters 
to Emerson, he exclaims, " Ah me ! often when I 
think of the matter [lecturing], how my one sole 
wish is to be left to hold my tongue, and by what 
bayonets of Necessity dapt to hay back I am driven 
into that lecture-room, and in what mood, and or- 
dered to speak or die, I feel as if my only utterance 
should be a flood of tears and blubbering." Yet 
it was in the form of lectures that his most popular 
and widely-read book, "Heroes and Hero-worship," 
was first given to the world. And now we have a 
new volume of his lectures, which, delivered two 
years before the lectures on " Heroes," have never 
before been published. This volume is entitled 
"The History of Literature" (Scribner). This 
new series has evidently not received the same care- 
ful attention as the more familiar series, and indeed 
is not even published from the author's own manu- 
script, but from the full reports made on the spot 
by Mr. Thomas Cliisholm Anstey. Out of the 
course of twelve, only one lecture (the ninth) is 
lacking. That Carlyle did not publish these lectures 
during his life-time is due, according to the theory 
of the editor, Professor J. Reay Greene, to Car- 
lyle*s shrinking from the slow labor of preparing 
for publication discourses which deal with topics 
demanding careful treatment while almost infinite 
in their extent and variety ; his natural impatience, 
his. glowing productivity, urged him to other work 
at this period (1838), when his genius may be said 
to have reached its highest and most fervid epoch. 
Nor is that genius depreciated by the present post- 
humous publication. It is true that no one would 
think of offering this book as a manual for a be- 
ginner; but to one already acquainted with the 
facts of literary history, these lectures are a de- 
lightful rSsumi, from a Carlylean point of view, of 
the causes of literature, its course, and its signifi- 

The collection of " Letters of Charles Dickens 
to Wilkie Collins" (Harper), edited by Laurence 
Hutton, forms a dainty and acceptable volume. 
While the letters are in themselves, — as compared 

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with the weighty budgets of the palmy days episto- 
lary of Lamb and Southey, — generally of slight 
texture, the eminence of writer and recipient lends 
them a relative importance. Dickens and Collins 
iirst met in 1851, the former being then nearly 
forty years of age and already the recognized head 
of his guild in England, and the latter a man of 
fiix-and-twenty and relatively a beginner in litera- 
ture. It is pleasant to record that the intimacy 
then begun, and cemented later by the marriage of 
the daughter of Dickens to the brother of Collins, 
continued unbroken until Dickens died in 1870. 
The correspondence between them was frequent 
and familiar. Some portions of it have already 
appeared in "The Lettei*s of Charles Dickens," 
edited by his sister*in-law and his eldest daughter, 
and first published in 1880 as a supplement to 
Forster's ** Life " ; but a large number of letters 
from Dickens to Collins were found after the lat- 
ter's death, and the best and most characteristic of 
these, selected by Miss Hogarth and printed under 
her supervision, form the contents of the present 
volume. The book is of interest mainly as throw- 
ing light upon the relations, personal and literary, 
which subsisted between the two great novelists, 
and as indicating their methods of collaboration. 
There are casual bits of comment and criticism 
touching the works of contemporaries (notably an 
interesting letter in which the writer sets forth his 
opinion of certain debated passages in Reade's 
*^ Griffith Gaunt"), and the whole is leavened with 
a fair sprinkling of characteristic humor. Mr. Hut- 
ton's editing is in the best taste, thorough, unob- 
trusive, and helpful, a thread of explanatory matter 
and occasional parenthetic comment clearing up 
the obseure allusions in the text. There are two 
portraits and several facsimiles of play-bills and 

Fresh proof of Mr. F. Hopkinson Smith's abil- 
ity to wield the quiU with the same brisk dexter- 
ity as the brush, is afforded in the shape of a neat 
volume entitled ^* A Day at Laguerre's, and Other 
Days " (Houghton). The book is made up of nine 
cheery, sketchy papers, — under such titles as <* Es- 
pero Gorgoni, Gondolier," " Under the Minarets," 
**A Bulgarian Opera Bouffe," "Six Hours in 
Squantico," etc., — enlivened throughout with bits 
of local color, incident, and genre, the pleasantly 
idealized and sentimentalized records of recent 
vagabondizing days and sentimental journeys in 
search of the picturesque at home and abroad. 
Like all sensible travellers not immediately bent 
on statistics, Mr. Smith dons his rose-colored spec- 
tacles before starting; hence, in his optimistic 
pages, French inn-keepers, Venetian gondoliers 
(to the jaundiced eye a vociferous unsavory sort of 
water-cabbies, tuneless, prosaic, careless of decency 
and greedy of the paur^nnre), Turkish dragomen, 
etc., etc., take on a pleasantly sentimental tinge, 
and supply in two or three instances a thread of 
romance deftly interwoven in the descriptive text. 

Mr. Smith's gondolier, Espero Grorgoni, was a spe- 
cially charming man of the right Byronic flavor — 
the black swan, we suspect, of his craft. When 
breakfasted by Mr. Smith at the " Caffe Florian," 
— a rather unusual proceeding, by the way, — this 
paragon seems to have comported himself with the 
grace of a Chesterfield and the propriety of a 
" Turveydrop," discovering a knowledge of the 
polite mysteries of napkins and finger-bowls not 
unworthy of the "late Prince Regent" himself. 
For the behoof of prospective travellers, we may 
add that Espero is still within hail at the Molo. 
The book is vivaciously written, and will serve ad- 
mirably to while away an evening or two. There 
are no illustrations. 

No ELOQUENCE is quite the same as that of the 
bibliophile when he discourses upon his own rare 
copies and first editions. Such is the theme of Mr. 
Edmund Gosse in his recently published "Grossip 
in a Library" (Lovell). Its twenty-five chapters 
are the ten-minute sermons of a book-collector con- 
cerning the history and contents of as many famous 
or curious books, the original editions of which 
happen to form a part of his private library. This 
furnishes an opportunity for their scholarly owner 
to regale us with many recondite and charming bits 
of biography, criticism, and bibliography, connected 
with the personal character and adventures of his 
favorites. The full title-page is given, so that we 
feel somewhat as though the volume actually lay in 
our hands. Among the older books are Camden's 
" Britannia " ( 1610 ), " A Mirror for Magistrates " 
(1610), George Wither's "The Shepherd's Hunt- 
ing" ( 1615 ), John Donne's "Death's Duel" (1632 ). 
Yet some of the newer ones are not less interesting. 
A very delightful chat on " Peter Bell and his Tor- 
mentors " arises h propas of the first edition of 
Wordsworth's poem (1819); another on "Ultra- 
Crepidarius" (1823), the scarcest of all Leigh 
Hunt's poetical pamphlets, and giving curious proof 
of the crude taste of the young school out of which 
Shelley and Keats were to arise ; still another, on 
Greorge Meredith's "Shaving of Shagpat," which 
Mr. Gosse declares to be the latest book in which 
any Englishman "has allowed his fancy, untram- 
melled by any sort of moral or intellectual subter- 
fuge, to go a^roaming by the light of the moon." 
The volume is handsomely printed on heavy paper 
with uncut edges, and externally as well as inter- 
nally is one to rejoice the heart of a book-lover. 

Another volume about uncommon books is 
"Wells of English" (Roberts), by Isaac Bassett 
Choate. The aim in Mr. Choate's case, however, 
is quite different from that of Mr. Gosse, the result 
being somewhat of the nature of a manual or 
hand-book of information concerning the lesser 
lights of English literature. The author's principle 
is, that while it is the great writers who show us 
what our literature ought to be, it is those of les- 
ser rank to whom we must go when we wish to 

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find out what oar literature has been and is. They, 
too, are our " wells of English undefyled." Forty 
different writers are included, beginning with 
Thomas of Erceldoune and ending with John Eve- 
lyn. Each is supposed to be somewhat typical of 
the respective groups to which they belonged, and 
the volume presents a very readable and useful 
body of criticism on subjects not often treated. 

Mr. Edward Waterman Evans is the author 
of a little book devoted to a critical study of Walter 
Savage Landor (Putnam). The book was written 
as a college thesis, and includes an idyl in what 
aims to be the Landorian manner, written in com- 
petition for a college prize in poetry. Mr. Evans 
justifies the publication of his monograph by saying 
that '^ no critique at once adequately exclusive and 
inclusive has been written in the effort to determine 
Landor*s place and function in literature." We 
should say that fully a dozen such critiques, at 
least as adequate as the present one, were already 
in existence, and if there is still room for a more 
exhaustive and searching study, Mr. Evans has cer- 
tainly not occupied it. Careful and conscientious 
as his essay is, half a dozen pages of Colvin or Sted- 
man or Woodberry are far more weighty, to say 
nothing of Lowell and Swinburne. The conspicu- 
ous faults of this new treatment of a noble subject 
are diffuseness and a sophomorical style. And even 
less pardonable is the patronizing air which the 
writer allows himself to assume. To seriously dis- 
cuss the claim of Landor to a place among the im- 
mortals is no longer a permissible thing. That 
place is securely taken, and forever. We do not 
imply that Mr. Evans is alone in making this mis- 
take, but we do distinctly say that it is time for 
critics to abandon this apologetic attitude, and take 
for granted what everybody with a sense for litera- 
ture knows — that nineteenth century England can 
boast no greater writer of prose, and few greater 

To THEIR recently issued series of reprints from 
W. D. Howells, G. W. Curtis, and C. D. Warner, 
Messrs. Harper & Brothers add a fourth number, 
*' Concerning All of Us," by Thomas W. Higginson. 
Col. Higginson's merits as a writer of crisp lucid 
English need no introduction here, and these essays 
in miniature, — familiar, half-humorous disserta- 
tions, with the due infusion of sound thought and 
good literature, on current themes broachable in 
club and drawing-room, — are, in many respects, 
models of their class. As to one point, — and we ap- 
proach it with diffidence, — we shall venture to criti- 
cise. Col. Higginson is, as the world knows, an 
ardent champion of the cause of the fair (or, 
as <<man, proud man" in the insolent pride of 
his physical superiority is prone to style it, the 
^< weaker ") sex ; and his chivalrous defense of the 
natural and inalienable right of its members to be 
as masculine as they choose, seems to us a trifle 
obtrusive in these essays. Like King Charles's 
head in the memoir of the unfortunate <' Mr. Dick," 

the theme crops out inopportunely. The book is, 
however, suggestive and readable, — the best, per- 
haps, of the series ; and we may add, for the spe- 
cial behoof of the down-trodden ones in whose be- 
half Col. Higginson has assailed so many wind- 
mills, fulling-mills, and other malevolent giants, that 
it is graced with a good portrait of the author. 

The " Best Letters " series issued by Messrs. 
McClurg & Co. reaches a fifth volume in selections 
from the correspondence of Charles Lamb, edited 
by Mr. Edward Gilpin Johnson. The earlier vol- 
umes of the series bore the names of writers famous 
chiefly by reason of their letters, — Chesterfield, 
Walpole, Montagu, S^vign^. But with Charles 
Lamb, the letters count only as one more point of 
attraction toward a figure already fascinating as a 
man, an essayist, a humorist, a poet, and a hero of 
a most difficult and uncommon type. Lamb is not 
one of those writers whom we are content to know 
simply through their works ; we are interested in 
all that relates to him as a man, and this feeling 
has increased rather than lessened in the fifty-eight 
years since his death. Moreover, the group to 
which he belonged — containing Coleridge, Hazlitt, 
Southey, Wordsworth, Godwin, Proctor — is one of 
the most interesting that literary history has to 
offer. Therefore, letters to these and concerning 
these have the advantage of most fortunate mate- 
rial. Mr. Johnson's Introduction is a happy exam- 
ple of a new treatment of an old subject, — witty 
and piquant at times as " Elia " himself, yet schol- 
arly and dignified throughout. 

To THE many Americans who remember with 
pleasure the series of lectures on ancient Egypt de- 
livered here by the late Amelia B. Edwards, the 
sumptuous volume entitled " Pharaohs, Fellahs, and 
Explorers" (Harper), containing the substance of 
those lectures, with large additions, notes, and ref- 
erences, and a profusion of illustrations selected 
from the works of eminent Egyptologists, will prove 
a welcome publication. Miss Edwards's chapters on 
Egyptian portrait painting and portrait sculpture 
seem to us especially satisfactory; she has suc- 
ceeded in giving an unusually sound and critical 
summary of Egyptian art from the artistic as well 
as from the religious point of view. The illustra- 
tions of these two chapters — notably the reproduc- 
tions from Mr. Petrie's series of funerary portraits 
— are of the greatest interest. The book is, per- 
haps, the best popular exposition of the subject yet 
issued, and it acquires additional, though melan- 
choly, interest in that it is the last considerable 
work from the pen of this versatile writer, whose 
laurels were won in such diverse fields. 

The series of Shakespeare's plays, edited chiefly 
by K. Deighton, and issuing from the press of 
Messrs. Macmillan & Co., is an excellent one for 
beginners in the study of Shakespeare. Each play 
makes a separate volume, of a convenient form and 
size, tastefully bound in cloth. To each there is a 

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brief introduction on the date of the play, origin, 
plot, characters, time analysis, etc. The text is fol- 
lowed by notes, very abundant, and learned with- 
out being recondite or pedantic. The serviceable- 
ness of the notes is enhanced, and the objection to 
their abundance diminished, by the addition of an 
index. Altogether, the series will be found a good 
one not only for use in schools but also for the 
home perusal of those who desire to read Shake- 
speare intelligently. 

Topics ix liEADrwo Periodicals. 

May, 189 S, 

Air and Healthf 11. Popular Science, 

America, Discovery of. R. B. Anderson. Dial, 

American Morals. H. R. Chamberlain. Chautauquan, 

Ballestier, Wolcott. Illos. Henry James. Cosmopolitan, 

Behring Sea Controversy. North American, 

Bicycling. Thomas Stevens. Lippincott. 

Black Forest to Black Sea. lUus. F. D. Millet. Harper, 

Botanist's Joumeyings, A. Anna B. McMahan. Dial, 

Brownings, The. Illus. Anne Ritchie. Harper, 

Calif omia-s Floral Society. Illns. Prof . Wickson. Overland, 

Calif omia^s Raisin Industry. Illus. J.T.Goodman. Overl^d, 

Cave Dwellings. Dins. W. H. Larrabee. Pop, Science. 

Children of the Poor. Illns. J. A. Riis. Scribner, 

Chinese Question. J. R. Young. North American, 

College Personal Economics. F. B. Wilson. Lippincott, 

Columbus and his Age. Ulus. £. Castelar. Century, 

Correspondent, The Travelling. W. J. C. Meighan. Lipp, 

Couture, Thomas. Ulus. 0. P. A. Healy. Century, 

Dakotas, The. Julian Ralph. Harper, 

Dendrites. Illus. M. S. Mennier. Popular Science, 

Emerson-Thoreau Correspondence. F. B. Sanborn. Atlantic. 

European Anthropological Work. Dlus. Popular Science, 

Evolution in Folk Lore. D. D. Wells. Popular Science, 

Flower Shows. S. A. Wood. Chautauguan, 

Flying Machines. S. P. Langley. Cosmopolitan, 

Freeman, E. A., Some Autobiography of. Forum. 

Geology Teaching. A. S. Packard. Popular Science. 

German Army. Illus. Lieut.-Col. Exner. Harper, 

German Emperor and Trade. Poultney Bigelow. Forum, 

Gerrymander, Slaying the. Atlantic, 

Girls' Private Schools. Anna C. Brackett. Harper, 

Glaciers of America. Illus. Calif omian. 

Harvard Requirements for Admission. Atlantic, 

Healing Art. H. Nothnagel. Popular Science, 

Henri Christophe I. Illus. L. G. Billings. Cosmopolitan. 

Hill and the New York Senate. Matthew Hale. Forum, 

Hill in New York. F. R. Coudert. Forum, 

Hopkins, Mark. E. P. Anderson. Dial, 

Kentucky Homes. Illus. J. L. Allen. Century, 

Iiamartine. &M. de Vogu^. Chautauguan, 

Languages, Learning of. P. G. Hamerton. Forum, 

Lapland. Illus. H. H.- Boyesen. Cosmopolitan, 

Luini. Illus. by T. Cole. W. J. StiUman. Century. 

Man or Platform? Messrs. Key, Vest, etc. No. American. 

McMaster's History of the U.S. C. H. Haskins. Dial, 

Merit System. Theodore Roosevelt. Cosmopolitan, 

Mexican Trade. M. Romero. North American, 

Microscope and Biology. H. L. Osbom. Dial, 

Monkey Speech. R. L. Ckuner. Forum. 

Nicaragua Canal, III. Consul-Gen. Merry. Califomian, 

North in the War. J. B. McMaster. Chautauguan, 

Olympian Religion, IV. W. E. Gladstone. North American. 

Opium Traffic. Illus. F. J. Masters. Californian, 

Party Government. Goldwin Smith. North American, 

Perry's Victory. Dlus. J. C. Ridpath. Chautauguan, 

Phrenology. G. P. Serriss. Chautauguan, 

Poetry : Creation and Self-Ezpression. E. C. Stedman. Cent, 

Poor in Cities. C. G. Truesdell. Chautauguan. 

Religion in Business. Geo. Hodges. Chautauguan, 

Roman Private Life. Mrs. Preston and Louise Dodge. AUan, 
Russia's Famine. C. E. Smith. North American. 
San Francisco Press. Ulus. Californian. 
San Francisoo Street Characters. Dlus. Overland, 
Science and Fine Art. £. Du-Bois Reymond. Pop, Science. 
Sea and Land. Ulus. N. S. Shaler. Scribner, 
Seriousness, A Plea for. Atlantic. 
Severn's Roman Journals. Wm. Sharp. Atlantic, 
Simian Speech. Dlus. R. L. Gamer. Cosmopolitan. 
Southern Confederacy. Henry Watterson. Chautauguan, 
Southern Homes at the £2nd of the War. Atlantic, 
Spencer and his Philosophy. W. H. Hudson. Pop. Science. 
St. Augustine, Florida. Illus. Chautauguan. 
Transit, Rapid. Dins. T. C. Clarke. Scribner, 
Unter den Linden, Berlin. Dlus. Paul Lindau. ^Scribner. 
Unwritten Constitution, Our. J. O. Pierce. Dial, 
U.S. Patent Office. Helen F. Shedd. Chautauguan. 
Vespucci, Amerigo. Eugene Lawrence. Harper, 
Violin for Ladies. J. Y. Taylor. Lippincott, 
Volta, Allesandro. With Portrait. Popular Science, 
^^^Whitman, Walt. John Burroughs. North American, 
^ Whitman, Walt. W. H. Garrison. Lippincott, 
Whitman, Walt. W. S. Walsh. LippincoU, 
World's Fair Architecture. Illus. H. Van Brunt. Century. 
Yachting. Illus. F. W. Pangbom. Century, 

Books of the Month. 

[Hie following list, embracing 112 titles, includes all books 
received by The Dial during the month of April, 1892.1 


The Discovery of America, with Some Account of Ancient 
America and the Spanish Conquest. By John Fiske. In 2 
vols., with portrait, 12mo, gilt tops. Houghton, Mifflin <& 
Co. $4.00. 

History of the Nineteenth Army Corps. By Richard B. 
Lrwin. Large 8vo, pp. 528, gilt top, uncut edges. G. P. 
Putmun's Sons. $4.50. 

The First International Railway, and the Colonization of 
New England. (Life and Writings of John Alfred Poor.) 
Edited by Laura Elizabeth Poor. 8vo, pp. 400, gilt top, 
uncut edges. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $3.00. 

A History of Greece. By Evelyn Abbott, M. A. Part II., 
From the Ionian Revolt to the Thirty Years' Peace, 500- 
445 B. C. 8vo. pp. 542, gilt top, uncut edges. G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons. ^2.25. 

The Kansas Conflict. By Charles Robinson, late Governor 
of Kansas. 12mo, pp. 487. Harper & Brothers. 5!«2.00. 

Stories Trom Bncrlish History for Young Americans. Ulus., 
12mo, pp. 784. Harper & Brothers. $2.00. 

" Monsieur Henri " : A Foot-note to French History. With 
frontispiece, 18mo, pp. 139. Harper <& Brothers. $1.00. 

The Remains of Ancient Rome. By J. Henry Middleton, 
author of ** Ancient Rome in 1888." In 2 vols., illus., 
8vo, uncut. Macmillan <& Co. $7.00. 


The Life of George Mason, 1726-1792. By Kat« Mason 
Rowland. Including his Speeches, Public Papers, etc., 
with Introduction by General Fitzhugh Lee. In 2 vols., 
with portrait, 8vo, gdt top, uncut edges. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. $8.00. 

The Life of Joshua R. Olddin^s. By G^rge W. Julian, 
author of ** Political Recollections." WiUi portrait, 8vo, 
pp. 473, gilt top. A. C. McClurg & Co. $2.50. 

The Life and Works of John Arbuthnot, M.D., Fellow 
of the Royal Collepre of Physicians. By George A. Ait- 
ken. With portrait, 8vo, pp. 51G, uncut. Macmillan «& 
Co. $4.00. 

Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Sidney 
Lee. Vol. XXX., Johnee — Kenneth. 8vo, pp. 44<i, gilt 
top. Macmillan & Co. $3.75. 

Politics and Pen Pictures, At Home and Abroad. By 
Henrjr W. Hilliard, LL.D. With portrait, laige 8vo, pp. 
445, gilt top, uncut edges. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $3.00. 

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The Autobioerraphy of Isaac WilUamB, BJD. Edited by 
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The Ducheese of Angoultme and the Two Restorations. 
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The German Bmperor and his Eastern Neigfhbors. By 
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Concemincr All of Us. By Thomas Wentworth Higgrinson. 

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Marriage and Disease: A Study of Heredity. By S. A. 
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By the Hon. George W. Julian, author of " Political Recollections." With two Portraits, 8vo, gilt top, ??2.50. 

'* The importanoe of the life of Joshua R. Giddings centres entirely in his warfare against sUvery. To this he dedicated 
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centration of energy which armed him with his power, and enabled him to link his name imperishably with a cause which vitally 
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"GROUND <^RMS!" The Story of a Life. 

From the German of the Baroness Bertha von Suttner, by Alice A. Abbott. 12mo, 81.00. 

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Vol. XIII. JUNE, 1892. 

No. 146. 


PATRICK HENRY. W, F, Poole 41 


McClurg 46 


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PATRICK Henry.* 

The period of the American Revolution was 
rich in eminent men ; but in the controversy 
which preceded the war no one was more con- 
spicuous or had a greater influence in forming 
and directing public sentiment than Patrick 
Henry, the statesman and matchless orator of 
Virginia. A full and impartial history of this 
unique person — beloved and praised without 
stint by the men of his time, and since his 
death strangely maligned by a rival statesman 
of Virginia — has been needed; and it is a 
pleasure to recognize in the work before us the 
fact that the task has been faithfully executed 
by his grandson, William Wirt Henry, who 
has also printed such portions of the corres- 
pondence and speeches of his ancestor as could 
be collected. The work embraces a connected 
historical narrative of events, and also a pro- 
found study of all the questions in controversy 

* Patrick Heitbt : life, Correspondence, and Speeches. 
By WiUuun Wirt Henry. In three yolumes. New York: 
Chail«8 Scribner^s Sons. 

with the mother countiy which led up to inde- 
pendence ; and hence it will have a place in 
every collection of the best books on American 

The popular estimate of Patrick Henry has 
been ti^en from his Life by William Wirt, 
where he appears as a picturesque and inex- 
plicable being — a magnetic and inspired back- 
woodsman, who, without education and early 
training, was endowed with an imsurpassed 
gift of eloquence which he used with magic 
e£Fect in the most critical period of our national 
history. Mr. Wirt, attracted by the popular 
accounts of Mr. Henry's oratory, b^an in 
1805 to collect materials for writing his biog- 
raphy. He had never seen Mr. Henry, who 
died in 1799 ; and for the facts and incidents 
of Mr. Henry's life he relied upon the contribu- 
tions of many Virginia statesmen who had been 
his contemporaries. These were in the highest 
degree eulogistic of Mr. Henry's character, 
abilities, and patriotism. The exceptions to this 
strain of eulogy were the frequent comments 
of Thomas Jefferson and a few persons who 
were especially influenced by him. There was 
mudb bitterness of party spirit in Virgipia 
during the later years of Mr. Henry's life. 
Until the first administration of Washington, 
Jefferson and Henry were both republicans 
and worked in the same party traces. Henry 
opposed the adoption of the Federal Constitu- 
tion in the Virginia Convention of 1788, with 
all his energy ; and Jefferson would have done 
the same if he had not fortunately been absent 
in France at the time. When he returned, in 
November, 1789, he and Henry parted com- 
pany in politics. Henry set his face against 
all factious opposition to putting the new con- 
stitution into operation. He had, he said, 
opposed its adoption in the convention, with 
all his powers. The question had been fully 
discussed and settled, and he should now 
give it fair play, and support it. Mr. Jef- 
ferson, on the other hand, threw every ob- 
stacle in its way, and set about creating a 
party which he could control. Mr. Henry did 
not follow him, and the breach between them 
widened. One of the last acts of Mr. Henry's 
life was to denounce, with all his matchless elo- 
quence, Jefferson's "Virginia Resolutions of 
1798," asserting the right of nullification. The 

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** Mephistopheles of American politics " never 
outlived his resentment nor ceased to vilify the 
memory of Patrick Henry. 

The influence of Jefferson, which can be 
traced through the whole of Mr. Wirt's narra- 
tive, gives it a strange inconsistency. In his 
youth — the age not given — Wirt describes 
" his person as coarse, his manners awkward, 
his dress slovenly, his conversation very plain, 
his aversion to study invincible, and his facul- 
ties almost benumbed by indolence. No per- 
suasion could bring him either to read or 
work. He ran wild in the forest, and divided 
his life between the dissipation and uproar of 
the chase and the languor of reaction." This 
information was furnished by Mr. Jefferson. 
When Henry was about nineteen years of age 
— as Mr. Wirt's narrative continues — 
«He had not changed his character by changing his pur- 
suits. His early habits still continued to haunt him. He 
resumed his violin, his flute, and his books [ I ]. His 
reading began to assume a more serious character. He 
studied geogpraphy, in which he became an expert. He 
read the charters and history of the colony. He became 
fond of historical works, particularly those of Greece 
and Rome, and soon made himself a perfect master 
of their contents. Livy was his fayorite, and having 
procured a translation, he became so enamored of the 
work that he read it through, once at least, every year 
during the early part of his life. The grandeur of the 
Roman character filled him with surprise and admira^ 

Mr. Jefferson evidently did not furnish Mr. 
Wirt with this description, which is highly 
creditable to a boy of nineteen in the back- 
woods of Virginia — a boy, too, whose " facul- 
ties were almost benumbed by indolence, and 
no persuasion could bring him either to read 
or work." Daniel Webster visited Mr. Jeffer- 
son at Monticello in December, 1824, and the 
latter gave him an account of Patrick Henry. 
" Henry," he said, " was originally a barkeeper. 
His pronunciation was vulgar and vicious. He 
was a man of very little knowledge of any sort. 
He read nothing, and had no books. He could 
not write. His biographer [Wirt] says he 
read Plutarch [Livy ?] every year. I doubt 
if he ever read a volume of it in his life." 
Jefferson advised Wirt, without success, to 
omit the Livy story. Mr. Henry met John 
Adams at the meeting of the Continental Con- 
gress, and told him (October 11, 1774) that 
at fifteen he read Virgil and Livy in the orig- 
inal Latin. 

Patrick Henry was born May 29, 1736. 
His father, John Henry, was a man of classical 
education, the presiding magistrate of the 
county of Hanover, and a colonel of militia. 

He defended the doctrine of eternal punish- 
ment, by a critic»al examination of the Greek 
text of the New Testament ; and a clergyman 
said of him that he was more familiar with his 
Horace than with his Bible. Patrick went to 
a common English school till he was ten years 
old, when his father became his tutor, and he 
acquired a knowledge of Latin, mathematics, 
ancient and modern history, and something of 
Greek. He had also a careful religious train- 
ing from his pious parents. This religious in- 
fluence accompanied him through life, and led 
him to abstain from profanity and all youthful 
excesses. When he was about twelve years of 
age, the noted pulpit orator, Rev. Samuel 
Davies, later president of Princeton College, 
preached in Hanover County, and inspired in 
the boy a taste for oratory. Mr. Henry through 
life spoke of Dr. Davies as the greatest orator 
he ever heard. Few boys of the age of fifteen 
have better opportunities for an education than 
he had, or, so far as appears, made a better 
use of them. His father then placed him with 
a country merchant, that he might be trained 
in mercantile life, and after a year's experi- 
ence set him and his brother up in business 
for themselves. At the age of eighteen he 
married, and the business enterprise turned 
out disastrously. He then tried farming ; and 
that was equally unsuccessful. He was then 
twenty-four years old, and resolved to take up 
the profession of law. He borrowed a " Coke 
upon Littleton" and a "Digest of the Virginia 
Acts," which he read for six weeks, and then 
went to Williamsburg to be examined for ad- 
mission to the bar. The board of examiners 
gave him a license with some reluctance, and 
evidently on other evidence of his ability than 
that of his knowledge of the law. He began 
practice in the autumn of 1760. His fee books, 
which were kept in a neat handwriting and in 
a methodical manner, have been preserved, and 
Mr. William Wirt Henry gives a facsimile page 
of them. During the first year of practice he 
entered the named of sixty clients, and charged 
175 fees. In the first three years he charged 
fees in 1,185 suits, besides fees for advice and 
for preparing papers out of court. The fees 
were moderate, the cases being the ordinary 
business of the county courts. Mr. Jefferson, 
in writing to Mr. Wirt, admits that Mr. 
Henry's early practice at the bar was success- 
ful ; but he accounts for it on the ground that 
it was "chiefly a criminal business. From 
these poor devils it was always understood that 
he squeezed exhorbitant fees of £50, <£100, and 

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^200. From this source he made his great 
profits. His other business, exclusive of the 
criminal, would never, I am sure, pay the ex- 
pemwft of his attendance." This quotation oc- 
curs in a letter which Mr. Wirt did not use, 
and intended t& suppress ; but it was printed 
in Dawson's " Historical Magazine " for Au- 
gust, 1867, page 90, with much other slander 
of a similar character. In the facsimile page 
printed there is no fee so high as twenty shil- 
lings. "His powers over a jury," continues 
Mr. Jefferson in this letter, ^^ were so irresiat- 
ible that he received great fees for his services, 
and had the reputation of being insatiable in 
money. He purchased from Mr. Lomax the 
valuable estate on Smith's river, on long credit, 
and finally paid for it in depreciated paper 
not worth oak leaves." Mr. Wirt Henry shows 
that the last statement was false. The fee 
books also show that Patrick Henry's legal 
practice was far greater, from the first, than 
Mr. Jefferson's, as claimed by Mr. Randall, 
his biographer. 

Early in the fourth year of Mr. Henry's 
practice (November, 1768), he was employed 
as counsel in the celebrated " Parsons' cause," 
in the trial of which his great power as an ad- 
vocate was first brought to public notice. The 
Church of England was the established reli- 
gion of Virginia, and its ecclesiastical system 
was more exacting and tyrannical than that of 
New England. The annual pay of the clergy 
was fixed by the statute of 1696 at 16,000 
pounds of tobacco, to be levied by the several 
vestries on the parishes. On account of drouth 
and short crops, the price of tobacco increased, 
and in 1758 the House of Burgesses passed an 
act making it lawful for debtors to pay tobacco 
dues and taxes in money at the rate of two 
pence per pound. The clergy generally ob- 
jected to the act, and petitioned the Bishop of 
London to use his influence with the King to 
annul it. The price of tobacco still further 
increased, as well as the discontent of the 
clergy ; but the Assembly adhered to its stat- 
ute, and a bitter controversy ensued, which re- 
sulted in several clergymen bringing actions in 
the courts against parish collectors. One was 
brought by Rev. Mr. Maury, in the county 
court of Hanover, over which Patrick Henry's 
father presided. The defendant pleaded the 
act of the Assembly, and the plaintiff demurred 
on tbe ground that the act had not been rati- 
fied by the King. The demurrer was sustained, 
and nothing was left to be done in the case ex- 
cept to ascertain the damages. The trial came 

on with Patrick Henry as counsel for the de- 
fendant, his father on the bench, and his uncle, 
the Rev. Patrick Henry, an interested auditor. 
The only evidence introduced related to fix- 
ing the market price of tobacco, which was 
shown to be six pence per pound. The plain- 
tiff's counsel stated to the jury that the de- 
cision of the court had narrowed the ques- 
tion down to the difference between two pence 
and six pence per pound on 16,000 pounds of 
tobacco. He deplored the existing popular 
feeling against the clergy, whom he eulogized 
for their charity and benevolence. Mr. Henry 
rose to reply with apparent embarrassment, 
and made a feeble exordium. The clergy ex- 
changed sly looks with each other, and the 
people hung their heads. A change in his de- 
meanor soon occurred, which his biographer 
thus describes : 

« His attitude beame erect, his face lighted up, and 
his eyes flashed fire. His gestures became graceful 
and impressive, his voice and emphasis peculiarly 
charming. His appeals to the passions were overpower- 
ing. In the language of thoee who heard him, <he 
made their blood run cold and their hair to stand 
on end.' In a word, to the astonishment of all, he 
suddenly burst upon them as an orator of the highest 

His line of argument was wholly outside of 
the path marked out for him by the opposing 
counsel. He had not a word to say about to- 
bacco or its value. He discussed the funda- 
mental principles of society and government. 
The latter was a conditional compact, with 
mutual and dependent covenants — the King 
stipulating protection on the one hand, and the 
people obedience and support on the other. A 
violation of those covenants by either party 
discharges the other from obligation. The ne- 
cessities and distress of the people caused the 
enactment of the law of 1758, and it could not 
be annulled consistently with the compact be- 
tween King and people. By such action the 
King, from being the father of his people, 
would degenerate into a tyrant, and forfeit all 
right to tihe obedience of his subjects. At this 
point the opposing counsel cried out, "The 
gentleman has spoken treason !'' and the clergy 
repeated the word, " Treason ! Treason ! " 
Here was the keynote of the American Revo- 
lution, and nearly two years before the enact- 
ment of the Stamp Act. Henry then gave his 
attention to the clergy, and said : 

" We have heard a good deal about the benevolence 
and holy zeal of our reverend clergy; but how is this 
manifested ? Do they show their zeal in the cause of 
religion and humanity by practicing the mild and be- 
nevolent precepts of the gospel of Jesus? Do they 

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feed the hungry and clothe the naked ? Oh, no, gentle- 
men. On the other hftnd, these rapacious harpies would, 
were their powers equal to their will, snatch from the 
hearth of their honest parishioner his last hoe-cake; 
from the vridow and orphan children their last milch 
cow, the last bed ; nay, the last blanket from the lying- 
in woman." 

He then pictured the bondage of a people 
who are denied the privilege of enacting their 
own laws, and concluded by saying that under 
the ruling of the court the jury must find for 
the plaintiff ; but they could find damages for 
any amount they chose. The jury retired, and 
in five minutes returned with a verdict for the 
plaintiff with one penny damages. No report 
of the speech has been preserved ; but those 
who heard it were never tired of talking about 
it. The line of argument and description of 
incidents, from which the above has been con- 
densed, appear in a letter of Mr. Maury, the 
plaintiff, to a brother clergyman. 

Henry's conduct of " the Parsons' cause " 
greatly increased his law practice, and he soon 
appeared as counsel in an important case be- 
fore a committee of the Assembly at Williams- 
burg, where, said Judge Tyler, " Such a burst 
of eloquence from a man so plain and ordi- 
naiy in appearance struck the committee with 
amazement." Judge Winston said he "had 
observed an ill-dressed young man sauntering 
in the lobby ; and when the case came on he 
was surprised to find this person counsel for 
one of the parties, and still more when he de- 
livered an argument superior to any he had 
ever heard." 

Mr. Hepry was elected to the House of 
Burgesses in the spring of 1765, and took his 
seat May 20. He had not filled it three days 
when he was upon his feet to oppose a propo- 
sition to borrow a large sum of money partly 
to relieve the treasurer, John Robinson, who 
had also been speaker for many years, and had 
injudiciously loaned the public money to his 
personal friends in the Assembly. Mr. Jef- 
ferson, who never depreciated Mr. Henry's 
ability as an orator, but stated to Mr. Wirt 
that " Henry was the greatest orator that ever 
lived," thus described the incident : 

<*Mr. Henry attacked the scheme in that style of 
bold, grand and overwhelming eloquence for which he 
became so justly celebrated afterward. I can never 
forget a particular exclamation of his in the debate, 
which electrified his hearers. It had been urg^ed that 
the sudden exaction of the money loaned must ruin the 
debtors and their families ; but with a little indulgence 
of time, it might be paid with ease. * What, sir!' ex- 
claimed Mr. Henry, *■ is it proposed, then, to reclaim the 
spendthrift from his dissipation and extravagance by 

filling his pockets with money?* These expressions 
are indelibly impressed on my memory. He carried 
with him all the members of the upper counties, and 
left a minority composed merely of the aristocracy of 
the country. From this time his popularity grew apace; 
and Mr. Robinson dying a year afterward, his deficit 
was brought to light." 

The Stamp Act, which had been enacted bj 
Parliament in March, 1765, had reached the 
colonies, and was making a most profound 
sensation. Before Mr. Henry had been in his 
seat ten days, and while the leading statesmen 
of the land were pondering what to do, he 
wrote on a blank leaf of an old copy of " Coke 
upon Littleton" his famous " Virginia Resolu- 
lutions concerning the Stamp Act," and mov- 
ing them in the house, on May 29, made one 
of the three great speeches of his life — per- 
haps the greatest. Mr. Je£Ferson, who was 
then a student, heard the speech, and thus de- 
scribed it : 

« I attended the debate at the door of the lobby of 
the house, and heard the splendid display of Mr. Henry's 
talents as a popular orator. They were great indeed; 
such as I never heard from any other man. He ap- 
peared to me to speak as Homer wrote." 

Again, writing to Mr. Wirt, Jefferson said: 

" They [Henry and Johnston] were opposed by Ran- 
dolph, Bland, Pendleton, Wythe, and all the old mem- 
bers whose influence in the house had, till then, been 
unbroken; . . . but torrents of sublime eloquence 
from Henry, backed by the solid reasoning of Johnston, 

Judge Carrington, in a letter to Mr. Wirt, 
declared that Mr. Henry's eloquence in the 
debate was beyond his powers of description. 
It was in this debate that Mr. Henry, treating 
of the tyranny of the obnoxious act, exclaimed, 
with a voice and gesture which startled the 
house: '^Tarquin and Csesar had each his 
Brutus, Charles I. his Cromwell, and George 
III. — *' Treason ! " shouted the speaker, and 
" Treason ! Treason ! " echoed from every part 
of the house. Mr. Henry, fixing his eyes and 
gestures on the speaker, added, with a start- 
ling emphasis, — "may profit by their example ! 
If this be treason, make the most of it." 

It is not easy to see how Mr. Henry could 
have drawn the celebrated Stamp Act reso- 
lutions of 1765, which became the inspiration 
of similar resolutions in all the other colonies, 
if, as Mr. Jefferson wrote to Mr. Wirt, " He 
could not draw a bill on the most simple sub- 
ject. There was no idea of accuracy in his 
head. He said the strongest things in the fin- 
est language ; but without logic, without ar- 
rangement, desultorily." Nor how he could 
have made the impressive historical and das- 

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sical allusions which abound in this and his 
other impromptu orations, if he read no books 
and owned no books. " He never," wrote Mr. 
Je£Ferson, "in conversation or debate, men- 
tioned a hero, a worthy, or a fact in Greek 
or Homan history, but so vaguely and loosely 
as to leave room to back out. That he read 
Livy once a year is a known impossibility. He 
may have read it once, but certainly not twice." 
Such an instance of persistent, mean, and cow- 
ardly persecution as that with which Thomas 
Jefferson maligned the reputation of Patrick 
Henry after his death has no parallel in the 
annals of politics or literature. The grandson, 
however, in the life of his ancestor, makes very 
little comment on the fact, and from motives 
which will be readily understood. The parties 
were and are all Virginians, and they are loyal 
to the reputation of their state. 

The opening signal of the Revolution was 
Mr. Henry's Virginia Resolutions. " The first 
act of any of the colonies against the authority 
of an act of Parliament," said Governor Hutch- 
inson, " was in Virginia. Those resolves were 
expressed in such terms that many people, 
upon the first surprise, pronounced them treas- 
onable " ; and he states that James Otis pub- 
licly expressed this opinion on King street in 
Boston. Governor Bernard wrote : " The pub- 
lishing of the Virginia resolutions proved an 
alarm-bell to the disaffected." Governor Gage 
wrote from New York : "The Virginia resolves 
gave the signal for a general outcry over the 
continent." Mr. Jefferson said : " Mr. Henry 
certainly gave the first impulse to the ball of 
the Revolution. Edmund Randolph said : "Mr. 
Henry plucked the veil from the shrine of par- 
liamentary omnipotence." Edmund Burke, in 
his speech on American Taxation, said : " The 
Virginia Resolutions were the cause of the in- 
surrections in Massachusetts and the other col- 
onies." John Adams wrote thus to Mr. Henry, 
June 3, 1776, concerning his part in framing 
the constitution of Virginia : " I know of no 
one so competent to the task as the author of 
the first Virginia Resolutions against the Stamp 
Act, who will have the glory with posterity of 
beginning and concluding this great Revolu- 

It is to be regretted that no full report of 
any speech of Mr. Henry is extant. Probably 
no one was ever delivered from manuscript, 
and the reporter was not abroad in those days. 
The single speech by which his manner is best 
known was made up by Mr. Wirt, chiefly 
from the recollections of Judges John Tyler 

and St. George Tucker. It was delivered in 
the Virginia Assembly, March 23, 1776, on 
the question of arming the Colony. It begins, 
" It is natural for man to indulge in illusions 
of hope" — every man and boy in the land 
knows it by heart and has declaimed it. It 
will be seen that it antedated by nearly a 
month the battle of Lexington ; and yet, with 
the ken of a prophet, Henry said, " The next 
gale which sweeps from the north will bring 
to our ears the clash of resounding arms." 
How these words, passing from one to another, 
must have stirred the colonies ! " We must 
fight ! — I repeat it, sir, we must fight ! ! An 
appeal to arms and the God of Hosts is all 
that is left us ! " When this speech was first 
printed, in 1817, persons were living who heard 
it delivered, and they testified to the accuracy 
of the report. 

George Mason, whose Life and Writings 
have recently appeared, knew Patrick Henry 
well, socially and in public life, and wrote of 
him thus, in 1774 : 

"He was by far the most powerful speaker I ever 
heard. Every word he says not only engages but com- 
mands the attention; and your passions are no longer 
your own when he addresses them. But his eloquence 
is the smallest part of his merit. He is, in my opinion, 
the first man upon this continent, as well in abilities as 
in public virtues; and had he lived in Rome about the 
time of the first Funic war, . . . Mr. Henry's tal- 
ents must have put him at the head of that glorious 

Virginia made Mr. Henry its first governor, 
and reelected him to five subsequent terms. 
The sixth he declined after he had been elected. 
His ofiicial correspondence during these years 
is printed in the volumes before us, and it re- 
futes the slander of Mr. Jefferson, that he 
could not write, was no man of business, and 
had no accuracy of idea in his head. The 
speeches printed are the shorthand reports of 
his remarks in the Virginia convention of 
June, 1788, convened to consider the ratifica- 
tion of the Federal Constitution. They are 
abstract, not verbatim, reports, and were not 
revised by their author. They probably give 
the substance of his remarks, but the precise 
words and the charm of his style are wanting. 

No praise of Mr. William Wirt Henry's 
scholarly and impartial study of the subject, 
and of his simple and graceful style of writing 
the narrative, can be deemed extravagant. It 
is an easy and delightful work to read, and the 
author has placed the student of American his- 
tory under lasting obligations to him. 

W. F. Poole. 

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OiiD-TiME Plantation XiIfe.* 

The readers of Mr. Joel Chandler Harris's 
former volumes will certainly welcome the new 
book which has come from him under the title 
of " On the Plantation," and those who chance 
to see this book without having already read 
" Uncle Remus " and the others, are very sure 
to go back and make their acquaintance also ; 
for it is hard to take up one of these books 
without wanting to read all of them. There 
is nothing trite, nothing commonplace about 
Mr. Harris's writings. He not only has a sim- 
ple, direct, and attractive style, but he has also 
something to tell, and something well worth 
telling ; and it is doubtful if anyone else would 
have performed this task so well. It is claimed 
by some that his negro dialect is not always 
exactly correct ; but the negro dialect varies so 
constantly with slight changes of locality, that 
it is quite probable an exact reproduction of it 
as it was learned by Joe Maxwell around Hills- 
borough in northern Georgia would not seem 
exactly correct to the ear of one who had heard 
it in Mississippi or South Carolina, or even in 
Southern Georgia. 

However it may be about the dialect, it 
would be hard for anyone who knew the negro 
of that time even very imperfectly to believe 
that Mr. Harris does not faithfully portray the 
negro as he existed in the South at the time 
of the war. The old plantation negro and the 
old negro house-servant seem to live and talk 
again in his pages ; and very interesting and 
attractive people they are, full of quaint good 
sense, full of affection, of good humor, and of 
natural courtesy. Why has the negro of to-day 
so completely lost the best traits that marked 
his race at that time ? The good nature and 
humor are gone, and the courtesy is gone ; and 
what good qualities have taken their place? 
The negro has become a voter, and in the 
effort to seem the peer of the whites he has 
copied many of the worst defects of unculti- 
vated white men, and has at the same time lost 
some characteristics of his own which once 
made his race attractive and lovable. It is a 
period of transition : let us hope that as it 
took a hundred yeara to transform the African 
savage into the gentle and lovable negro known 
on many a plantation before the war, so an- 
other hundred years may develop the negro of 
to-day into something much better than now 

•On thi PuiirrATiON: A Story of a Georgia Boy^s Ad- 
ventures during the War. By Joel Chandler Harris, author 
of '* Uncle Remus." With Ulustrations. New York: D. Ap- 
pleton & Co. 

seems probable. It is sad that the overthrow 
of a great wrong like slavery must smite, for 
the time being, the victims as well as the op- 

" On the Plantation," unlike Mr. Harris's 
previous books, is evidently founded directly on 
the story and experiences of his own boyhood. 
Although the preface tries playfully to per- 
suade the reader that it would be a mistake to 
put any credence in the narrative as autobi- 
ographical, it is impossible not to believe that 
Joe Maxwell is really the young Joel Chandler 
Harris. All the incidents of the book have 
that genuine and pleasing realism about them 
that convinces the reader that they happened, 
and were not imagined. Harris must have 
been the little boy who lived in the little town 
of Hillsborough in the days just before the 
war, and the little boy who on Tuesdays, when 
the Milledgeville papers arrived, could always 
be found at that quaint post-office, ^^curled up 
in the comer of the old green sofa, reading 
the Recorder and the Federal Union.'' He 
was only twelve years old, but the boy, while 
full of spirit, was thoughtful, and evidently 
precocious ; and in those days, when the fate 
of the nation hung in the balance, everyone, 
young and old, was interested in political dis- 

" It so happened that those papers grew very inter- 
esting as days went by. The rumors of war had de- 
veloped into war itself. In the course of a few months 
two companies of volunteers had gone to Virginia from 
Hillsborough, and the little town seemed lonelier and 
more deserted than ever. Joe Maxwell noticed, as he 
sat in the post-ofiBce, that only a very few old men and 
ladies came after the letters and papers, and he missed 
a great many faces that used to smile at him as he sat 
reading, and some of them he never saw again. He 
noticed, too, that when there had been a battle or a 
skirmish the ladies and the young g^irls came to the 
post-office more frequently. When the news was very 
important, one of the best known citizens would mount 
a chair or a dry-goods box and read the telegrams aloud 
to the waiting and anxious group of people, and some- 
times the hands and the voice of the reader trembled.'' 

But the war was afar off, in Virginia and in 
Kentucky, and the healthy little boy of twelve 
went on making the best of everything and 
getting the healthy boy's usual amount of en- 
joyment out of his surroundings. The woods 
and fields were full of squirrels and rabbits, 
not to speak of the coons and foxes ; and an 
occasional run-away negro, and the deserters 
from the army who hung around in the woods 
trying to see and succor their famished and 
neglected families, lent mystery and romance 
to the boy's life. 

At about the beginning of the war, a Mr. 

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Turner started the publication of The Country- 
man^ a weekly paper " modeled after Mr. Ad- 
dison's little paper, The Spectator^ Mr. Gold- 
smith's little paper, The Bee^ and Mr. John- 
son's little paper, The Hambler.^^ Mr. Turner 
wanted a boy to learn the printing business 
and to help on the paper. Joe Maxwell ap- 
plied for the situation, gained it, and was in- 
stalled ^^ on the Plantation." It was a curious 
enterprise, the publication of this high-toned 
little newspaper, nine miles from a post-office, 
and devoted to the lofty discussion of politics 
and literature ; but it was a success, from the 
start, and ^^ at one time had a circulation of 
two diousand copies." The boy took kindly to 
his new home and his new business, and evi- 
dently found the life around him very enjoy- 

« Joe Maxwell made two discoveries that he consid- 
ered very important. One was that there was a big 
library of the best books at his command, and the other 
was that there was a pack of well-trained harriers on 
the plantation. He loved books and he loved dogs, and 
if he had been asked to choose between the library and 
the harriers he would have hesitated a long time. The 
books were more numerous — there were nearly two thou- 
sand of them, while there were only five harriers — but in 
a good many respects the dogs were the liveliest. Fortu- 
nately, Joe was not called on to make any choice. He 
had the dogs to himself in the late afternoon and the 
books at night, and he made the most of both. More 
than this, he had the benefit of the culture of the editor 
of The Countryman and of the worldly experience of 
Mr. Snelson, the printer." 

But we cannot follow the interesting story. 
Life was very active down on that remote 
plantation in the dark days of the war. The 
little paper was never neglected, but neither 
were the squirrels and the rabbits, nor the coons 
and the foxes. Joe and the dogs became fast 
friends, and found a wonderful amount of ex- 
ercise and adventure. The shadows of the war 
had little effect either on Joe or the dogs or the 
negroes. The last especially kept up their gai- 
ety and high spirits ; and there are many charm- 
ing glimpses of them and of the old patriarchal 
life of which they were so important a part. 
Here is a bit of talk between two old house 
negroes and the little children of Mr. Turner, 
in one of the cabins, the night before Christ- 
mas : 

«* ' Dey tells me,' said Aunt Crissy, in a subdued tone, 
•dat de cows know when Chris'mas come, an' many's 
de time 1 year my mammy say dat when twelve o'clock 
come on Chris'mas-eve night, de cows gits down on der 
knees in de lot an' stays dat-away some little time. £f 
anybody else had er tole me dat I'd a des hooted at 
am, but, mammy, she say she done seed um do it. I 
ain't never seed um do it myse'f, but mammy say she 
seed um.' 

" * I bin year talk er dat myse'f,' said Harbert, rev- 
erently, * an' dey tells me dat de cattle gits down an' 
prays bekase dat's de time when de Lord an' Saviour 
wuz bom'd.' 

"*Now, don't dat beat all!' exclaimed Aunt Crissy. 
* Ef de dumb creeturs kin say der pra'rs, I dunner what 
folks ought ter be doin'.' 

" * An' da'rs de chickens,' Harbert went on — * Look 
like dey know der's sump'n up. Dis ve'y night I year de 
roosters crowin' fo' sev'n o'clock. I year tell dat dey 
crows so soon in sign dat Peter made deniance im his 
Lord an' Marster.' 

" « I speck dats so,' said Aunt Crissy. 

« * Hit bleedze ter be so,' responded the old man with 
the emphasis that comes from conviction." 

Christmas morning — a great morning on 
the plantation — dawned bright and fine. 

<< Before sunrise the plantation was in a stir. The 
negroes, rigged out in their Sunday clothes, were laugh- 
ing, singing, wrestling and playing. . . . Big Sam 
was even fuller of laughter and good-humor than his 
comrades, and while the negroes were waiting, his eyes 
glistening and his white teeth shining, he struck up the 
melody of a plantation play-song. In a few minutes 
the dusky crowd had arranged itself in groups, each 
and all joining in the song. No musical director ever 
had a more melodious chorus than that which followed 
the leadership of Big Sam. It was not a trained cho- 
rus, to be sure, but the melody that it gave to the winds 
of the morning was freighted with a quality indescrib- 
ably touching and tender. 

** In the midst of the song Mr. Turner appeared on 
the back piazza, and instantly a shout went up : 

<<<Chris'mas gif, marster! Chris'masgif'!' and then, 
a moment later, there was a cry of <Chris'nias gif, 

" < Where is Harbert ? ' inquired Mr. Turner, waving 
his hand and smiling. 

"*Here me, marster!' exclaimed Harbert, coming 
forward from one of the groups. 

" * Why, you haven't been playing, have you ? ' 

" * I bin tryin' my han', suh, an' I monst'us glad you 
come out, kaze I ain't nimble like I useter wuz. Dey 
got me in de middle er dat ring dar, an' I couldn't git 
out nohow.' 

« < Here are the store-room keys. Go and open the 
door, and I will be there directly.' 

** It was a lively crowd that gathered around the wide 
door of the store-room. For each of the older ones 
there was a stiff dram apiece, and for all, both old and 
young, there was a present of some kind. ... In 
spite of the war, it was a happy time, and Joe Maxwell 
was as happy as any of the rest." 

But the bright days passed, as bright days 
will do, and the heavy and black shadows of 
the war began to spread over the region round 
about the plantation. The deserters were more 
numerous, their families were suffering greater 
and greater hardships, and the battle clouds 
were drawing closer and closer. Atlanta had 
fallen (not, as Mr. Harris says, " in July," but 
on the first of September), the mysterious ne- 
gro telegraph line was at work, and Harbert, 

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the old servant, told Joe that the Federal army 
would soon be marching through that region. 

" « Who told you ? ' asked Joe. 

" < De word done come,' replied Harbert. * Hit bleedze 
to be so, kase all de niggers done hear talk un it. We-all 
will wake up some er dese odd-come-shorts an' fin* de 
Yankees des a-swannin' all roun' here.' 

" * What are going to do ? ' Joe enquired, laughing. 

" * Oh, you kin laugh, Marse Joe, but deyer comin'. 
What I g^ine do ? Well, suh, I'm gwine ter g^t up 
an' look at nm, an' maybe tip my. hat at some er de 
big-bugs mungst um, an' den I'm gwine on 'bout my 
business. I dont speck deyer g^ine ter bodder folks 
what dont bodder dem, is dey ? ' " 

The brave little CoxintryTiixan somehow kept 
on, only to die soon after the close of the war. 
We do not learn that it was once suspended, 
but whether it had to condescend to be printed 
on wall-paper, as was the case with more am- 
bitious sheets, we are not told. A complete 
file of the quaint little paper — to which, by 
the way, Joe Maxwell sometimes contributed 
— would certainly be a curiosity now-a-days. 
It would be a voice from a state of society that 
has forever passed away. 

At the close of the book, those who marched 
with General Sherman through that devoted 
region have a chance to know how they looked 
to the small Confederate urchins who watched 
them pass. Joe had seated himself on a fence 
beside the road, and began to whittle on a 

" Before he knew it the troops were upon him. He 
kept his seat, and the Twentieth Army Corps, com- 
manded by General Slocum, passed in review before 
him. It was an imposing array as to numbers, but not 
as to appearance. For once and for all, so far as Joe 
was concerned, the glamour and romance of war were 
dispelled. The skies were heavy with clouds, and a 
fine irritating mist sifted down. The road was more 
than ankle-deep in mud, and even the fields were boggy. 
There was nothing gfiy about this vast procession, with 
its tramping soldiers, its clattering horsemen, and its 
lumbering wagons, except the temper of the men. They 
splashed through the mud, cracking their jokes and 
singing snatches of songs. 

** Joe Maxwell, sitting on the fence, was the subject 
of many a jest, as the good-humored men marched by. 
" « Hello, Johnny ? Where's your parasol ? ' 
<* < Jump down, Johnny, and let me kiss you good-by ! ' 
" * Johnny, if you are tired, get up behind and ride ! ' 
« < Run and get your trunk, Johnny, and get aboard f ' 
« * He's a bushwhacker, boys. If he bats his eyes, 
I'm a-goin' to dodge.' 

" * Where's the rest of your regiment, Johnny ? ' 
** < If there was another one of 'em a-settin' on the 
fence, on t' other side, I'd say we was surrounded.' 

<* These and hundreds of other comments, exclama- 
tions, and questions, Joe was made the target of; and 
if he stood the fire of them with unusual calmness, it 
was because this huge panorama seemed to him to be 
the outcome of some wild dream. That the Federal 

army should be plunging through that peaceful regfion, 
after aU he had seen in the newspapers about Confed- 
erate victories, seemed to him to be an impossibility. 
The voices of the men, and their laughter, sounded 
vague and insubstantial. It was surely a dream that 
had stripped war of its glittering trappings and its fly- 
ing banners. It was surely the distortion of a dream 
that tacked onto this procession of armed men droves 
of cows, horses, and mules, and wagon-loads of bat- 
teaux ! " 

What a commentary on the " pride, pomp, 
and circumstance of glorious war " I Mud- 
stained and soiled, through rain and mist, some- 
times hatless, sometimes shoeless, but seeing 
through the rain and mist the nearing end of 
that great wrong that had kept tliem so long 
from home and friends, the victorious veteraus 
strode by, and it is no wonder the little Con- 
federate boy who had been nurtured on the 
editorials of the plantation Countryman was 
blind to the sense of duty, the willing self-sac- 
rifice, the tireless toiling in a sacred cause, that 
rendered this weather-stained host " all glori- 
ous within," and gave them, dilapidated as they 
were, a noble and a martial bearing never more 
justly won. They could afford to be muddy 
and weather-stained, and to abandon themselves 
to the hilarious enjoyment of their rough jokes 
and songs. They had saved their country, and 
with it the old plantation and the little boy who 
sat upon the fence. 

The army of General Sherman was the har- 
binger of a new order of things. It was the 
rough final blow that laid low the giant re- 
bellion and finally brought peace and ^^the 
lifting up of a section from ruin and poverty 
to prosperity ; the molding of the beauty, the 
courage, the ener^, and the strength of the 
old civilization into the new, the gradual up- 
lifting of a lowly race. ... A larger world 
beckoned to Joe MaxweU, and he went out 
into it ; . . . but the old plantation days still 
live in his dreams." 

It is a pity that in this day of many books 
there is so little room for such a fresh and genu- 
ine one as this. Such books are covered up and 
lost sight of under scores of new publications 
that never ought to have been issued. In the 
multitude, little discrimination is observed. Al- 
most all are praised moderately; few strongly; 
and still fewer are condemned. Readers are be- 
wildered, and spend their time over absolutely 
worthless books, while " books that are books," 
like this, are lost sight of and neglected. Oh, 
for a higher standard among publishers, read- 
ers, and reviewers I A hundred volumes of 
to-day might well fail and disappear, to make 
room for one fresh, wholesome, genuine book 

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like ^^ On the Plantation " ; full as it is of the 
odors of the woods and fields, full of kindly 
and picturesque sketches of simple and un- 
conventional people, both white and black, 
full of truth and nature, but with no over- 
strained and degrading realism, no sensational 
working up of effects. It is a pleasure to read 
the book, and a greater pleasure to accord it 
this honest meed of praise. 


Greek Papyri ix Egyptian Tombs.* 

The finding of written documents in the fab- 
ric of Egyptian mummy cases, by W. Flinders 
Petrie, in 1889, attracted the attention of all 
interested in the land of the Nile. These dis- 
coveries, remarkable in many ways, have been 
explained and elaborated by Professor Ma- 
haffy> in a work of absorbing interest not only 
to Egyptologists, but to classical scholars, and 
to students of history, jurisprudence, and pa- 
laeography as well. While Mr. Petrie was ex- 
ploring the necropolis of Tell Gurob, on the 
shores of the vanished Lake Moeris, he noticed 
that some of the mummy cases were made of 
layers of papyri glued together and painted. 
In these he detected traces of writing, and 
straightway set about the almost hopeless task 
of separating and cleaning the various frag- 
ments. The ink in many places was entirely 
effaced by the glue or the lime used to form a 
surface for coloring. But through good for- 
tune and great care, he rescued a large num- 
ber of more or less legible lines, and brought 
them to England. Here they were committed 
to the very competent hands of A. H. Sayce 
and J. P. Mahaffy, who sorted, arranged, and 
began to decipher them. Soon it became ap- 
parent that the mutilated pieces from which 
later generations had made a kind of papier 
mache for burial purposes, were portions of 
the valued and official papers of their prede- 
cessors who lived in the third century before 

There is hardly anything in literary annals 
mor^ delightful than the account of the days 
spent at Oxford in the Long Vacation of 1890, 
by the two scholars, in poring over these most 
strangely revealed records of the past. Gradu- 
ally there emerged the remains of a very care- 

*Thb Fldtdbbs-Pbtbie Papybi. With TranscriptioiiB, 
CommentariM, and Index. By the Rey. John P. Mahaffy, 
D.D., LL.D. Autotypes I. to XXX. C'Cmmingrham Me- 
' Xo. Vni.) DabUn : Royal Irish Academy. 

fuUy and beautifully written roll containing 
the Phcedo of Plato, in an earlier text than 
any heretofore known, and probably represent- 
ing its condition before it was edited by the 
critics of Alexandria. Then there came to 
light portions of three pages of the last act of 
Euripides' celebrated play of Antiope^ which 
we have only in an imperfect condition, going 
far to complete it. Next appeared a few short 
pieces of poetry, seeming to be elegant extracts 
for the use of schools, some fragments of the 
Hiad containing several terminations and be- 
gfinnings of lines not to be found in any known 
manuscript of Homer, but identified in part 
with a passage in the Eleventh Book ; scraps 
from other classic authors, a quotation from a 
lost play, and a page from a discourse on Good 
Fellowship, all writ in the purest Greek. 

One small fragment has a curious interest 
and importance. It is from the work of Alki- 
damas, the contemporary and rival of Isocra- 
tes, entitled the Mouseion^ the original tract 
which supplied part of the material for the ex- 
tant " Contest of Homer and Hesiod." The 
book known by this name was produced by 
some Hellenistic sophist not earlier than the 
second century A.D., since it cites an opinion 
of the Emperor Hadrian. Twenty years ago 
a German scholar, F. Nietzche, made a critical 
examination of it and the legend it is based 
upon, and, from a few stray hints in the only 
known authorities, came to the conclusion that 
the story of the Contest was old and widely 
spread long before Hadrian's day, that our 
present account of it was put together by its 
author from ancient materials of which the 
main source was the Mouseion of Alkidamas, 
from whom the contest of the two great poets 
received its earliest literary form, and that cer- 
tain lines were literally transcribed from the 
original work, and were not the invention of 
a later day as some claimed. The text here 
recovered brilliantly confirms the judgment of 
this acute critic. It shows that the Contest 
was not an invention of Hadrian's age, but ex- 
isted in much the same form four hundred 
years earlier, that it then probably had g^eat 
popularity, and that the reading which Nietzche 
defends was the reading in the third cen- 
tury B.C., and therefore almost certainly the 
genuine text. It rarely happens to a scholar 
in this field to receive such unexpected proof 
of the correctness of a theory, and to have it 
proved to be based upon such profound learn- 
ing and sagacity. 

Together with these classical treasures were 

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many legal or official documents, bearing dates 
which were a great surprise to their investiga- 
tors. Up to this time no Greek papyri had 
been discovered in Egypt of a period before the 
Christian era. But here was a long series of 
official copies of wills, labor accounts, records 
of judgments and other papers in the Grecian 
language, unmistakably dated in the reigns of 
the second and third Ptolemies, or from 280 
to 220 B.C. There were also portions of pri- 
vate letters, some in clear and beautiful hand- 
writing, begging petitions, acknowledgments 
of money received, and reports of work done, 
all of about the same period, imbedded in these 
cases. The private letters were usually written 
on long narrow strips of papyrus which have 
been torn in two by the coffin makers, and so 
mutilated that it is difficult to decipher their 
meaning. The writing was, however, peculi- 
arly large and fine, by way of showing respect, 
or as evidence of politeness, as Professor Ma- 
haffy suj^poses. He instances the words of St. 
Paul : " See with what large letters I have 
written you in mine own hand." One epistle 
from a steward to his employer, Sosiphanes, is 
complete except the writer's name. It opens 
with a greeting and much thanks to the Gods 
that his master is well, and informs him that 
the whole vineyard has been planted and the 
climbing vines attended to, that the olive yard 
has yielded six measures, and that they are 
making conduits and watering ; which shows 
that vines and olive trees were then cultivated 
in the district of the Fayoum. 

Only such a scholar as Mahaffy could have 
reconstructed from these fragmentary materi- 
als, and the stores of his own learning, the his- 
tory of the Grecian colony in Egypt to which 
these resurrected manuscripts belonged. But 
he has made it as vivid as though the men 
who read and enjoyed these classic works, who 
executed these wills and contracts and wrote 
these letters, were living in our midst to-day. 
We see the Greek soldiers of Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus, who paraded the streets of Alexandria 
at his coronation, dismissed with handsome 
gifts, and settled as landed proprietors on the 
fertile slopes around Lake Moeris. So minute 
are the descriptions of them in some of these 
papers that we know from whence they came, 
whether Thrace, Arcadia, or Argos ; their age 
and height, their features, the color of their 
hair, and whether it was straight or curly, 
their battle scars, usually about the head, and 
the names of the old regiments in which they 
had served, whether the cavalry or the heavy- 

armed infantry. We see them engaged in the 
culture of the vine and the olive, transacting 
business, and introducing Grecian customs, 
formif, and literature. We read the evidences 
of similar settlements of Grecian veterans in 
this part of the Fayoum under later kings, and 
the indications that when called to foreign 
wars under the military tenure by which they 
held the soil, a native insurrection broke out 
at home. And they doubtless returned to find 
themselves dispossessed, and unable to recon- 
quer their lands ; and so their precious things 
were despised by those of another race, and 
their books and letters and documents were 
discarded, and the fragments put to the cu- 
rious use which has preserved them to our 

The subject proper is enriched by the learned 
author of this Memoir with most interesting 
disquisitions upon papyri in general, the de- 
motic writing, the bibliography of Ptolemaic 
Greek documents, the history of the times of 
the first two Ptolemies, the texts of the Petrie 
Papyri, and the palseographical results of their 
decipherment, each most worthy to be the theme 
of a separate and special article. There is 
space only to indicate some of the principal 
conclusions which Professor Mahaffy derives 
from the marvellous discovery of the Flinders 
Petrie Papyri. He finds these to be the recov- 
ery of by far the oldest specimens of any clas- 
sical text the modern world has yet seen, and 
of the best of all the classical manuscripts 
found in Egypt ; ample materials for new stud- 
ies of the times of the Ptolemies and for a his- 
tory of them such as has not yet been written ; 
the reconsideration of the hitherto accepted 
theory of jurists as to the development of the 
right of bequest ; and much new light upon 
the rapidly expanding science of Greek palae- 
ography. He tells us, as he well may, that this 
Memoir contains materials enough to satisfy 
the most exacting lover of antiquarian novel- 
ties. But it is the privilege of the lover of an- 
tiquarian novelties of Egypt never to be satis- 
fied, for each year reveals some new wonder of 
this kind ; and hence, as Professor Mahaffy 
says, that he has still in hand a store of uu- 
separated fragments sent him by Mr. Petrie 
from this same wonderful source, which he is 
now endeavoring daily to explicate and to read, 
we may confidently hope to be ere long de- 
lighted with the revelation of still other treas- 
ures from among these papyri, so marvellously 
preserved and brought to light. 

Edward G. Mason. 

Digitized by 





Recent Books of Poetry.* 

" If nature loyes thee, so doth conquering time ; 
The lyre that sixty years ag:o was Strang: 
To beauty, when thy song of mom was sung, 

Hme touched with thee till beauty grew sublime. 

The voice which ravished, in that morning rhyme. 
Ears of a day now dead and lit its tongue. 
Grown now to godlike — neither old nor young — 

Rings through the world in an immortal prime." 

"The voice grown now to godlike." In this 
happy phrase Mr. Theodore Watts describes the 
impression made npon all ears fit to hear by the 
work of Lord Tennyson's latest years. There is in- 
deed something divinely spiritual, something beyond 
the ken of mere earthly soul-vision, in such poems 
as " Locksley Hall Sixty Years After," « Demeter," 
"Teiresias," and "Crossing the Bar." And, al- 
though the dramatic form does not permit this 
quality so distinctly to appear, it is not wanting in 
either " Becket " or " The Foresters." Mr. Ruskin 
says, in words that appeal to our deepest race-con- 
sciousness, that " we are rich in an inheritance of 
honor, bequeathed to us through a thousand years 
of noble lustory, which it should be our daily thirst 

* Ths Forbstebs : Robin Hood and Maid Marian. By Al- 
fred. Lord Tennyson. New York : Macmillan & Co. 

FoEics BY THB Way. Written by William Morris. Boa- 
ton: Roberts BroUiers. 

Mabah. By Owen Meredith. New York: Longmans, 
Green, & Co. 

POBMS. By William Watson. New York: Maomillan <& Co. 

PoTiPHAB^s WiFB, and Other Poems. By Sir Edwin Ar- 
nold. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

OsTB IN THB iNFDnTE. By Gborge Francis Savage-Arm- 
stronsr, M.A., D. Lit. New York : Longmans, Green, & Co. 

Lybics of THB Hudson. By Horatio Nelson Powers. Bos- 
ton : D. Lothrop Co. 

The Dbad Nymph, and Other Poems. By Charles Henry 
Liiders. New York : Charles Soribner's Sons. 

In THB City by thb Lakb. By Blanche Fearing. Chi- 
cago: Seaile & Gorton. 

Lybics. By Cora Fabbri. New York : Harper & Brothers. 

PoBMS. By Maurice Thompson. Boston : Houghton, Mif- 
flin A Co. 

Flasks and Flagons, Pastels and Profiles, Vistas and 
Landao^MS. By Francis S. Saltns. Buffalo : Charles Wells 

JObbams afteb Sunsbt. Poems by Francis S. Saltns. Buf- 
falo: Charles Wells Moulton. 

Selected Poems by Walt Whitman. Edited by Ai^ 
thur Stedman. New York : C. L. Webster & Co. 

Selected Poems of Robebt Bubns. With an Introduc- 
tion by Andrew Lang. New York: Imported by Charles 
Seribner's Sons. 

Political Vebse. Edited by George Saintsbury. New 
York : Macmillan <& Co. 

Tributes to Shakespeabe. Collected and Arranged by 
Maxy R. Silsby. New York : Harper A Brothers. 

The Litebaby Remains of Chablbb Stuabt Calyebly. 
With a Memoir by Sir Walter J. SendaU, K.C.M.G. New 
York : Macmillan & Co. 

Theocritus Translated into English Verse. By C. S. 
CalTeriy. New York : Macmillan & Co. 

The Hell of Dante Aliohieri. Edited, with Transla- 
tion and Notes, by Arthur John Butler. New York : Mac- 

The Divine Combdy of Dante Alighieri. Translated 
by Charles Eliot Norton. Vol. H., Purgatory. Boston: Hough- 
ton, MifBin A Co. 

to increase with splendid avarice, so that English- 
men, if it be a sin to covet honor, should be the 
most offending souls alive." It will ever be to us 
a cause for peculiar gratitude toward the great 
modern poet of our race, that, like Shakespeare, his 
genius should have been in large measure conse- 
crated to the task of deepening the emotion associ- 
ated with the more significant epochs of our ^'thou- 
sand years of noble history." In " The Foresters," 
even the familiar story of Robin Hood is given a 
new significance, deeper than usually attaches to it, 
for it is made to foreshadow the new day of free- 
dom whose dawn was at Runnymede. 

** I think they will he mightier than the King '' 
is the pregnant verse in which Robin Hood prophe- 
sies the outcome of the growing strength of the 
barons. As for the purely poetic charm of the work, 
nothing, perhaps, may be more fitly said than that 
it makes the forest glades of Sherwood as enchanted 
a spot as those of Arden were made by Shakespeare. 
We must find place at least for one lyric : 
** To sleep! to sleep! the long bright day is done, 

And darkness rises from the fallen sun. 

To sleep ! to sleep ! 

WhateW thy joys, they yanish with the day ; 

Whate'er thy griefs, in sleep ihey fade away. 

To sleep ! to sleep ! 

Sleep, mournful heart, and let the past be past ! 

Sleep, happy soul ! all life will sleep at last. 

To sleep! to sleep!'' 

Aside from the songs, " The Foresters " does not 
readily lend itself to quotation. Its beauty is not 
found in patches, but rather in its unity of emo- 
tional appeal and its sustained purity of style. 

Mr. Morris's "Poems by the Way" include songs 
and ballads (some of the latter translations from 
the wealth of Danish literature), and a few lyrics 
of socialism, or, rather, paeans in its praise and 
prophecies of its triumph. The poems are charac- 
terized by that simplicity of diction at which Mr. 
Morris has always aimed, and with peculiar success 
in recent years, and by that affectation of Teutonic 
archaism which almost ceases to be felt as affectation 
because of the g^reat nobility and purity of the style. 
Mr. Morris has lived so long among the sagas that 
he has become a real sagaman himself, and a more 
primitive form of speech than ours has become 
habitual with him. In the poem' of "The Three 
Seekers," for example, there are 783 words alto- 
gether, and of these only seventy-three, including 
compounds, are of more than one syllable. Beyond 
threoHsyllabled words the vocabulary of the poem 
does not go, and to count a meagre dozen of these 
we have to include such forms as " summer-tide," 
"overlong," and "anything." The proportion of 
long words is hardly greater in the beautiful poem 
of " Iceland First Seen," opening as follows : 
^* Lo from our loitering ship 

a new land at last to be seen ; 

Toothed rocks down the side of the firth 

on the east guard a weary wide lea. 

And black slope the hillsides above, 

striped adown with their desolate green : 

And a peak rises up on the west 

from the meeting of cloud and of sea. 

Digitized by 





Fomsquare from base unto point 

like the building of Gods that have been, 

The last of that waste of the mountains, 

all oloud-wreathed and snow-flecked and gray. 

And bright with the dawn that began 

jnst now at the ending of day. 

** Ah I what oame we forth for to see 
that our hearts are so hot with desire ? 
Ib it enough for our rest, 
the sight of this desolate strand. 
And the mountain-waste voiceless as death 
but for winds that may sleep not nor tire ? 
Why do we long to wend forth 
through the length and the breadth of a land, 
Dreadful with grinding of ice, 
and record of scarce hidden fire. 
But that there mid the grey grassy dales 
sore scarred by the ruining streams 
Lives the tale of the Northland of old 
and the undying glory of dreams? " 

This is English reduced to its lowest terms, yet who 
will venture to say that it has lost anything of its 
dignity or force? 

The posthumous volume of her hushand's poems 
just given to the public by Lady Lytton is not with- 
out interest, although it adds but a slight increment 
to the author's reputation. Its prevailing note is 
that of pessimism, as the title " Marah " indicates, 
but the pessimism is not of the robust objective 
sort that we find in Omar Ehayy^m and Schopen- 
hauer, or even in Leopardi ; it does not embrace 
the world of humanity in its g^rasp ; it is the pes- 
simism of mood, not of temper. Like most of Owen 
Meredith's later work, this deals too largely in ab- 
stractions to make a strong appeal to the poetic 
sense. But it has, at its best, compactness of thought, 
and its thought is carefully and logically worked 
out. The poems are all short, and are arranged in 
a sort of sequence, something as the sonnets in Ros- 
setti's << House of Life " are arranged. Their gen- 
eral theme is the bitterness of disappointed love. 
'< Antagonisms,*' which we quote, is at once a good 
and a lypical example : 

'* Ah, who can reconcile the Brain and Heart ? 

Reason and Passion ? Thought and Sentiment ? 
Genius and Woman ? Far they tend apart, 
And only meet in terrible dissent. 

" Genius, sufficing to itself, abounds 
Li its own being. Love can but fulfil 
Its being in another. Woman founds 
Her power upon the ruins of Man's will. 

** The love she gives him costs a kingdom's price, 
Tho' freely given the gift. It takes away 
His grandeur from him. And that sacrifice 
She neither understands, nor can repay." 

This is obviously the language of philosophy rather 
than of poetry, but as such it has form and force. 

Only a series of excerpts more extensive than 
our limits permit would do adequate justice to the 
"Poems" of Mr. William Watson. There is an 
ode to " Autumn " with such lines as these : 

"Stilled is the virgin rapture that was June, 
And cold is August's panting heart of fire ; 
And in the storm-dismantled forest-choir 
For thine own elegy the winds attune 
Their wild and wizard lyre." 

Then we come upon a tribute to the memory of 
Matthew Arnold, couched in such tenns as the fol- 
lowing : 

" But he preseihred from chance control 
The fortress of his 'stablisht soul ; 
In all things sought to see the whole ; 

Brooked no disguise ; 
And set his heart upon the goal, 
Not on the prize. 

Then there are finely-chiselled epigrams like this on 
" Shelley and Harriet Westbrook," which certainly 
will find no one cruel enough to describe it as 
*< chatter about Harriet ": 

" A star look'd down from heaven and loved a flower 
Grown in earth's garden — loved it for an hour ; 

** Let eyes that trace his orbit in the spheres 
Refuse not, to a ruined rosebud, tears." 

Last of all, there is the noble poem entitled "Words- 
worth's Grave," almost worthy to stand beside 
Matthew Arnold's " Thyrsis," a poem whose half 
hundred stanzas are all as beautiful as these open- 
ing ones : 

" The old, rude church, with bare, bald tower, is here; 
Beneath its shadow high-born Rotha flows ; 
Rotha, remembering well who slumbers near, 
And with cool murmur lulling his repose. 

** Rotha, remembering well who slumbers near. 

His hills, his lakes, his streams are with him yet. 
Surely the heart that read her own heart clear 
Nature forgets not soon ; 'tis we forget. 

** We that with vagrant soul his fixity 

Have slighted ; faithless, done his deep faith wrong ; 
Left him for poorer loves, and bowed the knee 
Tfi misbegotten strange new gods of song. 

**' Tet, led by hollow ghost or beckoning elf 

Far from her homestead to the desert brown. 
The vagrant soul returning to herself. 
Wearily wise, must needs to him return." 

The verses of Sir Edwin Arnold excite various 
kinds of interest, but among them the poetic inter- 
est is hardly included. They open to us new vistas 
of thought ; they give us glimpses of alien modes 
of feeling, but they do not stir us deeply. In the 
collection just published, we have three groups of 
pieces, Egyptian, Japanese, and miscellaneous. The 
selection of " Potiphar's Wife " for the subject of a 
serious poem was hardly a happy one. It is a sub- 
ject that literature has never been willing to take 
seriously, and all its literary associations are against 
such treatment. In this volume, as elsewhere, the 
author is at his best when inspired by the wisdom 
of India. For once, when he translates from the 
" Dhammapada," he forgets conceits and strikes a 
vein of genuine poetry. 

<< One in the Infinite " is a volume of over four 
hundred pages, and we learn from it that Mr. 
George Francis Savage-Armstrong, the author, has 
published eight other volumes of verse approaching 
it in size. This is certainly a prodigious output, 
when we consider that it represents work of a con- 
siderable degree of excellence ; verse carefully 
thought out and generally correct in form. The 
volume before us is a sort of spiritual Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress embodied in some two hundred short poems 

Digitized by 





intensely sabjective in utterance. It gives expres- 
sion to the varying moods of a soul cast adrift from 
the moorings of faith, its tempest-buffeted course, 
and the peace of. the final haven with its broader 
outlook and serener sky. Many a reader of this 
modem age wiU find in the book a faithful tran- 
script of what his own soul has experienced, and 
accord it a warmer welcome than it merits on tech- 
nical g^unds alone. Yet it is not without distinct- 
ive excellence of form, as it runs the gamut of 
doubt and despair, of new-dawning hope and ulti- 
mate peace. Its exultant closing chord may be 
taken as an illustration : 

** O, with what light this fragile mind may steer 

Throngh the thick mists its dim and devious way, 
I, having walked with Night and dwelt with Fear, 

One Tmth have found, one steadfast Voice obey. 
I, wafted through the immeasurable Deep, 

Know not to what far Qood my life is borne ; 
Tei, whether on my way I wake or sleep, 

I wander not amid the vast forlorn ; 
He guides whose storms, that o'er the midnight sweep, 

Melt in the scarlet radiances of mom." 

This stanza may be taken as offering an epitome 
of both the faults and the merits of Mr. Savage- 
Armstrong's work. We should hardly say that the 
latter are outweighed by the former. 

^'Lyrics of the Hudson" is the title of a posthum- 
ous volume by Dr. H. N. Powers, edited, with a 
memorial introduction, by Mr. Oscar Fay Adams. 
It was never the author's aim to scale the higher 
peaks of Parnassus; he was contented with the 
conquest of its gentler ascents, but his outiook, the 
conquest once made, was free and fair. In this 
volume, as in the two others that bear his name, 
he muses in tranquil contentment upon nature and 
human life. His religious reflections have no bur- 
den of theological dross; they speak from the 
heart to the heart Nothing could well be more 
perfect, in their simple way, than <* Behind the 
Veil" and "A Rural Church." We take these 
stanzas from the latter, a poem fairly to be matched 
with Bryant*8 best work : 

^* Near by are sumptuous hills, and lordly trees 

Their summits crown and fringe the pools below, 
Where, under their majestic canopies. 
Daisies and golden-hearted lilies blow. 

*' It is the Sabbath, and the summer mom 

Is sweet with flowers, and birds, and new-mown hay,— 
As if a spirit breathed, and life new bom 
Blo ss omed in all that glorifies the day. 

*^ Within, the church is redolent with blooms 

Fresh from the fields whose orisons they bear : 
God^s peace is on them, and their smile relumes 
The hopes of hearts aweary with their care.** 

Such verses bring a benediction with them, as Mr. 
Adams suggests. And we can easily understand 
how, as he further says, *< to have known the writer 
in his bodily presence is to have felt that same 
benediction strike deep down among all the fibres 
of one's mortal being." 

The final summons came t6 Dr. Powers in the 
years of his ripeness ; to Charles Henry Lttders it 
came in the years of promise but partly fulfilled. 

The volume in which his scattered poems have 
been coUected, and for which Mr. Frank Dempster 
Sherman stands sponsor, exhibits unusual qualities 
of finish, grace, and strength. Imagination, too, is 
not wanting, as may be shown by the little poem 
called ^< Star-Dust," which must be our sole selec- 
tion from the volume's various wealth. 

** Innumerable ages since,— before 
The Sun's gold paled to silver on the moon, 
Or earth ran round to take on both their hues, — 
A monstrous bubble, out of Chaos blown. 
Swelled through the dusk, grew luminous, and lit 
AH space an instant ; then, with ringing shock. 
Burst, — and from out the jewelled mist there swung 
Millions of stars to glow forevermore ! " 

<< In the City by the Lake," Miss Fearing's sec- 
ond volume of poems, consists of two long narra- 
tives in blank verse. Their scene is laid in Chi- 
cago, their incidents are mostly commonplace, and 
their burden is tragic. They embody a passionate 
revolt against the conventionalities of a complex 
civilization and the industrial conditions of modern 
life, and a socialism of the nobler sort is their sug- 
gested remedy. It was evident to readers of Miss 
Fearing's remarkable first volume that her strength 
was in rhymed and lyric measures rather than in 
blank verse, and the verse of these new poems ex- 
hibits little or no advance. Perhaps this is mainly 
due to the fact that its flight is impeded by the 
hopelessly prosaic character of the majority of 
the incidents described. The author has commit- 
ted herself to a realism that makes poetry well 
nigh impossible. If a poet will sing about such 
things, for example, as a young married couple set- 
ting up their manage, nothing better than the fol- 
lowing is likely to result, whatever be the talent of 
the writer : 

"So Edith Earle and Walter Qrey were wed. 
And made their nest up in a pleasant flat, 
Upon a quiet street, and merrily chirruped 
And sang like birds about its furnishing." 

When Miss Fearing deals with the real subject- 
matter of poetry, the product is of a very different 
sort, as we may see from this, which is but one of a 
hundred equally fine passages : 

**' I could hear 
The timid pulses in the veins of flowers, 
The dased stars tripping on the robes of dawn, 
The soft wing-music of the passing hours. 
Strange melody from spheres beyond our own. 
The low-toned planets, and the flute-like wail 
Of patient suns that feed their worlds with light 
Through linked forevers. I could see the eve 
Distilling its bright dews far up in heaven. 
I saw the sun and ocean making clouds, 
The opening of new buds, the birth of worlds ; 
And yet, through all my journey's weary length, 
The glory of her smile was everywhere. 
Clothing the whole world with an aureole. 
The music of her voice was everywhere. 
Girdling the world with melody." 

It is impossible not to be impressed by the sincerity 
of all of Miss Fearing's work, and by the beauty 
and power of considerable portions of it. 

The " Lyrics " of Miss Fabbri make it evident 
that the premature death of the writer was a real 

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loss to poetry. Imperfect as is their workmanship 
in many instances, there is enough of g^od work 
with the true singing quality tq make it clear that 
the writer would have gone far, as the French say, 
had she Hved. Take, for example, this triolet : 
'* The Bweet bine iris stars the stream. 
And g:reen woods are aliye with song. 
The wild pink-petaled roses dream, 
The sweet bine iris stars the stieam, 
And two gold-throated linnets seem 

To sing their hearts out all day long. 
The sweet bine iris stars the stream, 
And green woods are alive with song. 

It is a trifle, indeed, hut many of Shelley's lyrics 
are no more, and it is absolutely perfect in its way. 
Here is another example of the exquisite work of 
which the writer was capable : 

*^ God spoke to her, and so she fell asleep. 
I laid a white fair lily on her heart, ' 
And when I saw her face I oould not weep. 

^^ It had the peace Death only understands ; 

And when I knew she would not wake on earth 
I laid my heart between her folded hands. 

** God vpokA to her so softly, saying: * Rest* 
■ And when she wakes in heaTen, she will find 
My lily anA my heart upon her breast.*' 

Like. most young writers, Miss Fabbri could not es- 
cape at times from merely echoing the form and 
passion of other poets. The following stanzas from 
" Memoria in Eterna " will illustrate this : 

** Heart, do you remember 

How dose the yiolets grew ? 
How drooping willows touched us 

And gold sun-swords pierced through ? 
I talked, as men do ever, 
Of loves that falter never. 
Of lives no hand can. sever. 

Of hearts forever true. 

** I talked, as men do ever, 

Of all that was to be. 
Qod filled my folded flowers 

With thorns I could not see. 
Dear as a cherished token. 
Fleet as a love-word spoken, 
My dreams lie shattered, broken, 

In death's eternal sea.'' 

These lines are so beautiful that we need not be 
greatly concerned at the fact that Mr. Swinburne's 
'< The Garden of Proserpine " alone made them 
possible. It is at least equally certain that Mr. 
Swinburne's poem could not have been written ex- 
cept by a reader of Miss Rossetti's '< Dream Land," 
and perhaps even that poem had itself some un- 
traced antecedent. The deeper one goes into the 
study of origins, the more perplexing it becomes. 

Mr. Maurice Thompson, in one of his recently 
published " Poems," observes : 
' I mark, 

Since Shelley died, thy wings have somewhat failed." 

The observation would probably have occurred to 
the reader in any case, for the poem is an ode ^' To 
an English Skylark," and the wing-failure is very 
obvious. The chaotic metrical form of this poem 
and many of its fellows makes it impossible to take 

them very seriously. Mr. Thompson sings of many 
other birds besides skylarks — of nightingales, for 
example — but *' the clarion " of Shelley and Keats 
most certainly <*is whist" in his numbers, to use 
his own enigmatical phrase. As he elsewhere re- 
marks, the beauty of such things 

*' inexpressible is 
Except by some song-wrought antholsrsis '' 

of a sort that he seems unable to effect Of the 
oriole — " Spring's favorite lampadephore," he says, 
rather obscurely, — 

** A hot flambeau on either wing 
Rimples as you pass me by ; 
'Tis seeing flame to hear you sing, 
'Tie hearing song to see yon fly," 

which, although it may be rhyme, is certainly not 
reason. But Mr. Thompson sometimes casts aside 
eccentricity, and pens a pretty poem, such as " At- 
alanta ": 

** When Spring grows old, and sleepy winds 
Set from the south with odors sweet, 
I see my love in green cool groves. 
Speed down dusk aisles on shining feet. 

^* She throws a kiss and bids me run. 
In whispers sweet as roses' breath ; 
I know I cannot win the race. 
And at the end I know is death. 

" But joyfully I bare my limbs. 

Anoint me with the tropic breeze, 
And feel tbrough every sinew thrill 
The vigor of Hippomenes. 

** O race of love ! we all have run 

Thy happy course through groves of spring. 
And cared not, when at last we lost. 
For life or death, or anything ! " 

We have heretofore noticed the work of Mr. 
F. S. Saltus, who died recently at a very early age, 
and whose poems are now in process of publication. 
Two volumes have recently appeared in addition to 
the two that we have already reviewed, and one of 
them contains the statement that over five thousand 
pieces are included in the literary remains of this 
precocious and industrious versifier. Little or none 
of the work thus far published has any sort of fin- 
ish, and no evidence is afforded of its author's pos- 
session of a true poetic gift. Facility seems to have 
been fatal to whatever talent may have lurked in 
embryo within his consciousness. The suggestion 
that he was a second Baudelaire, charitably made by 
the friend to whom one of the volumes is dedicated, 
is particularly amusing. He undoubtedly imitates 
Baudelaire in the baser moods of the French poet's 
genius, but he only produces the impression of a 
writer bent upon showing how very naughty he can 
be. The last volume that we reviewed was wholly 
given over to this sort of thing ; in those now before 
us it only appears intermittently. *' Dreams after 
Sunset " includes about a hundred and twenty-five 
miscellaneous pieces, many of them personal. ^^Flasks 
and Flagons " is a collection of sonnets devoted to 
the praise of alcohol in its various disguises. Nearly 
everything that a man can drink, from absinthe to 
beer, receives its special tribute of song. Coupled 

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with this series of sonnets is another series, called 
<< Pastels and Profiles," and addressed to historical 
characters from Caligula to Frederick the Great. 
This volume also includes a number of ^< poems of 
places," under the general title, *' Vistas and Land- 

Mr. Whitman, not long before his death, yielded 
to the urgent solicitation of friends that a selection 
of his poems might be published. Mr. Arthur Sted- 
man undertook the work, and the result is a small 
volume of " Selected Poems " in whose preparation 
much skill and taste have been evinced. One of 
the reasons why the American public has been slow 
to recognize the genius of the great man so recently 
taken from our midst is doubtless to be found in 
his own insistence upon being either accepted or re- 
jected as a whole. The English public received bet- 
ter treatment, for Mr. W. M. Rossetti's selection ap- 
peared in 1867, and to that selection was doubtless 
due the very general recognition of Mr. Whitman's 
powers by the English critics and readers. It is 
rather humiliating to be taught by another country 
— even by our own motheiH»)untry — to appreciate 
the work of one of our own poets, but precisely that 
has heen our experience in this case. Our general 
public has not yet learned the lesson, and Mr. Sted- 
man's volume will prove very helpful in its inculca- 
tion. After all, it is only in some sort of selection 
that it is possible for Whitman to live, but it is 
safe to predict that, in some such form as the pres- 
ent, his work will live as long as anything hitherto 
produced in our literature. The essentials of poetry 
exist in his work, and are sure of their impression 
if they have a chance to make it, but they are so 
nearly swamped by cacophonous catalogues and a 
vague and vaporous philosophy that the search for 
them is really too discouraging for the average 
reader, who ought very heartily to thank Mr. Sted- 
man for saving him the trouble. 

Probably no other man living, on the whole, was 
better fitted than Mr. Lang to edit a selection from 
the poems of Robert Bums, and the volume which he 
has prepared for the "Parchment Library" is nearly 
perfect, both as an example of editorial work and 
of book-making. Mr. Lang is at once enough of a 
Scotchman to fully appreciate the singular beauty 
and the verbal felicities of his great fellow-country- 
man's work, and enough of a literary cosmopolitan 
to preserve a due sense of proportion in his esti- 
mate. The Scotsman pure and simple is too 
^ touchy " upon the subject of Burns to be a fair 
judge, and the Englishman — even if, like Mr. Mat- 
thew Arnold, he have the truest of poetical insight 
and the best will in the world — is still shut off 
from that intimate sympathy which is essential to 
snch a task. The fact is that too many Scotsmen 
praise without knowledge, and that, as the present 
editor remarks, *•* In some places the enthusiasm of 
hiB birthday suppers would be chilled if anyone 
bTonght in a copy of the poems and asked for a few 
explications"; while to English students the fact 
also is that Burns '' is, and must be, a foreign clas- 

sic." Mr. Lang's introductory essay of fifty pages 
is a model of its kind. The pieces selected number 
about twenty-five miscellaneous poems, and more 
than double that number of songs. They include 
nearly everything that helps to make the poet im- 
mortal, and they are printed with caref id regard 
to text and orthography. 

Mr. Saintsbury's little volume of selected " Po- 
litical Verse " performs a really useful work. It 
collects the more famous satirical pieces of our lit- 
erature, all the way from Skelton to Mr. H. D. 
Traill. "Some such verse," says Mr. Saintsbury 
(with that peculiar disregard for conventional En- 
glish that has made him an authority upon the sub- 
ject of prose style), "have been very popular in 
their own time." Spenser, Marvell, Dryden, Defoe, 
Prior, Swift, Akenside, Churchill, Canning, Byron, 
Moore, Praed, and Thackeray, are represented, as 
well as " Peter Pindar," " The RoUiad," and " The 
Anti-Jacobin." There are a few notes, both with 
the poems and at the end of the volume. 

Miss Silsby's collection of "Tributes to Shake- 
speare " is an admirable little book. The tributes 
are poetical (at least they have the form of verse), 
with the exception of a few very brief prose pas- 
sages placed at the close of the volume. One nat- 
urally thinks of Dr. Ingleby's "Century of Prayse" 
in connection with such a work, but the two collec- 
tions are essentially dissimilar. Dr. Ingleby's being 
far more comprehensive in scope, but also far more 
restricted in time. Miss Silsby's first selection is 
John Weever's epigram, "Ad Gulielmum Shake- 
speare," written in 1695, and is followed by five 
others which date f rx>m the poet's lifetime. Then 
come the writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, with some half a hundred "tributes." 
Finally, there are about four-score pieces by nine- 
teenth century writers, among which are included 
Keats, Landor, Arnold, Browning, and Swinburne, 
and, of Americans, Longfellow, Emerson, Stoddard, 
and Gilder. The tercentenary of 1864 produced a 
plentiful crop of verses (the author of " Proverbial 
Philosophy " almost dropping into poetry on that 
occasion,) and a number of these are g^ven. Mr. T. 
W. Higginson's fine sonnet, "Since Cleopatra Died," 
finds a place here, and we make particular mention 
of the fact because the misquotation from "Antony 
and Cleopatra" which heads the poem is also repro- 
duced. We have already twice called attention in 
The Dial to this amazing blunder, and now do so 
for the third time. Perhaps the most nearly ade- 
quate of all these poems is Mr. Arnold's noble 
sonnet, although Mr. Browning's, written for the 
" Shakesperean Show-Book" in 1884, is a close 

A new edition of the works of C. S. Calverly af- 
fords us a pretext for the pleasant task of calling 
renewed attention to one of the ripest of scholars, 
rarest of wits, and most lovable of men. The vol- 
ume entitled " Literary Remains " is prefaced by a 
friendly memoir, patched up by Sir Walter J. Sen- 
dall from his own recollections of Calverly, and 

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from the recoUections of Professor J. R. Seeley, 
Mr. Walter Besant, and others. The delightfully 
informal character of the sketch is in keeping 
with the unconventional character of the man whom 
it illustrates, and is more satisfactory than a set bi- 
ography. Calverly's college pranks, his athletic 
feats, his astonishing tours de force in Latin and 
Greek verse-making, and back of all this exuber- 
ance of physical and intellectual energy, his gentle 
and manly nature, are all sketched for us with a 
sympathy of the most contagious sort As for the 
'^Remains,'' they include some of Calverly's best 
Greek and Latin poems and translations, a few 
original pieces omitted from other collections, and 
a series of English versions of Latin hymns which 
should find their place in every anthology of En- 
glish sacred song. The volume also contains three 
brief but weighty papers on verse-translation, in 
which are stated the principles that guided the 
author in his own work of this sort. And it is safe 
to say that no better work of the sort exists in our 
language. This statement the '< Theocritus," which 
occupies a volume by itself, sufficiently attests. So 
nice a preservation of both form and sense is ex- 
ceedingly rare, although it must be premised that 
Galverly's ideal of form in translation is something 
very different from the mere repr,oduction of the 
metre. He insisted that a translation whose arti- 
ficiality is obvious, sins in the spirit, however it may 
be mechanically correct ; and, judged by this test, 
even Lord Tennyson's alcaics fail of their purpose. 
So Calverly translated the Theocritean idyb in a va- 
riety of metres, some of which are far enough re- 
moved in mechanical structure from the originals. 
But the result — and this is the supreme test — is 
indubitably poetry, and it is at the same time what 
Pope's <' Homer," for example, is not, a real trans- 
lation. Mr. Lang hks made a very beautiful version 
of Theocritus in prose that is almost poetry, as the 
following passage from the first idyl will illustrate : 

** Now violets bear, ye brambles, ye thorns bear violets ; and 
let fair narcissus bloom on the boughs of juniper ! Let all 
things with all be confounded, — from pines let men gather 
pears, for Daphnis is dying ! Let the stag drag down the 
hoimds, let owls from the hills contend in song with the night- 

But Calverly has done even better than this, for, 
with hardly less of literality, he has turned the pas- 
sage into such English poetry as the following : 

** From thicket now and thorn let violets spring, 
Now let white lilies deck the juniper, 
And pines grow figs, and nature all go wrong : 
For Daphnis dies. Let deer pursue the hounds. 
And mountain-owls outsing the nightingales." 

Merely to call this poetry is not enough ; it is poetry 
of the divinest sort ; it has the harmony of which 
Shakespeare alone was the constant master. And 
it is safe to say that no English translation of The- 
ocritus will ever surpass that which is tuned to this 

After the lapse of ten years or more, Mr. Arthur 
John Butler has completed his edition of " The Di- 
vine Comedy" by the publication of the first Cantica. 

The method is that employed in the other two; 
text, prose translation, and notes all coming together 
on the page, by far the most convenient arrange- 
ment for such a work. The translation is hardly 
equal, as English prose, to Dr. Carlyle's, but schol- 
arship has done much for Dante since Carlyle's 
^'Inferno" was published, and the advantage to 
Mr. Butler's version is inevitable. The latter, in 
his preface, pays a handsome tribute to Carlyle, as 
well as to Cary and Dr. Moore. Cary's transla- 
tion, we are told, remains " unquestionably the best 
book to which the study of Dante in England has 
ever given birth. It is astonishing how constantly 
it occurs that when one has hunted up, or fortuit- 
ously come across, some passage to illustrate Dante 
rather out of the ordinary run of literature, one 
finds that Cary has got it already." Mr. Butler's 
volume has a glossary and notes that represent the 
latest results of investigation, and that are as notice- 
able for what they omit as for what they include. It 
is a matter for congratulation that English scholar- 
ship should have produced so thorough and attract- 
ive an edition of ** The Divine Comedy " as that 
now completed. In this connection, we also note 
the appearance of the " Purgatory " in Professor 
Norton's prose translation. There is little choice 
between the prose of the two translators. Mr. 
Butler is more literal; Professor Norton more 
graceful. It seems to us desirable, if one must err, 
that the error should be in the direction of literality. 
And Mr. Butler's edition has the great advantage 
of presenting the Italian text with the translation, 
as well as offering a better selection of notes. 

William Morton Paynb. 

Brlefs ox New Books. 

It were hard to find a happier illustration of 
the vitality of genius than the charming volume of 
Emily James Smith's *' Selections from Lucian" 
(Harper) affords us. A man of letters in the latter 
half of the second century of our era put his wit 
and wisdom into such perfect moulds that under all 
the disadvantage of transfer into an alien tongue, 
and with sixteen hundred years to dull the edge of 
them, they are as fresh today as Hawthorne and 
Thackeray, as modern as M. Hal^vy or Miss Wil- 
kins. The cock might have crowed or the ass 
brayed this very daybreak. Loukios and Palaistra 
flirt like the boys and girls we know. As one reads, 
it is not Lucian who is translated; it is oneself. 
The delicate pellucid air of Greece is between him 
and these living shapes. It is not the Greece of 
Lucian 's day, but of the unfading epoch six centu- 
ries earlier. It is hard to think of Lucian as writ- 
ing in a time of decadence, as later than Plutarch 
and coeval with Galen and Dion Cassius. It is 
hard to be persuaded that these choice dialogues 
were as much a literary reconstruction in their time 
as Thackeray's "Esmond" or Lander's **Imagin- 

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apy Conversations." It seems as if Lucian, before 
abandoning sculpture for literature, must have been 
employed on the frieze of the Parthenon, have had 
his lessons from Phidias, gossipped with Aspasia, 
and discussed the gods with Socrates. Very adroitly 
has the long-buried wine been decanted to retain so 
well its sparkle and aroma. The scholars must have 
their say as to the accuracy of the present version, 
but all who read may note its grace and vivacity. 
The translator is enough at home in her task to 
venture to play with it. She can use a spilt of 
slang on occasion without disturbing the classical 
repose of her English, and talk of ^' a person not 
bad to look at,*' and " the daintiest thing going." 
No most modem writer of "short stories" could be 
less musty and pedantic, more lightly colloquial. 
An admirable introduction proves that she can write 
wisely and well in her own person, with a critical 
discrimination as to the precise worth of her author. 
Even Coleridge once strained his pen in declaring 
" the moral sublimity of Rabelais," and who knows 
what critic may discover the deep philosophic sig- 
nificance of Kipling ? Our translator indulges her- 
self in no such vagaries, but presents Lucian to her 
readers as the man of letters pure and simple, who 
fluttered about the old Greek temples and the* cook- 
shops for his own amusement, and jotted down his 
thoughts about them afterward for ours. 

Hbnry T. Kino's new volume, " The I^jealist " 
(Lippincott). is made up of some 130 brief pioral- 
izings upon various random themes, the author's 
purpose being, as he tells us, "to make men feel 
uncomfortable." With this amiable end in view 
he assails various abuses and h3rpocrisie8, and de- 
velops his own views of the right ruling of conduct 
with a snappishness of tone and a lavish use of the 
first personal pronoun that will tend, we fear, to set 
his readers upon demanding Mr. King's credentials 
rather than upon weighing his precepts. The vol- 
ume opens ostentatiously with a "Prelude" in which 
the writer tells us all about his book and his meth- 
ods, his likes and his dislikes (the latter greatly 
preponderating), and takes himself, on the whole, 
rather more seriously than the occasion seems 
to warrant. " I care not," he says, " how violent 
[««?] the storm may rage, how bitter the denuncia- 
tion I may invoke, but I do care if any reader 
shall believe that I am writing obtrusive para- 
doxes." Mr. King proposes to be nothing if not 
original, and he affects a lofty contempt for " gram- 
marians' rules " and the deference to approved mod- 
els that fetter the pens of lesser men. "I know of 
no statute," he avei's, " which declares the true use 
of the English language ; no author who holds it in 
trust. It is free to every man to use as best fits his 
purpose." Just stopping to point out to Mr. King 
the confusion of tongues that might possibly ensue 
were his opinion to prevail, and to remind him as a 
lawyer that there is a body of unwritten law no less 
binding than that which is statutory, we may say 
of his style — which is singularly harsh, crabbed. 

jerky, and at times by no means so clear as he hon- 
estly tries to make it, — that it is even more likely 
than his censure "to make men feel uncomfort- 
able." Mr. King does "not think that there is any- 
thing second-hand" in his book. "I have no quota- 
tion padding," he proudly asserts. A few pages 
later, however, we find him saying, " I know of no 
flattery so soothing as to have your words quoted 
by others." We suggest that if our author expects 
others to soothe him in this way, he ought, as a 
Christian and an ideal moralist, to be willing to 
soothe them; and we may add in passing that a 
casual review of his pages, — in which there is cer- 
tainly an occasional hint of triteness, — indicates 
that one may, in effect, pay compliments of the 
kind designated without being aware of it. The 
volume at its best denotes a considerable faculty of 
stringing together pungent aphorisms with a touch 
of Baconian sententiousness and a full measure of 
Emersonian disconnectedness. The publishers have 
shown good taste in their part of the work, and the 
volume is an attractive one externally. 

There is a good deal of presuming in this curi- 
ous world of ours. Men presume on their muscle, 
and women on their weakness, and children on the 
graces of their immaturity. Each would dominate 
without an effort, and be graciously deferred to. 
Each is conscious of specific admirableness, and 
expects recognition. Americans presume on be- 
ing natives, and claim credit for not having been 
born Irish or Chinese. The Frenchman is quite 
certain that all good roads pass through Paris and 
are an extension of the Boulevards. John Bull pit- 
ies the dulness that questions if all liberty and vir- 
tue are most at home in England. There is the 
Boston type, the New York type, the Philadelphia 
type, even the Chicago type, of conscious superior- 
ity and corresponding behavior. Each claims the 
earth and all outlying territory. The pretension is 
not always grracefuUy asserted, and impartial by- 
standers are a little grieved at the manners result- 
ing. The over-assurance of privilege is very per- 
vasive. Even authors sometimes treat themselves 
with undue seriousness. They dwell too long, or 
bear on too hard, upon even a bright idea. Mr. 
Oscar Fay Adams may not have thought of this in 
putting into a volume on "The Presumption of 
Sex" ( Lee & Shepard) his recent magazine articles 
on "The Mannerless Sex," "The Brutal Sex," 
etc. After all, it may be doubted whether any 
wide circle was agitated by the tossing of Mr. Ad- 
amses first pebble. It was fiUipped neatly. It fell 
with a quite perceptible splash and splatter. The 
npples ran out a little way before they died. But 
the mannerless and ruthless sex was hardly flut- 
tered in its dovecots, and the brutal and vulgar sex 
puffed its cigar-smoke into its neighbors' faces and 
told its shady stories as before. There is good sense 
and right feeling in these papers. With a finer 
humor and a lighter touch they might have passed 
out of journalism into literature. As it is, their 

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hints may well be heeded. There is room for more 
gracious womanhood and manlier and purer man- 
hood in several New England villages and one or 
two mining camps on our western frontier, doubt it 
who may. 

Two works dealing with a similar subject are 
'< Books Condemned to Be Burnt "(Armstrong), 
by James A. Farrer, and " Martyrdoms of Literar 
ture" (Sergei & Co., Chicago), by Robert H. Vick- 
ers. It is curious to see two volumes issued simul- 
taneously on a theme of such out of the way inter- 
est. We can fancy each author encountering his 
rival's volume with a stare of incredulity and a 
petulant outburst of " How in the world did you 
happen to be born .^ " Mr. Farrer, after a brief 
introduction, confines himself to the martyrdoms of 
literature in England. He modestly aims at "some- 
thing less dull than a dictionary, but something far 
short of a history." His success is sufficient. He 
writes like a scholar and a man of letters, at home 
in his subject. His volume is marked by good taste 
in its style. Mr. Vickers's volume in its outward 
form suggests the better sort of school-book, an im- 
pression that its contents hardly justify. It ranges 
from Rameses the Great and " the trigrams of Fo 
Hi " to the book burnings of Malabar, of Brazil, 
and of Chile, of which last the recent revolution de- 
prives us of authentic record. The author's mater- 
ial is somewhat muddled and undigested. His tem- 
per is quite uncritical. He has much to say of 
"superstitious venom," of "missionary banditti," 
of "fiendish fanaticisms," of "cancerous imaginings." 
He tells us of Abelard, that, " caught between two 
difficulties, he repaired as best he could the wrong 
caused by himself, leaving the other and greater 
wrong done to Heloise as well as to him by the 
monstrous tjrranny of celibate vows to be repaired 
by those who were, at the bar of the high court of 
human nature, guilty of compassing evils of pre- 
cisely that character." He speaks of a city as "eaten 
hollow by the devouring force of her one solitary 
idea." In a more distressing sentence still he an- 
nounces " the story of Bohemia, which will succeed 
this volume." Under provocation from an overfond 
mother, Charles Lamb once drank to the health of 
the much calumniated good King Herod. Mr. Yick- 
ers's threatened volume tempts a reviewer to sigh 
for one hour more of the blessed Inquisition. It had 
its faults, but it might spare us " the story of Bo- 

Among the "University Extension Manuals" 
(Scribner) edited by Professor Knight, has just ap- 
peared a little book by H. G. Keene, Hon. M.A., 
Oxford, upon "The Literature of France." In a 
concise but striking style are discussed the most 
famous French writings, from the oath by which 
Louis the German bound himself to Charles the 
Bold in 842 a.d., down to the criticism published 
by M. Paul Bourget in 1883 on Mr. George Sainta- 
bury*s "Short History of French Literature." 
Though acknowledging a large indebtedness to Mr. 

Saintsbury, Mr. Keene has quite as often followed 
the critical judgments of La Harpe — who, if we 
may trust Mr. Saintsbury, " shows criticism in one 
of its worst forms, and has all the defects of Mal- 
herbe and Boileau with few of their merits and 
none of their excuses." Mr. Keene has aimed 
neither at originality nor novelty ; and with the ex- 
ception of M. Paul Bourget (who is admitted to the 
appendix to advertise Mr. Saintsbury) has said not 
a word of living French writers. Though George 
Sand had the happy fortune to be dead when our 
author wrote, yet far less space is allotted to her 
than to La Harpe or Yauvenargues, and neither her 
name as a married woman nor that of any of her 
works is mentioned. To commend any author to 
the fastidious palates of our transatlantic cousins, 
it appears that, like their mutton, one must not only 
be dead, but " very dead." While Mr. Keene has 
" assumed the existence of certain rules and stand- 
ards," and endeavors to pursue the study of litera- 
ture " in a spirit of scientific comparison," after all, 
for him, "the golden rule is to look to the judg- 
ment of the past for our chief guide in the selection 
of books." He says : "It takes a good critic to be 
quite sure of the merits of a modern book," and 
that, to do him justice, Mr. Keene is not. He di- 
vides French literary history into " The Age of In- 
fancy " prior to the sixteenth century, " The Age 
of Adolescence" in that century, "The Age of 
Glory" in the seventeenth century, "The Age of 
Reason " in the eighteenth, and " The Age of Na- 
ture " in the nineteenth. 

Seven masterpieces of party pamphleteering, 
with a few explanatory words to each and a dozen 
pages of general introduction, make up the pretty 
pocket-volume entitled "Political Pamphlets" (Mac- 
millan ), edited by Mr. George Saintsbury. In these 
days of caucuses and committees it is interesting to 
get a glimpse of the earlier times when printed 
pages affected public policy and pamphlets fired 
kingdoms. The papers here collected were issued 
from 1687, when the Marquess of Halifax urged 
the dissenters of his time not to be tempted by the 
treacherous overtures of James the Second, to 1826, 
when Sir Walter Scott defended Scotch Banking in 
the letters of Malachi Mali^owther. We have 
Defoe's sustained irony, that almost loses its signifi- 
cance by never once dropping its mask, in " The 
Shortest Way with the Dissenters." We have two 
of the Drapier*s letters, in which Dean Swift, with 
magical marksmanship but some waste of powder, 
shattered Mr. Wood's brass halfpence and saved 
Ireland from an over-issue of small change. We 
have Burke's philosophical review of the French 
Revolution, in his second letter on a Regicide Peace. 
Sidney Smith shows his rare good sense and ** art 
of putting things " in four of the Peter Plymley 
letters. Cobbett, in pithiest Saxon, tells the work- 
ing men of 1816 how wretched they are, and why, 
and what remedies to distrust, and where lies their 
safety. It is curious to find that honest demagogue 

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warning the poor against *' the new cheat which is 
now on foot and which goes under the name of 
Savings Banks"! The collection is well chosen, 
and Mr. Saintsbury's editing is brief and to the 

In preparing his life of Viscount Palmerston in 
**The Queen's Prime Ministers" series (Harper), 
the Marquis of Lome has wisely availed himself of 
the enormous amount of correspondence, official 
and private, left behind by the ^* fair and square " 
political fighter whose official career extended over 
nearly sixty years, allowing him to speak wherever 
feasible, and thus indicate in his own way the ob- 
jects and motives that influenced him. Most of 
these quotations, drawn from matter hitherto inac- 
cessible, appear in print for the first time. Lord 
Palmerston's character is thus summed up by the 
author : "Palmerston was emphaticaUy painstaking, 
but he was not a genius, whose work may be mani- 
fold, but whose career is seldom steady. 
Palmerston had a good head, good health, which is 
seldom found with genius, and a matter-of-fact way 
of going ahead, making his experience of one mat- 
ter the solid step from which to judge of the next 
that came before him. He repeated himself over 
and over again consistently, in act as well as in 
phrase — a very ungeniuslike quality. A plain En- 
glishman, with many an Englishman's want of the 
feminine attributes of character, but with most of 
its best masculine qualities, he plodded on, and fin- 
ally won that goal of an Englishman's ambition — 
the honorable, but not always enviable, position of 
First Minister of the Crown." An interesting chap- 
ter on Lord PaImerston*s personal characteristics 
rounds out the view of the politician and statesman. 

Anotheb volume in the same series is devoted 
to the Marquis of Salisbury, and written by H. D. 
Traill. Mr. TraiU's work may be said to be fa- 
vored as well as handicapped by the fact that its 
hero is still in the flesh and in fuU public career; 
for Tvhile anything like a satisfactory Life of Lord 
Salisbury is of course out of the question at pres- 
ent, the book at once gains interest and favor from 
the general desire to know more of a statesman 
whose name is so closely connected with current 
political questions. Mr. Traill has done his work 
as thoroughly as space and other conditions per- 
mit; and, while making no effoi*t to hide his 
strong conservative bias and his warm sympathy 
with Lord Salisbury's methods and ideals, he has 
not erred obtrusively on the side of hero-worship. 
It is in his favorite capacity of Foreign Minister 
that the Tory Premier elicits the author's heartiest 
approval. He says : " A just conception of our Em- 
pire and of the stupendous task of directing its des- 
tiny, may well stir in him the blood of his Eliza- 
bethan ancestors ; and it is no doubt partly because 
he impresses other nations as a statesman heredi- 
tarily dedicated to the maintenance of our Imperial 
power and security that he wields the influence 

which is his. European courts and cabinets must 
know that to whatever external forces of restraint 
or deflection his foreign policy, like that of all 
other English Ministers, may be exposed, there is 
no public man in England who stands surety for 
English interests and English honor under heavier 
recognizances of blood and name." All the volumes 
in this series contain frontispiece portraits. 

The volume of "New Fragments" (Appleton), 
from the pen of that veteran expositor of Nature, 
Professor John Tyndall, presents a rather miscel- 
laneous mMange of scientific discussion, biograph- 
ical sketch, anecdote, reminiscence, and personal 
jottings. There are fifteen papers in all, largely 
occasional addresses and reprints from standard 
periodicals; the best, perhaps, being "Groethe's 
Farbenlehre," « Count Rumford," " Louis Pasteur," 
" Personal Recollections of Carlyle," and a suggest- 
ive address on " The Sabbath," originally delivered 
before the Glasgow Sunday Society, in which the 
Professor traces with much philosophy and humor 
the history of Sabbatical observances from a time 
when the Sabbath was so ordered as to render it a 
foretaste of the horrors awaiting those who broke 
it, down to the present day when a more humane 
system prevails. It is scarcely necessary to say 
that Professor Tyndall is not in accord with those 
belated zealots 

" That bid yon baulk 
A Sunday walk, 
And shnn God's works as yon would shun your own ; 

Calling all sermons contrabands 

In that great Temple that's not made with hands.'' 

Thoroughly readable and instructive are the critical 
and narrative papers on Goethe, Count Rumford, 
and M. Pasteur ; and the essays throughout display 
a rare union of the solidity bom of profound scien- 
tific study and first-hand grappling with facts, with 
the graces of literary expression. 

Not all sermons fifty years after date retain 
their first juice and fragrance. Ministers who in- 
herit their predecessor's provisions for the pulpit 
are rarely overtempted to make use of them. Some- 
thing has departed. Each generation prefers its 
own preaching. The fledgeling from the divinity 
school, with his thought of to-day, draws better 
houses than the venerable divine. So it will not be 
strange if the recently issued volume of Theodore 
Parker's " West Roxbury Sermons " ( Roberts), now 
half a century old, adds nothing to a great preach- 
er's fame. They had their vogue. They were his 
'prentice work, written before he reached his growth, 
before he had grappled with his problems, fought 
his dragons, flung away his unproved armor, settled 
down to his sling-and-stone methods, and acquired 
his sledge-hammer swing. He moved still contentr 
edly in the old grooves. He had not come upon 
the occasion of shocking the more conservative ele- 
ments of so-called Liberal Christianity. He is in- 
offensive to those of more orthodox opinion, who 

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have not stood still these fifty years. These are 
practical discourses, suited to common parochial 
use. Men of all creeds can enjoy their pithy sense, 
their earnest manliness, their devout spirituality, 
their " Saxon sincerity,'* their rich poetic illustra- 
tion. They may he glad to see this earlier and 
8ini])ler aspect of the admired or the dreaded here- 
siarch, whose outlines are growing somewhat vague 
to us in these latter days. 

Messbs. Macmillan & Co.*8 series of primers has 
long heen favorably known. In order better to 
adapt Professor NichoFs **Primer of English Com- 
position" to the requirements of school use, a com- 
panion book of questions and answers was prepared 
by Professor Nichol and W. S. McCormick, and 
the two are now published in one neat volume un- 
der the title of '^A Manual of English Composition.'* 

Topics ix IjEAdixg Periodicals. 

June, 1892, 

Aeroplane, The. H. S. Maxim. Cosmopolitan, 

American Ancient Civilizations. J. S. Newberry. Pop, Set, 

American Glaciers. Ulus. C. R. Ames. Califomian, 

American Home in Europe, An. W. H. Bishop. Atlantic, 

American Political Caricature. Illus. J. 6. Bishop. Century, 

America's Ghreat Desert. W. F. G. Shanks. Lippincott, 

Animals' View of Man. Popular Science. 

Atlantic Steamships. T. M. Coan. Century, 

Austin, John. Janet Ross. Atlantic, 

Austro-Hungarian Army. Illus. Baron von Kuhn. Harper, 

Bible Lands. Sir J. W. Dawson. North American, 

Biology and Sociology. L. G. Janes. Popular Science, 

Black Forest to the Black Sea. Illus. F.D.Millet. Harper, 

Bric-ii-Brac, Counterfeit. Illus. Cosmopolitan, 

British Fiction, Recent. Brander Matthews. Cosmopolitan. 

Budapest. Illus. Albert Shaw. Century, 

Cattle Trails, Prairie. Illus. C. M. Harger. Scribner. 

Chicago. Noble Canby. Chautauqtmn, 

Chicago Fire Memories. David Swing. Scribner, 

Chihuahua ClifF-Dwellers. Illus. F. Schwatka. Century, 

Chinese and Japanese. E. F. Fenolosa. Atlantic. 

Columbus. Illus. E. Castelar. Century, 

Diatoms. Illus. Emily L. Gregory. Popular Science, 

Drury Lane Boys' Club. Mrs. Burnett. Scribner, 

Dust and Fresh Air. T. P. Teale. Popular Science. 

Editorial Experiences. Murat Halstead. Lippincott, 

Emerson'^B Letters from Europe. F. B. Sanborn. Atlantic. 

English in the United States. J. R. Towse. Chautauquan, 

Evolution and Christianity. St. George Mivart. Cosmopolitan, 

Forest Preservation in Cidifomia. Thos. Magee. Overland, 

Funeral Orations in Stone. Illus. C. Waldstein. Harper, 

Fur^als. Illus. J. C. Cantwell. Califomian, 

Galileo and Theology. A. D. White. Popular Science. 

Gold King's Rule. Murat Halstead. North American, 

Greek Papyri in £^yptian Tombs. E. G. Mason. Dial, 

Harrison's Administration. Dawes, Dolph, Colquitt. No, Am. 

Henry, Patrick. W. F. Poole. Dial, 

Hull, Commodore, Birthplace of. Illus. Jane Shelton. Harper. 

Japanese Swords, Art in. Illus. Califomian, 

Kentucky : How It Became a State. G. W. Ranck. Harper, 

Kilauea, Hawaii, Crater of. Illus. May Cheney. Overland, 

Korean Mountains. C. W. Campbell. Popular Science, 

Labor, U. S. Department of. C. D. Wright. Cosmopolitan, 

La Crosse. Ulus. Frederick Weir. Lippincott. 

Lake Tahoe. Illus. Annie C. Murphy. Califomian. 

Lundy's Lane. Illus. E. S. Brooks. Chautauquan. 

Medici, The. Ulus. Eleanor Lewis. Cosmopolitan, 

Mobs. C^sare Lombroso. Chautauquan, 

Modem life and Art. Walter Crane. Cosmopolitan. 

Montana. Julian Ralph. Harper, 

Mt. iEtna. Illus. A. F. Jaocaei. Scribner. 
Mt. St. Elias Revisited. lUus. I. C. Russel. Century, 
National Conventions. Dins. Murat Halstead. Cosmopolitan. 
Negro's Education. W. T. Harris. Atlantic, 
New France, Downfall of. J. G. Nicolay. Chautauquan, 
New Zealand. Ulus. Edward Wakefield. Cosmopolitan. 
Nice, Poor of. Illus. Fannie Barbour. Califomian. 
New York Clearing House. W. A. Camp. North American. 
New York Tenement-Howses. Ulus. W.T.EUing. Scribner, 
Old English Dramatists. J. R. Lowell. Harper. 
Pacific Jew Fish. Ulus. C. F. Holder. Califomian. 
Paranoia. H. S. Williams. North American. 
Pearl-Diving in California Gulf. Ulus. Califomian. 
Pern, Eastern. Ulus. C. de Kalb. Harper. 
Plantation Life, Old-Time. A. 0. McClurg. Dial. 
Poetry, Melancholia in. E. C. Stedman. Century. 
Poetry, Recent. W. M. Payne. Dial. 
Poetry since Pope. Maurice Thompson. Chautauquan. 
Politicians, Educating. C. T. Hopkins. Califomian, 
Presidential Reflection. D. B. Eaton. North American, 
Railway Court, A. Appleton Morgan. Popular Science, 
Rapid Transit in Cities. Ulus. T. C. Clarke. Scribner, 
Revolutions, Modem. Karl Blind. North American, 
Roman Private Life. Harriet W. Preston. Atlantic, 
Sea-Beaches. Ulus. N. S. Shaler. Scribner. 
Sheridan's Personality. Ulus. T. R. Davis. Cosmopolitan. 
Sicilian Peasants. Signora V. Mario. Chautauqtuin. 
Simians of Africa. R. L. Gamer. North American, 
Smith, Roswell. Washington Gladden, and others. Century, 
Snake River Valley. J. R. Spears. Chautauquan, 
Stellar System, A New. Arthur Searle. Atlantic, 
Survival of the Unfit. H. D. Chapin. Popular Science, 
Thorwaldsen. Ulus. C. M. Waage. Califomian, 
Town Meeting, The. E. E. Hale. Cosmopolitan. 
Track Athletics in Calif. Ulus. P. L. Weaver, Jr. Overland. 
Water, Colors of. Carl Vogt. Popular Science, 
Weeds. B. D. Halstead. Popular Science, 
Westminster's Future. Archdeacon Farrar. No, American, 
West, Straggle for the. Illus. J. B. McMaster. Lippincott. 
West, The. J. J. Ingalls. Lippincott. 
Whitman, Walt. Atlantic. 
^ Whitman, Walt. C. D. Lanier. Chautauquan, 
Wounded Soldiers' Actions. G. L. Kilmer. Popular Science. 
Wrens. Olive Thome Miller. Atlantic. 
Yucca Moths. Ulus. C. V. Riley. Popular Science. 

Books of the Month. 

[T%e following list, embracing 161 titles^ includes etll books 
received by The Dial during the month of May, 1892, 


A Half-Century of Conflict. By Francis Parkman, author 
of ** Pioneers of France in the New World." In 2 vols., 
8vo. Little, Brown, & Co. $5.00. 

New Chapters in Greek History: Historical Results of 
Recent Excavations in Greece and Asia Minor. By Percy 
Gardner, M.A. Ulus., 8vo, pp. 459, uncut. G. P. Put- 
nam's 8ons. $5.00. 

The History of Sicily from the earliest times. By Edward 
A. Freeman, M.A. Vol. III., The Athenian and Cartha- 
ginian Invasions. With maps, 8vo, pp. 750, uncut. Mac- 
millan <& Co. $<3.00. 

The Spanish Story of the Armeula, and Other £»ays. By 
James Anthony Fronde. 12mo, pp. 344. Charles Scrilh> 
ner's Sons. $1.50. 

The Colonial Era. By George Park Fisher, D.D. With 
maps, 12mo, pp. 350. Scribner^s " American History Se- 
ries." $1.25. 

The Story of the Discovery of the New World bv Col- 
umbus. Compiled, from accepted authorities, by Aedei^ 
ick launders. Librarian of the Astor Library. Ulus., 
12mo, pp. 145. Thomas Whittaker. $1.00. 

Columbus Memorial, 1492—1892: Discovery, Settle- 
ment, Independence, etc. With descriptions and illustra- 
tions of >Vorld*s Fair Buildings, and maps and plans. 
4to, paper. Chicago : J. W. Iliff & Co. 50 cts. 

Digitized by 






Christopher Ck>lumbus: His Life and Hia Work. Bv 
CharlM Kendall AdAms, LL.D. 12mo, pp. 261. Dodd^i 
''Makers of Ameriea.'' $1.00. 

Gharlee Siunner. By Anna Laurens Dawes. With portrait, 
Ifimo, pp. 330. Dodd*8 *' Makers of America.'' $1.00. 

Henry Boynton Smith. By Lewis F. Steams, D.D. 16mo, 
pp. 368, gilt top. Honghton's " American Religions Lead- 
ers." $1.25. 

Barly Dasrs of My %>lBCopate. By tbe Rt. Rev. Wra. In- 
graham Kipp, D.1$., Bishop jof California. With portmit, 
12mo, pp. 263. Thomas Whittaker. $1.50. 

Ell Perkins: Thirty Tears of Wit and Reminisoenoes. By 
MelTiUe D. Landon (Eli Perkins). With portrait, IGmo, 
pp. 305. Cassell's " Sunshine Series." Paper, 50 cts. 


Bseasrs and Crltidsins. By St. Qeorge Mivart, F.R.S. In 

2 yols., 8to, nnont. Little, Brown, & Co. $8.00. 
Letters of Samuel Johnson, LL.D. Collected and edited 

by Georve Birkbeck Hill, D.C.L., editor of ''BoeweU's 

Ldfe of Johnson." In 2 vols., large 8vo, gilt tope, uncut 

edges. Harper & Brothers. $7.60. 
The Last Words of Thomas Oarlyle : Wotton Reinf red, a 

Romaaoe ; Ezoursion (Futile Enough) to Paris ; Letters. 

With portrait, 12mo, pp. 383, gut top, nnont edges. 

D. Appleton A Co. $1.75. 
The Old South: Essays Social and Political. By Thomas 

Nelson Page. 12mo, pp. 344. Charles Scribner^s Sons. 

Sodal and Literary Papers. By Charles Chaunoey Shaek- 

ford. 12mo, pp. 299. Roberts Brothers. $1.25. 
Sources of Consolation in Human lAfe. By William 

RonnseTiUe Alger, author of ** The Genius of Solitude." 

16mo, pp. 437. Roberts Brothers. $1.50. 
Imacrlnary ConversatioilB. By Walter Sayage Landor. 

With biographical and explanatory notes by Charles G. 

Crump, vol. 6, 12mo, uncut. Maomillan A Co. $1.25. 
Selections from " The Spectator" of Addison and Steele. 

By A. Meeerole. LL.B. With etched portrait, 16mo, pp. 

410, gilt top. £. P. Dutton <fe Co. $1.25. 
The Divine Comedy of Dante AUghleri. Translated by 

Charles Eliot Norton. Vol. III., Paradise. 12mo, pp. 

215, gilt top. Houghton, Mifflin A Co. $1.25. 
Beowulf: An Anglo-Saxon Epic Poem. Translated from the 

Heyne-Socin Text by J. Lesslie Hall. 8vo, pp. 110. D. C. 

Heath 4& Co. $1.10. 
The Works of William Shakespeare. Edited by William 

Aldis Wright. In 9 vols. Vol. VI., TroUus and Cres- 

sida, Cori«Manus, etc. Large 8vo, pp. 646, uncut. Mac- 

millan A Co. $3.00. 
Shakespeare's England. Bv William Winter. New edition, 

32roo, pp. 274, gilt top. Maomillan A Co. 75 cts. 
The Philadelphia hiacrazlnes and Their C^ontributors, 

1741—1860. By Albert H. Smith, A.B. 12mo, pp. 264. 

Philadelphia : Robert M. Lindsay. $1.00. 


The Bnglish Lamruafire and English Grammar : An Histo- 
rical Study. With copious examples from writers of all 
periods. By Samuel Ramsey. Larjge 8vo, pp. 571, gilt 
top, imcnt edges. G. P. Putnam^s Sons. $3.00. 

Lectures on the English Poets. By William Hazlitt. 
With portrait, 12mo, pp. 342, gilt top, uncut edges. Dodd, 
Mead 4& Co. $1.25. 

A Primer of English Verse: Chieflv in Its ^Esthetic and 
Organic Character. By Hiram Cofson, LL.D. 12mo, 
pp.232. Ginn<&Co. $1.10. 

Gathcarf B Literary Reader: A Manual of English Litera- 
ture. By (George R. Cathcart. With portraits, 12mo, pp. 
541. Am. Book Co. $1.15. 


Lairs and Legends (Second Series). By E. Nesbit (Mrs. 
Hubert Bland), author of '* Lays and Legends.'' With 
portrait, 16mo, pp. 160, uncut. Longmans, Green, A Co. 

Dreams and Dasrs. By George Parsons Lathrop. 12mo, 

fp. 188, gilt top, uncut edges. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Flower o' the Vine: Romantic Ballads and Sospiri di 

Roma. ByWiUiam Sharp. With introduction by T. A. 

Janvier. With portrait, l2mo, pp. 188, gilt top. C. L. 

Webster 4& Co. $1.50. 
Swallow Flighta By Louise Chandler Moulton, author of 

*' In the Garden of Dreams." A new edition of **Poeiu8,'* 

wil^ ten additional poems. 16mo, pp. 168, gilt top. Rob- 
erts Brothers. $1.25. 
Ballads and Barrack-Room Ballads. By Rudyard Kip- 

ling. 12mo, pp. 207, gilt top. Maomillan A Co. $1.25. 
The Dead Njrmph, and Other Poems. By Charles Henry 

Liiders. 16mo, pp. 134, gilt top, uncut edges. Charlea 

Scribner's Sons. m,26. 
The Wings of loarus. By Susan Marr Spalding. 12mo» 

pp. Ill, full gilt. Roberts Brothers. $1.25. 
The Song of the Sword, and Other Verses. By W. E. 

Henley. 16mo, pp. 102, uncut edges. Charles Soribner^s 

Sons. $1.00. 
I leading Cases Done Into English, and Other Diversions. 

Bv Sir Frederick Pollock, Bart. 16mo, pp. 98, uncut 

edges. Biaomillan A Co. $1.00. 
Hassan: A Vision of the Desert. By John Ritchie. 8vo, 

gilt edges. F. J. Schulte & Co. $1.00. 
Lyrlos of the Hudson. By Horatio Nelson Powers, author 

of '' Ten Years of Song." With Memorial Introduction 

by Oscar Fay Adams. 16mo, pp. 97, gilt top. D. Lothrop 

Co. $1.00. 
Sunmier-Fallow. By Charles Buxton Going. 16mo, pp. 

96, ^t top. G.P.Putnam's Sons. $1.00. 
The Lover's Yecu>-Book of Poetry: A Collection of Love 

Poems for Every Day in the Year. By Horace Parker 

Ch^dler. Vol. II., July to Deoember. 16mo, pp. 2rJ\), 

gilt top. Roberts Brothers. $1.25. 
In the Oity by the Lake. By Blanche Fearing, author of 

'' The Sleeping World." 8vo, pp. 192, gilt top. Chicago : 

Searle <& Gorton. $1.25. 


Tees of the IVUrtervilles: A Pure Woman Faithfully Pre- 
sented. By Thomas Hardy, author of '' A Group of No- 
ble Dames." New and revised edition, illns., 12mo, pp. 
455. Harper <& Brothers. $1.50. 

The Governor, and Other Stories. By George A. Hibbard. 
12mo, pp. 292. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.00. 

A Voyage of Discovery : A Novel of American Society. 
By Hamilton A'id^. 12mo, pp. 395. Harper <& Brothers. 

Oalmire. 12mo, pp. 742. Maomillan A Co. $1.50. 

Love for an Hour is Love Forever. By Amelia £. Barr, 
author of ''Friend Olivia." 12mo, pp. 306. Dodd, Mead, 
<&Co. $1.25. 

A Daughter of the South, and Shorter Stories. By Mrs. 
Burton Harrison, author of '"^The Anglomaniacs." 12mo, 
pp.281. CasseU Publishing Co. $1.00. 

The New Harry and Lucy: A Story of the Boston of To- 
day. By Edward E. and Lueretia P. Hale. 16mo, pp. 
321. Roberts Brothen. $1.25. 

" Come Live with Me, and Be My Lpve." An English 
Pastoral. By Robert Bachanan, author of *^God ana the 
Man." Ulus., 8vo, pp. 324. Lovell, Coryell A Co. $1.25. 

The Fate of Fenella: A Novel. By Helen Bklathers, Justin 
H. McCarthy, and 22 others. 16mo, pp. 319. Cassell Pub- 
lishing Co. $1.00. 

Marionettes. By Julien Gordon, author of ^* A Diplomat's 
Diary." 16mo, pp. 320. Cassell Publishing Co. $1.00. 

Nada the Lily. By H. Rider Haggard, author of '*Slie." 
Illus., 12mo, pp. 295. Longmans, Green, A Co. $1.<X). 

The One Good Quest. By L. B. Walford, author of "Mr. 
Smith." 12mo,pp.330. Longmans, Green, <& Co. Si. 00. 

Bom of Flame : A Rosicrucian Storv. By Mrs. Margaret B. 
Peeke. 12mo, pp. 29{). J. B. Lippincott Co. $1.25. 

The Soul of Llllth. By Marie Corelli, author of " Ardath." 
12mo, pp. 356. Lovell, CoryeU <fe Co. $1.25. 

The White Company. By A. Conan Doyle, author of *'The 
Rrm of Girdlestone." Illus., 12mo, pp. 483. U. S. Book 
Co. $1.25. 

Moonbllght and Six Feet of Romance. By Dan. Beard. lUus. 
by author. 12mo, pp. 221. C. L. Webster A Co. $1.00. 

Col. Judson of Alabama; or, A Southerner's Experiences 
at the North. By F. Bean, author of 'Tudney A Walp." 
16mo, pp. 197. U.S. Book Co. $1.00. 

Digitized by 





Slaves of the Sawdust. By Ayme Reade, author of 

** Ruby.'' 12mo, pp. 312. Hovenden Company. $1.00. 
A Window In Thmxns. By J. M. Barrie, author of *' The 

little Minister." 12mo, pp. 234, gilt top. Lovell, Cor- 
yell, & Co. $1.00. 
Helen Brent, M.D. : A Social Study. Obloncr, pp. 196. Cas- 

aell Publishing Co. 75 cts. 
Pratt Portraits. Sketched in a New England Suburb. By 

Anna Fuller. Itimo, pp. 326. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1. 
Pushed by Unseen Handa By Helen H. (hardener, author 

of " Men, Women, and Gods.** With frontispiece, 12mo, 

pp. 303. The Commonwealth Co. $1.00. 
The Story of Dick. By Major Gambier Parry, author of 

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Vol. XIII. JULY, 1892. No. 147. 


LANDOR. MeltfUle B, Andergan 71 


Henry C.Adams 73 


Hubbard 74 


HISTORY. Jeremiah W, Jenks 7« 


PHILOSOPHY. WUliston S, Hough .... 77 


Stebbinfi^'s Sir Walter Ralegh^ a Biogrraphy. — Price's 
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Res JodioatsB.— SteTenaon's Acrom the Plains.— Da- 
vidson's Aristotle and the Ancient Edacational Ideals. 
— Hoghes's Loyola and the Edacational System of the 
Jesuits. — Harrison's The New Calendar of Great 
Men.— Hogg's The Uncollected Writings of Thomas 
De Qninoey.— Morley's EnglUh Writers, Vol. VIII. 
— Rocquain's The Revolutionary Spirit Preceding 
the French Revolution.— Winter's Shakespeare's En- 
gland.— Meserole's Selections from The Spectator. 




The life of Walter Savage Landor connects, 
a.s does that of no other English literary man, 
the 18th with the 19th century. Born thir- 
teen years before Byron, he survived by four 
years De Quincey and Macaulay. Perhaps an 
American may better realize the enormous span 
of his life, by being told that Landor was born 
iu the year of Bunker Hill and died in that 
of Gettysburg. His literary activity contin- 
ued through a period longer than the sum of 
all the years of his two early contemporaries, 
Byron and Shelley. His first book was pub- 
lished in 1795, when he was twenty years old; 
his last in 1868, when he was eighty-eight. 
For three- score and ten years he was a diligent 
student and author ; yet some authors whose lit- 
erary activity covers not a fourth as much time 
have left a much greater bulk of printed matter. 

'Ikaoinart CoNVsasATiONB. By Walter Sarage Lan- 
dor. With Bibliographical and Explanatory Notes by Chag. 
O. CmiDp. In six Tolnmes. New York : MacmiUan A Co. 

For several reasons this proud, terse writer 
is peculiarly worthy of attention to-day. The 
output of books is as excessive as the coinage 
of silver dollars, and in the one case as in the 
other the problem of storage begins to give con- 
cern. There is no such diflBculty about the 
gold. Landor is one of the last of the virile 
race of literary goldsmiths who purged their 
metal of all baser alloy and wrought it curi- 
ously and daintily before displaying it as mer- 
chandise. To-day, when everybody writes and 
reads Views, Keviews, and Reviews of Reviews, 
it is highly instructive to linger over the com- 
pact pages of one whose literary conscience 
was so stern. If, as Carlyle persuades us, to 
labor is to pray^ then Landor put prayer into 
every page he wrote ; and his example might 
well shame the copious industry of some later 
authors who would fain substitute the pious 
will for the strenuous deed. 

Landor, no doubt, is an old-fashioned writer. 
His fashion is to express noble and touching 
thoughts in the very choicest and concisest 
terms : an old fashion which must be revived 
if the recorded words of men are to be long 
preserved. Why is he so little read? Mr. 
Sidney Colvin, who has done more than any 
one else for Landor's fame, gives the following 
reasons: First, being classical rather than 
romantic, he naturally appeals to a smaller 
public ; secondly, he exhibits a want of literary 
tact in writing for himself rather than for oth- 
ers ; thirdly, his works lack consecutiveness 
and organic construction ; fourthly, despite 
his constant effort to be clear, he is often ob- 
scure by reason of over-condensation. 

It is very difficult to say anything worth 
while about this author after Mr. Colvin's ele- 
gant criticism ; accordingly I take pleasure in 
referring the reader, for a fuller statement of 
the case for and against Landor, to the preface 
to Colvin's " Selections from Landor " in the 
Golden Treasury, — a little book worthy of a 
place in the selectest library, however small. 

More recently Mr. W. E. Henley, a Scotch- 
man who seems to have borrowed hammer and 
tongs from the critical armory of the " savage 
and tartarly" school, has urged that "Lan- 
dor's imagination is not only inferior in kind 
but poverty-stricken in degree " ; that as a 
dramatic writer he was incapable of conceiving 
the capacities of his situations, and conse- 

Digitized by 





quently has failed to develop them ; that his 
abruptness " is identical with a certain sort of 
what in men of lesser mould is called stupid- 
ity " ; and more to like effect. 

Mr. Colvin's enumeration of Landor's limit- 
ations is thoroughly judicious, while Mr. Hen- 
ley's indictment may be best met by reminding 
ourselves that Landor was writing conversa- 
tions and not dramas. His aim was not to de- 
' velop situations, not primarily to create char- 
acters — though he has created some, — but 
rather to put appropriate thoughts and opin- 
ions into the mouths of famous men and women 
of many lands and ages. But critics of Mr. 
Henley's stamp care little for an author's aim, 
— otherwise the following characteristic sen- 
tence of Landor's would have less point than 
it unfortunately still has : " The eyes of crit- 
ics, whether in commending or carping, are 
both on one side, like a turbot's." 

Readers who refrain from looking in Lan- 
dor for what he never purposed to give, will 
not be likely to complain with Mr. Henley 
of his poverty of imagination. It was by no 
means with the great dramatists that Lan- 
dor would have thought of comparing his 
" Imaginary Conversations," but rather with 
the great writers of dialogue. He makes Bar- 
row say to Newton : " I do not urge you to 
write in dialogue, although the best writers of 
every age have don(^ it : the best parts of Ho- 
mer and Milton are speeches and replies, the 
best parts of every great historian are the 
same : the wisest men of Athens and of Home 
converse together in this manner, as they are 
shown to us by Xenophon, by Plato, and by 
Cicero." Again, in his conversation between 
the two Ciceros, he makes TuUy say " that the 
conversations of Socrates would have lost their 
form and force, delivered in any other man- 
ner." These remarks are recognized as hav- 
ing a personal reference ; without them, how- 
ever, it is surely obvious to any sympathetic 
reader that Landor's aifti is primarily the lively 
and dramatic utterance of thought and opinion ; 
only secondarily the creation of character ; and 
that greatly as he cares for the suggestion of 
situation, he cares hardly at all for its devel- 

Significant for Landor's choice of form is 
the fact that he was, like Milton, ^' long choos- 
ing and beginning late." It was in 1824, when 
he was nearly fifty, that his first *' Imaginary 
Conversations " were published. By the time 
a man is fifty he has had occasion to make 
himself tolerably familiar with his powers and 

limitations ; * and it was plainly by a sort of 
natural selection that Landor finally hit upon 
the one literary method suited to his genius. 
He must have discovered, with or without the 
help of the critics, that his forte was in con- 
centrated vigor rather than in continuity. By 
skilful management of the dialogue form, how- 
ever, this very defect in continuity might be 
turned to good account ; accordingly his con- 
versations are full of the subtle transitions 
and abrupt turns and returns of real conversa- 
tion : they are never dissertations in dialogue. 

All reservations having been made, he is 
certainly one of our greatest masters of prose. 
In sentence form he is perhaps more exem- 
plary than any other : no writer is crisper or 
clearer. His diction is of the choicest, though 
for the taste of to-day inclining a trifle too 
much, perhaps, to Latinism. '^ During my stay 
at this inn called Human Life, I would trust 
anything to the chambermaids rather than my 
English tongue." Having a full mind, the 
fruit of wide reading and deep reflection, he 
could afford to write clearly and concisely. 
"Clear wi'iters, like clear fountains, do not 
seem so deep as they are: the turbid look 
most profound." Writing to please himself, 
not the clientele of some review, — still less 
any sect or faction, — he could afford to write 
carefully and with his eye on the object. " I 
hate false words, and seek with care, difficulty, 
and moroseness, those that fit the thing." Not 
being the slave of an editor or of a publisher, 
he could dwell upon his work; and, having 
abundant harvests, he could winnow. No writer 
has fewer commonplaces : " I have expunged 
many thoughts for their close resemblance to 
what others had written, whose works I never 
saw until after." 

To me, two of the most delightful features 
of the " Imaginary Conversations " are the 
tenderness so frequently displayed, and the 
delicate but sure handling of female character. 
I know of no more exquisite pathos, no more 
refined expression of the love of man and wo- 
man, no more truth to woman's subtler instincts^ 
than are to be found in such conversations as 
those between JEsop and Rhodope, between 
Epicuiiis, Leontion, and Ternissa, between 
Achilles and Helena, between Agamemnon 
and Iphigeneia, between Dante and Beatrice. 

Of Landor as a thinker, Mr. Colvin quotes 
Lowell to the effect that, in the region of dis- 
cursive thought, we cannot so properly call 
him a great thinker as a man who had great 
thoughts. At any rate, he dwells habitually^ 

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as Milton did, among great thoughts, and gives 
them memorable and original expression. If 
he is as discontinuous as Emerson, he is no 
less suggestive; if as im methodical as Mon- 
taigne, he is as far from writing any subject to 
the dregs. Mr. Henley asserts that he is a 
writer for writers : as everybody to-day writes, 
he should have a large audience. In truth, it 
were weU if all who think of writing would 
read him : in these days of vulgar diction and 
slipshod periods, and the low thoughts they ac- 
company, Landor should be as tonic as an 
ocean breeze. But, if little read, he is at least 
tcell read ; he is not the only great author 
whose audience remains "fit but few." In- 
deed, he expected nothing else ; an artist, he 
worked for the few who value refinement. 
*' Poetry was always my amusement, prose my 
study and business. I have published five 
volumes of ' Imaginary Conversations '; cut 
the worst of them through the middle, and 
there will remain in this decimal fraction quite 
enough to satisfy my appetite for fame. I 
shall dine late ; but the dining room will be 
well lighted, the guests few and select." 

The present edition of the Conversations is 
entirely adequate. Mr. Crump has done the 
editorial work unostentatiously, and appar- 
ently with great thoroughness. The principal 
changes made by the author in the text are 
given, — r a matter of great interest in the case 
of so careful a writer as Landor. 

Melville B. Andekson. 

Finances of the American 

A student of the financial history of the 
United States welcomes any book which gath- 
ers together the scattered facts pertaining to 
the financial administration of the Revolution- 
ary War. This Professor Sumner has under- 
taken to do in a recent publication to which he 
has given the title, " The Financier and the 
Finances of the American Revolution," and he 
has done it in a very successful manner. It 
is, however, a difiBicult task ; for, as he remarks 
in his preface, " The financial history of the 
Revolution is very obscure. The most import- 
ant records of the financial administration be- 
tween 1775 and 1781 are lost. The finances 

CAN Revoi<ution. By William Gbinham Sumner, Professor 
of PoKtical and Social Science, Yale University. In two vol- 
New York : Dodd, Mead & Co. 

of the Continental Congress had no proper 
boundary. In one point of view they seem 
never to have had any finances ; in another the 
whole administration was financial." It is im- 
possible to discover any principles worthy the 
name of financial principles in the manner in 
which the treasury of the Continental Con- 
gress was conducted. The history of the pe- 
riod is most instructive because of what it 
teaches by contrast. 

There is another reason why a careful study 
of Eobert Morris and his work in connection 
with the Revolutionary War is acceptable. The 
reputation of Alexander Hamilton as a finan- 
cier is believed by some to be greater than is 
warranted by any financial achievement trace- 
able to his influence. It seems to have been 
forgotten that Morris preceded him and that 
Gallatin followed him, the latter of whom at 
least was his equal in the mastery of financial 
details and in the grasp of political principles, 
though not possessed of so vigorous a personal- 
ity. The over-praise of Hamilton as a financier 
is due to one of those accidents that sometimes 
control the writing of history ; but now that 
Mr. Adams has given us the life of Gallatin, 
and Professor Sumner has placed within the 
reach of the student a sketch of Morris's re- 
lation to the Revolutionary treasury, it is to 
be hoped that our histories wiU in time cease 
to be distorted by over-praise of the financier 
of the Federalist party. 

There is little in the personal biography of 
Morris to claim attention. His father was a 
Liverpool merchant, and early sent his son, 
Robert Morris, Jr., to Philadelphia, where he 
was placed in a mercantile house. The young- 
er Morris was a daring speculator, and took 
delight in great commercial enterprises ; and, 
as might be expected from such a person, he 
was somewhat lavish in the display of such 
wealth as he possessed. The chief peculiar- 
ity of his public career is that when Superin- 
tendent of Finance he exercised for the beliefit 
of the public treasury the same sort of ability 
that marked his career as a merchant, and his 
reputation was so great that notes which he is- 
sued passed current rather because of his signa- 
ture than because the . Continental Congress 
promised to suppoi-t them. It was his willing- 
ness to assume risks and his command over ex- 
pedients — those characteristics which are sure 
to bring a man to the front in Wall Street spec- 
ulations — that gave Morris his preeminence ^ 
a financier. 

MoiTis was appointed Superintendent of 

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Finance in 1781. Congress had up to this 
time maintained direct control over the finan- 
cial affairs of the country, and only after re- 
peated failures was the thought impressed that 
the administration of a public treasury is 
an executive and not a legislative function. 
Though an officer of Congress, Morris always 
conducted himself as though he were at the 
head of a responsible executive bureau. In 
one sense it was fortunate that the finances of 
the country were in so confused a state when 
he assumed control ; for the credit of the coun- 
try having been all but lost, the proposals of 
the Superintendent were considered more can- 
didly and adopted more readily than would 
otherwise have been the case. The history of 
the finances of the Revolutionary War from 
1781 is the history of a series of temporary 
expedients. Still, there are certain clearly- 
defined steps by which the lost credit of the 
country was finally restored, and they are sum- 
marized by Professor Sumner as follows : 

The first important step was the formal rec- 
ognition of the collapse of paper currency, 
which occurred shortly previous to the time 
Morris assumed office. This, while doubtless for 
the time it influenced unfortunately the public 
credit, provided a clear field for other financial 
transactions ; and it is to the praise of Morris 
that no further reliance was placed upon inse- 
cure paper notes. *•*• Anticipation of taxes and 
funds," he wrote in his first communication to 
Congress, " is all that ought to be expected 
from any system of paper currency." The 
second important step was the establishment 
of what Morris always called a National Bank. 
*'*' I mean," he said, in speaking of the bank, 
" to render this a pillar of American credit." 
This bank, as established by Morris, was rath- 
er a peculiar institution, judging by the modern 
standpoint of what a bank is. It was partly 
a means of obtaining subscriptions for public 
necessities, partly a means for funding debts 
which had previously been contracted, and 
partly an institution for placing the loans of 
the government among the people. It, how- 
ever, served its purpose, and one cannot fail 
to be struck with the great ingenuity of the 
man who planned it and for all practical pur- 
poses directed its policy. In the third place, 
Morris took steps towards introducing a system 
of taxation ; and although the effoii; produced 
trivial results, it yet exerted an influence upon 
public credit. And, finally, it was through 
the vigor which he infused into the financial 
transactions of this country that Holland was 

brought to loan money to Congress without a 
guarantee from France. 

It is impossible to determine very accurate- 
ly the cost of the Revolutionary War. The 
amount expended " at the Treasury," reduced 
to a specie basis, was •'!(92,485,698 ; but be- 
sides this there was expended away from the 
Treasury enough to cause the total cost to 
the American States to amount to #135,000,- 
000. Besides this sum, the expenditures of 
France are estimated by Professor Sumner to 
have been not less than $60,000,000. And 
the net amount received by Congress as the 
result of taxation on which to float so large 
expenditure was but *2,026,099. 

The career of Morris after he resigned his 
control of the treasury is not especially in- 
structive. He served as Senator from Penn- 
sylvania during the first six years under the 
Constitution, but his interest in the develop- 
ment of the newly-founded city of Washing- 
ton was greater than in public questions. He 
was a speculator by nature, and therefore 
could not be a statesman ; and it is a curious 
commentary that the man who by his personal 
credit carried the finances of the Continental 
Congress through its greatest crisis should 
have suffered reverses when operating on his 
own account. Hexry C. Adams. 

The Evolution of Antique Art.* 

M. Georges Perrot, the eminent French 
archaeologist who more than ten years ago set 
out upon an investigation of the art of Greece, 
has now arrived within sight of his promised 
goal. It was a herculean task he proposed to 
himself, of tracing from its sources the evolu- 
tion of that antique art which in the regular 
line of development culminated in the glori- 
ous achievements of Hellenic genius. He be- 
gan with an exhaustive research among the re- 
mains of Egyptian architecture, painting, and 
sculpture, and, carefully following the path as 
it opened before him, embraced in his survey 
the records found in the iniins of the chief na- 
tions of anterior Asia, Chaldaea, Assyria, Phoe- 

* History of Art xn Persia: From the French of Georges 
Perrot, Member of the Institute, Professor in the Faculty of 
Letters, Paris ; and Charles Chippiez. Illostrated with 254 
engrravings in the text, and twelve sfceel and color plates. 
New York : A. C. Armstrong <& Son. 

History op Art in Phrtoia, Lydia, Caria, and Lycia. 
From the French of Georges Perrot, Member of the Insti- 
tute, Professor in the Faculty of Letters, Paris ; and Charles 
Chippiez. Illustrated with 280 engravings. New York : A. C. 
Armstrong & Son. 

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nicia, Sardinia, Judsea, Syria and Asia Minor, 
Persia, Phrygia, Lydia, Caria, and Lycia.. 

The results of this enormous preliminary 
work are enclosed in ten imperial octavo vol- 
umes, which are a noble monument to the con- 
scientious, ably-directed, and fruitful industry 
of their author. The two numbers of the se- 
ries recently placed within the reach of the pub- 
lic contain, in one, the story of the art-life of 
Persia ; in the other, that of the four nations 
last named in the catalogue given just above. 
They are of the same texture as the volumes 
preceding them — minute, comprehensive, com- 
pact, masterly treatises, awakening in an equal 
degree interest in their subject and respect for 
the talents of one who has so splendidly under- 
taken and executed an arduous enterprise. 

The history of Persian art covers but a brief 
period. The career of the nation was swiftly 
run. Upon the foundations laid by Cyrus the 
Great, in 558 B.C., there rose, like a brilliant 
dream, a civil structure which became the 
most powerful in the world and the centre of 
the civilization of its time. Twelve kings, in- 
cluding the usurper Smendis, sat in the order 
of their inheritance upon the throne erected by 
Cyrus, and revelled in the oriental might and 
magnificence he had established. Then the 
dynasty abruptly terminated. The armies of 
Alexander and of Darius III., known as Codo- 
mannus, met on the fatal field of Arbela, and 
the unhappy Persian commander perished a 
year later, 330 B.C., at the hand of one of his 
own satraps. Thus was the existence of one 
of the proudest of the great Asiatic monarchies 
compressed into a term scarcely exceeding two 

Prefacing his main account with a sketchy 
outline of the physical features of the country 
surrounding the seat of empire in ancient Iran, 
of the striking points in the history of its kings, 
and of the tenets of the national religion, M. 
Perrot proceeds to a critical examination of 
the testimonials relating to Persian art that 
are at present accessible in the archives of lit- 
erature and in the few remains of once popu- 
lous cities which still stand on their original 
sites or have been unearthed by resolute ex- 
plorers. He leaves to the future exposition of 
M. Dieulafoy, a fellow countryman and archae- 
ologist, the scanty materials lately obtained 
from the long-lost city of Susa, the Shushan of 
the book of Esther, whose wealth and extent 
when captured by Alexander were almost be- 
yond description. But from Pasargadse, the 
residence of Cyrus, and Persepolis, enriched 

by the palaces of Xerxes and Darius Hystas- 
pis, and from a few less important ruins, he 
gathers every rescued fragment, and with won- 
derful patience and skill fits one to another and 
reads from their obscure surfaces a connected 
history as impressive as it is ingenious. 

A few rock-cut tombs are found near the 
sites of the royal cities. They are mausoleums 
attesting the grandeur of despotic sovereigns. 
No burial-places of the people have been dis- 
covered. Indeed, none ever existed ; as, in ac- 
cordance with their religious teachings, inhu- 
mation was avoided, and the bodies of the dead 
were exposed, as by the Parsees of to-day, to 
the obscene ravages of birds of prey. Neither 
were there temples for the worship of their 
gods. Sacred rites were performed in the 
open air, before altars on which a flame of pure 
fire was kept burning as a symbol of the su- 
preme deity, Ahura-Mazda, the source of light 
and life. These Atesh-gah^ or fire-places, in a 
ruinous state, are scattered over the land, the 
sole representatives of the religious architect- 
ure of the old Persian empire. 

To the royal residences of Pasargadse and 
Persepolis we must look almost exclusively for 
examples of Persian art. There were no walled 
towns — at least in the time of Alexander, — 
their defense being entrusted to fortresses ; and 
the dwellings of the people were built of wood. 
These last have utterly perished. The life of 
the nation was bound up in the king and the 
officials and attendants ministering to his will. 
On colossal mounds of artificial construction, 
his halls of state and private palaces, with the 
homes for his women, were erected ; and here 
were expended all the inventions of his own 
and tributary nations, to surround him with 
the pomp and luxury befitting a barbarian 
monarch of unexampled wealth and boundless 
authority. The famous edifice at Kamak can 
alone compare in size with the wonderful Hypo- 
style hall of Xerxes at Persepolis, the roof of 
which was supported by a hundred lofty col- 
umns. This probably served the purpose of a 
throne room ; while the palace, dedicated to the 
king's personal uses, was even more magnifi- 
cent, exceeding in dimensions and lavish adorn- 
ment any structure of any age built of wood or 
stone. In its main apartment seventy-two pillars 
lifted their airy and elegant shafts to the ceiling, 
and the walls of the entire interior were en- 
crusted with ivory, precious woods, and gleam> 
ing metals, and hung with the costliest tapes- 
tries. Reproductions of these sumptuous edi- 
fices, in their supposed original splendor, are 

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shown by M. Perrot's collaborator, the architect 
Charles Chippiez, whose name has been associ- 
ated with Perrot's throughout the course of his 
researches, and has an equal place on the title 
page of each published volume. Without the 
help of the exquisite drawings of M. Chippiez, 
it would be impossible to gain a full concep- 
tion of tlie vast extent and rich detail of the 
special creations of the art peculiar to Persia. 
It was imposing, it had various original fea- 
tures, and yet M. Perrot tells us it was imita- 
tive, taken as a whole. He even questions if 
foreign artists were not employed at the bid- 
ding of the king, to construct works which 
illustrated his greatness^ but could not have 
sprung fi'om the genius of a people enslaved 
from generation to generation. He finds in 
the monotony of design and treatment charac- 
terizing the monuments of every sort, in the 
absence of spontaneity and natural vigor, abun- 
dant proof that they who planned, as they 
who wrought, in the various departments of 
Persian art, toiled to gratify the pleasure of a 
sovereign master, and not to give expression 
to id«as that were the heritage and outgrowth 
of the popular mind. 

The history of art in Phrygia, Lydia, Caria, 
and Lycia, is treated by M. Perrot with his 
unvarying knowledge and fidelity. Less impor- 
tant than that of Persia, it is less inviting ; 
nevertheless, it could not be spared from the 
general connection. It supplies links in the 
chain the author has been slowly welding to 
unite the art products of the oldest histor- 
ical nations in one unbroken series with those 
which in ancient Greece became the crowning 
glory of the classical world. The two volumes 
are prodigally illustrated with full-page and 
minor engravings of the best workmanship. 
That dealing with Persia contains, in addition, 
twelve steel and colored plates of extreme 

^^"*y- Sara A. Hubbard. 

Kngi.and's Ixdustrial axi> Commehctal. 

As the later methods of economic study have 
tended to lead investigators away from ab- 
stract theories to the analysis and interpre- 
tation of industrial facts, it is very desirable 
that competent authors select and arrange the 
leading facts of economic life, statistically and 

•The Industrial and Commercial History of En- 
gland. By the late James £. Thorold Ros^era. Edited by 
his son. Arthur G. L. Rogers. New York : G. P. Putnam's 

historically. For the preparation of books of 
this kind, probably no man of the present gen- 
eration has been better equipped than was the 
late Professor Thorold Rogers. In his great 
work on the " History of Prices in England," 
and in his "Six Centuries of Work and Wages," 
he laid a basis of fact for the testing of many 
of our economic theories and for the working 
out of new ones. His posthumous work on 
"The Industrial and Commercial History of 
England," consisting of two courses of lectures 
delivered at Oxford, is not to be considered as 
of so much importance as either of the two 
preceding works ; but nevertheless, written by 
a man so competent to discuss the question in 
hand, it is one that is very valuable and inter- 
esting. I say interesting, for two reasons. The 
details of the development of industrial skiU 
in England, of the making of new inventions, 
of progress in population, of the development 
of credit agencies and of means of transit, of 
chartered trade companies, joint stock com- 
panies, etc., cannot fail to interest anyone who 
has any taste for the study of economics or for 
business. When to this is added the author's 
love for a good hit at one of his contempo- 
raries of whose economic doctrines he disap- 
proves, or for an entertaining story, the inter- 
est is increased. 

Rogers's lecture writing is not of the digni- 
fied dry style that some consider essential for 
the statement of scientific doctrines or scientific 
facts. A new story of Arkwright, in telling 
which h6 trusts that he is not anticipating "the 
excellent Mr. Smiles," not merely illustrates, 
as he says, " how active the minds of English 
inventors in the North were during the period 
which followed on the peace of Paris, when a 
new world was opened to the energy of the 
British shop-keeper and merchant," but it illus- 
trates his manner as well. When Arkwright 
had almost perfected his first power-loom, " he 
found that the yarn as it was delivered from 
the rollers had a queer and fatal trick of curling 
back." Calling in a local blacksmith to his aid, 
the latter told him that he thought he could 
cure the trouble ; but his terms for the service 
were "ten years' partnership and equal profits." 

"This was too much for Arkwright, who, like Naaman 
of old, turned and went away in a rage ; but still the 
yarn curled and dasbed his hopes. At last, he reluc- 
tantly yielded to the blacksmith. Then occurred an- 
other scene. The blacksmith thought the deed of part- 
nership should be executed and enroUed. Arkwright 
stormed, and, I regret to say, swore violently ; but the 
local Vulcan was firm. When the deed was signed, the 
blacksmith went behind the rollers and apparently 
rubbed one of them with his hand. Instantly the yam 

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was delivered as was wished, and the astonished and 
enraged Arkwright found that his new partner had only 
nibbed one of the rollers with a piece of chalk ; in 
other words, proved that one of them should have a 
different surface from the other. The execrations of 
the enraged manufacturer were unspeakable; but the 
compact held, and in the end the blacksmith became 
Lord Belper." 

The second course of lectures gives us more 
economic doctrine, treating the subjects of 
Waste, Rent, Bimetallism, Trade and Compe- 
tition, etc., closing with a brief review, in two 
chapters, of English Economic Legislation 
from 1815 up to the present time. 

Though the book is devoted to the industrial 
history of England, the author gives us much 
valuable information with reference to the de- 
velopment of industry in other countries of 
Europe — Holland, Belgium, France, Germany, 
— their experience being cited wherever it can 
throw light upon the causes of English devel- 
opment or add pith to the matter by comparison. 

This book shows, as do the other works of 
Professor Rogers, his remarkable learning in 
facts, his intolerance toward those who differ 
from him in method, his sense of humor, and 
his sound judgment on many important ques- 
tions of the time. The lectures on Waste, Con- 
tracts for the Use of Land, Competition, etc., 
contain much excellent material for every-day 
political and family life. 

A few sentences from the close of his first 
lecture give us a specimen of his habit of 
wholesale praise or blame — usually blame, — 
with a touch of his political wisdom and a hint 
of his opinion of our wisdom. 

** Even though Europe has profited by peace during 
two-thirds of a generation, I see no reason to think 
that British industry and invention are losing their hold 
on the world's progress, or that, as was the case some 
centuries ago, our people have to be taught by foreign- 
ers. On the contrary, the German has not got beyond 
the position of an imitator, and not an over-honest one 
either. The United States have made no great discov- 
eries. And so with the rest of the nations. Nor is the 
cause far to seek. These political communities had de- 
liberately adopted protection. Governments have been 
too weak or too dishonest to be sensible, and are conse- 
quently crippling the intelligence of those whose affairs 
they administer, by pandering to the foolish, dangerous, 
and wholly unjust dictum, that private interests are 
public benefits.'* 

The last sentence of the book adds to this a 
sample of his humor, and shows that he thinks 
as little of English political methods as of our 
own. Speaking of the income tax and of his 
own efforts to have the tax system of England 
modified, he says : 

** I am not conscious of any bias in what I have said 
or say, when I allege that the extraordinary expendi- 

ture of government seems likely to be provided, as it has 
been in recent years, from the most unfair, indefens- 
ible, and nearly the most mischievous tax that can be 
devised. But as the Patriarch said, Issachar is a strong 
ass, and if, as some say, we are descended from the lost 
tribes, 1 make a shrewd guess at the particular tribe to 
which we must assign our origin." 

The work is a valuable one, and will be used, 
doubtless, in many of our colleges as a work 
of reference for students of history and econo- 
mics. Indeed, for a special course in our larg- 
est institutions, it will by many be considered 
the best text-book obtainable on the subject. 

Jeremiah W. Jenks. 

Home Recent Discussions of Religion 
AND Philosophy.* 

The liberal movement in religious thought 
represents the vital religious impulse of the 
time. It is not a movement away from relig- 
ion, it is a movement towards religion — a 
searching of the true religious spirit for a 
more adequate expression of itself. This move- 
ment is, of course, but a part of the larger 
movement towards freedom, which shows itself 
also in politics and philosophy. It is every- 
where the attempt to bring the spirit and vital 
truth in the place of forms and formulae. Men 
want the reality^ as never before ; and they 
want it as little as possible encumbered with 
outer wrappings. Whatever be the " breadth " 
of our individual opinions, it is important that 
all should recognize that the liberal demand 
for a re-statement of religious truth is serious, 
sober, determined, and an expression of the re- 
ligious spirit. One of the evidences of this 
may be found in the number of strong books 
of a liberal tendency that issue in these days 
from the press. A few of them are grouped 
together here. 

A frequent criticism of the '' New Theolo- 
gy" is that it does not define its position. 
Men say that they cannot tell whether to accept 
it or not, as they do not clearly know what it is. 
Ex-President Bascom's book, " The New The- 
ology," makes a good point right at the outset 

* The New Theoi/>oy. By John Basoom. New York : 
G. P. Pntnam's Sons. 

Amthbopolooical Rbuoion. The Gifford Lectures for 
1891. By F. Max MiiUer. New York : Longmans, Green & Co. 

What is Reauty? By Francis Howe Johnson. Bos- 
ton : Honghton, Mifflin & Co. 

Evolution and its Relation to Relioious Thought. 
By Joseph Le Conte. (New edition.) New York : Appleton 

The Spirit of Modern Philosophy. By Josiah Royce. 
Boston : Honghton, Mifflin & Co. 

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by insisting that the New Theology is not a 
creed but a tendency. It consists, indeed, 
" largely in breaking old bonds and in refus- 
ing to accept new ones" (p. 1). It cannot, 
therefore, fairly be asked to define its position. 
Movements in thought, like the Kingdom of 
God, come not with observation ; , their char- 
acter is discernible only by those who feel and 
know them within themselves. Still, some ex- 
pression can be given of its general spirit. By 
the New Theology, Dr. Bascom understands 

*< An awakening in religious thought which leads it to 
seek for more flexible, less rigid ; more productive, less 
barren; more living, less dead forms of expression and 
action, and by means of them to come fully under the 
progressive movement which belongs to our time as 
one of enlarged knowledge and renewed social life" 
(p. 2). 

A corollary of the inwardness of new move- 
ments of thought is the fact that accounts of 
them are necessarily somewhat subjective. No 
one man can hope to make entirely his own a 
great contemporaneous movement. He sees 
only phases of it, and most clearly those that 
have affected him, or that he shares. We must 
not be surprised, therefore, to find that Dr. 
Bascom's conception of the New Theology — 
his criticisms of the old ways of thinking, and 
especially his ideas as to what considerations will 
best help us over our present theological diflS- 
culties — is strongly colored by his personal 
philosophy, and by what has been transpiring 
within his own inner consciousness. 

The book consists of an Introduction and five 
Essays, entitled respectively, "Naturalism," 
*'The Supernatural," "Dogmatism," "Piet- 
ism," and " Spiritualism." The Introduction 
shows a wide-awake appreciation of many of the 
religious characteristics of the present time — 
the alienation of the masses from the churches, 
the diminished importance of dogmas and 
creeds, the moralization of religion, etc. The 
main thought running through the essays 
seems to be that the situation brought about 
by the advancement of science calls especially 
for a new definition of the spheres of the natural 
and supernatural, and that from a just settle- 
ment of their relation religious thought should 
go on, after appropriating the good and reject- 
ing the evil in Dogmatism and Pietism, to the 
form of a true Spiritualism. Were it possible, 
it would be a pleasure to follow through the 
argument of these chapters. They each con- 
tain very much that is excellent and that is 
well said. Only a few points can be noted. 
The author contends for the extension of the 
sphere of law to the spiritual world. The 

truths of revelation would then no longer be 
understood as received contrary to reason. In 
the natural and necessary formation of dog- 
mas, it is essential to allow for change under 
the advancement of knowledge. The mistake of 
dogma is to claim absolute certainty and final- 
ity. Putting thoughts in formulae, in finally 
fixed forms, is the death-blow of progress. 
Dogmas are necessary and very helpful, but 
only when held loosely and susceptible of modi- 
fication with increasing experience. The fault 
of Pietism is its narrowness. It is a heated 
centre. It misses the breadth of life. It is 
other-worldly. It fails to see that salvation 
consists in a dutiful life. It thinks to remedy 
the loss of the church's power, because of its 
dogmatic inflexibility, by mere lung-power ex- 
pended upon the few most important doctrines. 
The Spiritualism of a higher life is the condi- 
tion of progress and true salvation. It is a 
"subjection of the entire life to the higher 
laws which spring up in apprehension of the 
true, the beautiful, and the good" (p. 196). 
This is the life of the Spirit. It gives us, by 
true penetrative insight, the thoughts and 
principles of Christ, without a dogmatic theol- 
ogy. Somewhat after the manner of " Eoee 
Homo," the author then lets the chief teach- 
ings of Christ speak for themselves. 

Perhaps the book as a whole wants strong 
and clear outlines. It shows much vigor 
of statement and skilful argument, but still 
hardly coherent presentation. And, together 
with much freshness in his way of putting 
things, it is to be feared that the author retains 
enough of the old phraseology to prejudice at 
times his reader's chance of getting his thought. 

There are few more striking evidences of 
the progress made in the free discussion of re- 
ligious questions than are to be found in the 
terms of the munificent bequest of the late Lord 
Gifford, of Scotland, which established lecture- 
ships in Natural Theology at the four Scot- 
tish Universities. As an expression of reli- 
gious toleration, the entire trust-deed is a 
highly interesting document : perhaps the pro- 
vision respecting the qualifications of the lec- 
turers is sufficiently noteworthy to warrant be- 
ing quoted in full. It reads : 

**' The lecturers appointed shall be subjected to no test of 
any kind, and shall not be required to take any oath, or 
to emit or subscribe any declaration of belief, or to make 
any promise of any kind : they may be of any denomi- 
nation whatever, or of no denomination at all (and many 
earnest and higl\-minded men prefer to belong to no 
ecclesiastical denomination) ; they may be of any reli- 
gion or way of thinking, or, as is sometimes said, they 

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may be of no religion, or they may be so-ealled sceptics, 
or agnostics, or free-thinkers, provided only that the 
' patrons ' will use diligence to secure that they be able, 
reverent men, true thinkers, sincere lovers of and earn- 
est inqairers after truth." 

Professor Max Miiller was appointed, in 
1888, to the lectureship at Glasgow, and deliv- 
ered, in that year and the following, two courses 
of lectures upon "Natural Religion" and "Phys- 
ical Religion " respectively. Being reappointed 
for another two years, he has now followed 
with the lectures upon " Anthropological Reli- 
gion,'' and promises to conclude with a series 
upon " Psychological Religion." These series 
of lectures are of course continuous, each in 
turn unfolding some important part of the gen- 
eral subject of Natural Religion. They ought, 
accordingly, to be taken together. Their con- 
neetion may be briefly indicated as follows: 
The volume on "Natural Religion" lays the 
foundation for the rest by a full discussion of 
(1) the definition of Natural Religion, ( 2) 
the proper method of its treatment, and (8) 
the materials available for its study. The lec- 
tures on "Physical Religion" undertake to 
show that from the contemplation of nature 
man inevitably comes to believe in an invisible 
cause of nature; and, similarly, those on 
" Anthropological Religion " seek to show that 
from the contemplation of himself man as in- 
evitably comes to believe in the existence of 
his own soul, and in its immortality. The au- 
thor declares that the purpose of the whole 
series is to show that religion is natural to man 
by historical investigation rather than by a 
priori reasoning. The question whether he has 
succeeded in all the details of the attempt must 
be left to specialists in the fields of philological 
and ethnological research. Certainly no one 
who believes that all revelation has really been 
through the human consciousness — elevated, 
to be sure, at the time by so rare and supreme 
an insight as to be properly called " divine " — 
would have any a priori difficulty with the au- 
thor's general thesis. Some allowance must of 
course be made for the circumstances of a pub- 
lic lectureship ; but none the less it seems a 
misfortune that so much of the space of a se- 
rious scientific book should have to be given 
up to controversy and mere recapitulation. 
On the whole, " Anthropological Religion " 
presents very little of philosophical interest, 
and, in the opinion of a layman, not much that 
is new. The concluding course on " Psycholog- 
ical Religion," may perhaps be expected to ofPer 
more that is suggestive to the philosophical 

A book of far greater philosophical ambition 
is " What is Reality ? " by Francis Howe John- 
son. The sub-title more nearly indicates its 
purpose — "An Inquiry as to the Reasonable- 
ness of Natural Religion, and the Naturalness 
of Revealed Religion." The Preface declares 
that the object of the book is " to show that 
the premises of religion are as real as any part 
of man's knowledge ; and that the method by 
which its vital truths are deduced from these 
premises are no less legitimate than those em- 
ployed by science." If it shall prove that Mr. 
Johnson had carried out this important under- 
taking to the satisfaction of large numbers of 
thinking men, the present generation will cer- 
tainly owe him a very large intellectual debt« 
The present writer, however, cannot think that 
he has been altogether successful. The intro- 
ductory chapter is progressive, courageous, 
clear-sighted, and intellectually honest; and, 
especially by its swift and apparently master- 
ful movement, fills one with high and confi- 
dent expectation. But the subsequent hand- 
ling of the argument hardly justifies this ex- 

The first point to make clear is the relation 
of the problem of reality to the author's spe- 
cial thesis. Stated in a word, it is this : If the 
faith of religion is to be able to claim an equally 
verifiable basis with the " truths " of science, 
it must be shown that spirit is a reality. What, 
therefore, is Reality ? Mr. Johnson at once 
answers this question, and develops the prin- 
ciples which he wishes to apply to timely the- 
ological matters, somewhat as follows: The 
ego as active immediately knows itself as real. 
This is the " complex ego of experience ; the 
ego^ plus all the relation that it sustains to all 
other forms of being." This human ego^ " the 
largest, most comprehensive reality of experi- 
mental sjmthesis," is the " reality from which 
all man's knowledge takes its start," the basis, 
therefore, of all safe philosophizing (pp. 138, 
227, 241). This fundamental reality, the con- 
crete human ego^ is a dual reality. It exhib- 
its a two-fold aspect. It is both one and many. 
First, it is the chief unit in the physical or- 
ganism, " the intelligent and supreme head of 
a great and diverse multitude of organically 
connected living agents" (p. 241), the centre 
and even creator of its own world of manifold 
activities (pp. 137, 188). Yet, on the other 
hand, it is an aggregate of individuals, it 
" embraces within itself an untold multitude 
of beings." We may find a symbol of its be- 
ing as a many in a " combination of atoms " 

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(p. 196). Hence the ego is a "unity in mul- 
tiplicity." We must conceive of it as " em- 
bracing a divei*sity of beings, that are distinct 
yet inter-related, and comprehended in the 
higher personal unity " (Contents, p. xiv.). 
The ego is at once transcendent — a distinct, 
separate, overruling being ; and immanent — 
the very life of the subordinate beings them- 
selves. But this fact of " being within being," 
of " life within life," is wholly imintelligible. 
How it is that one being can consist of many, 
will forever remain a mystery. We are ac- 
cordingly obliged to employ these principles in 
turn, to look first on one side of this " double- 
faced fact," and then on the other. The two 
cannot be united in thought (pp. 222-4, 
243). If asked whether the principles of tran- 
scendency and immanency are not contradic- 
tory of each other, the answer is that we can- 
not prove that they are not ; we can only point 
to the fact that they are combined in expe- 
rience (p. 252). 

Now the conception of the human ego^ as a 
mysterious unity in complexity, becomes in 
Mr. Johnson's hands a master-key for unlock- 
ing all problems. Extending it by analogy to 
the Divine Being, God may be thought of as 
the ego of the universe, at once immanent and 
transcendent (p. 251) ; and our relations to 
Him and to each other are therein to find their 
explanation. Moreover, by this conception of 
combined immanence and transcendence the 
author finds it possible to assimilate evolution, 
and progressive views of revelation, miracles, 
etc., to one religious faith. 

With the author's main conclusions, so far 
as they are positive, we have no quarrel. Our 
complaint is rather with their incompleteness 
— with that unsolved, mysterious, perhaps self- 
contradictory " double-faced fact," " these two 
realities, coexistent, but not harmonized in our 
experience " (p. 224), — and with the method 
by which they have been reached. Mr. John- 
son frequently uses the term organic unity ^ but 
plainly has in mind a half-mechanical, half- 
chemical unity. Had he been fortunate enough 
to study the great Idealists without the assist- 
ance of Lotze, and especially of Mr. Seth, he 
might have got a clear grasp of this conception, 
which he seems always on the point of getting, 
but never fairly gets, and which would have ena- 
bled him to conclude without supposed mystery 
and contradiction in his fundamental princi- 
ple. He might then have learned that the ego 
as unity, as transcendent, is not distinct and 
separate, not a chief unit, or master monad. 

among the others, but the ideal whole, the law 
of the whole. The unity of transcendency 
and immanency means that the law of the 
whole is at once indwelling in the members 
and dominant over their life, and yet the law is 
nothing but the working together of the mem- 
bers themselves. And, moreover, it would then 
have ceased to be a matter of difficulty that 
the " how of this combination " can never be 
conceived. " How " is an empirical problem. 
It has to do with spatial and temporal order. 
There is no " how " of spiritual activity (but 
this does not imply that it does not follow 
law). The "how" connected with spiritual 
activity can refer only to the order of the phys- 
ical aspect correlated with the spiritual. To 
ask the question, then, shows that the mind is 
set on a mechanical problem — is thinking in 
terms of space and mechanical causation. It 
must be admitted, however, that organic unity 
as conceived by Mr. Johnson is mysterious 
and unintelligible, because it imj^lies a direct 

This failure to grasp the real nature of or- 
ganic unity is fundamental, and leaves a log- 
ical blemish upon nearly all of the author's 
work. Thorough minds, moreover, will proba- 
bly not be satisfied with his appeal to man's 
immediate consciousness in determining the 
prime reality which is to furnish the starting- 
point, with the fact that he does not teU us 
definitely and fully what the characteristics of 
reality are, and most of all with his reliance 
upon an analogy for the nerve of his whole argu- 
ment as to the nature of the Divine Being and 
the reality of the world. Why rely on an 
analogy, when a necessary condusion from 
given facts yields the result with certainty? 
Human self-consciousness implies the Absolute 
Spirit with a necessity that can be demon- 
stated. But this criticism ought not to be al- 
lowed to obscure the fact that Mr. Johnson 
has produced a well-written, strong book, which 
will be suggestive and helpful to many minds, 
even though it fails, as we think, in method, 
and in leaving a residual mystery. 

Perhaps no hypothesis in the whole history 
of thought has been of a more profoundly rev- 
olutionary character, as regards religious be- 
lief, than the modem doctrine of Evolution. If 
it has not disturbed thought so violently as 
other innovations, that is because the rapid 
succession of great scientific discoveries in 
modem times has accustomed the world to re- 
ceive new and startling truths with more com- 
posure. Of its emphatically revolutionary 

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character, when we consider all that properly 
goes with it, there can be no doubt. Under 
these circumstances, it was but natural that the 
world should be flooded with the attempts of 
peace-makers. And to such an extent was it 
flooded, that people came to have an instinc- 
tive, and in many instances well-founded, aver- 
sion to books proposing to " reconcile Science 
and Religion." Quite superior to most of the 
books of this class, in its grasp of the full 
meaning of the new truth, was Professor Joseph 
Le Conte's " Evolution and its Relation to Re- 
ligious Thought," which has now appeared in 
a second and revised edition. The book has a 
logical arrangement in three parts, devoted 
respectively to answering the questions. What 
is Evolution? What are the evidences of 
its truth? What is its relation to religious 
thought? Evolution is defined as, " (1) con- 
tinuous, jyrogressive change^ (2) according to 
certain laws^ (3) and by means of resident 
forces " (p. 8). The account of the nature and 
evidences of the truth of Evolution contained 
in the first two parts is perhaps the best con- 
cise account in English. The discussion omits 
nothing of importance; the material is pre- 
sented with remarkable clearness, and is thor- 
oughly accessible to the general reader. The 
critical discussion of the empirical evidences of 
Evolution is of course a special field, and we 
must not be understood as commenting, favor- 
able or otherwise, upon the author's position 
on controverted points. 

Of chief interest in this connection is, of 
course, part three, on the bearings of the doc- 
trine of Evolution upon religious thought. The 
key to Le Conte's handling of this question — 
the thought that constantly reappears on his 
pages — is that Evolution is creation by a pro- 
cess of law. It will be seen, therefore, that he 
believes equally in Evolution arud Creation. 
There are three views which may be taken of 
the origin of organic forms. They may be 
thought of, (1) as made without natural pro- 
cess, (2) as derived simply, or (8) as created 
by a process of evolution. " The first view as- 
serts divine agency, but denies natural process; 
the second asserts natural process, but denies 
divine agency ; the third asserts divine agency 
hy nat/ural process'' (p. 292). The first two 
views are at once right and wrong, — right in 
what each asserts, wrong in what it denies ; 
the third combines and reconciles the other 
two. By a strange perversity, we no sooner 
find out how a thing was made than we forth- 
with declare that it was not created at all. 

Evolution is the divine process of creation. 
The old notion of creation is mythological. Its 
explanation is entirely arbitrary. It points 
out no series of causes and effects, the connec- 
tions between which can be followed in thought. 
It is therefore, in reality, no explanation at all. 
On the other hand, materialism is a hasty in- 
ference. Because a natural explanation can 
be given of every event, we are not to conclude 
that Nature needs no God. For what is Nature 
herself ? What is necessary is that we recon- 
struct our conception of the Divine Being, and 
of creation. We must substitute for the thought 
of God as separate from the world, and as 
dealing arbitrarily with it, the thought of the 
Divine immanency ; and for the notion of an 
arbitrary, unintelligible creation out of nothing 
by mere^a^ of will, the thought of a creation 
by a process of law. That God brings things 
into existence by a process of law should no 
more seem to exclude his divine agency than 
the fact that He sustains the created universe 
by the law of gravitation, does so. " If evo- 
lution be materialism, then is gravitation also 
materialism " (p. 295). God is immanent in 
creation, and manifests his divine creative 
agency in and through natural processes. 

After the defense of the general theistic char- 
acter of Evolution, the most difficult point is, 
of course, the problem of the origin of the self- 
conscious spirit of man. The chapter on 
'* The Relation of Man to Nature," in which 
this question is discussed, the author accord- 
ingly regards as the most important in the 
whole book. The view which he maintains, 
and which is foreshadowed in the general view 
of Evolution already indicated, can fortun- 
ately be concisely stated in its own words : 

" I believe that the spirit of mau tocuf developed out 
of the anima or conscioas principle of animals, and that 
this, again, was developed out of the lower forms of 
life-force, and this in its turn out of the chemical and 
physical forces of nature : and that at a certain stage in 
this gradual development, viz., with man, it acquired 
the property of immortality precisely as it now, in the 
individual history of each man at a certain stage, ac- 
quires the capacity of abstract thought" (pp. 313-14). 

On the whole, considering its scope and 
the variety of questions discussed. Professor 
Le Conte's book does ample justice to its 
title. It is heartily to be commended to the 
general reader for the remarkably clear and 
forcible style in which the matter is presented, 
and for the general soundness of the philo- 
sophical principles which underlie its interpre- 
tation of the great law of Evolution. 

The same attempt to get a closer hold upon 

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reality, and to attain a simpler expression of 
spiritual possessions, that characterizes the 
movement toward reconstruction in religion, 
shows itself also in the sphere of philosophy 
proper " The Spirit of Modem Philosophy," by 
Prof essor Josiah Royce, signalizes the successive 
triumphs of modern thought in its attempt to 
win rational freedom. The readers of Pro- 
fessor Royce's " Religious Aspect of Philoso- 
phy " will expect nothing else from him but a 
book of suggestiveness and solidity. We think 
that they will not be disappointed. To a se- 
ries of most felicitous expository essays on the 
representative modern thinkers, he appends a 
Second Part — " Suggestions of Doctrine •" — 
presenting what is at present tangible in his 
own philosophical creed. The value of these 
suggestions — chief of which, perhaps, is the 
thought that we are now to return, enriched by 
the conquests of Idealism, to a patient study of 
the outer order (pp. 268, 805-7),— it will be 
impossible here to discuss. But in publishing 
the series of historical sketches wluch consti- 
tute Part First, Professor Royce has unques- 
tionably performed a real service. Original 
work in the History of Philosophy has been 
a desideratum in this country. And thorough- 
ly readable, entertaining accounts of the His- 
tpry of Philosophy have been a desideratum 
the world over. Professor Royce writes with 
real style. He possesses the faculty not only 
of embuing his account with a fulness of vivid 
human interest, but of making the difficult 
points wonderfully simple, without in the least 
impairing the statement of the full, hard truth. 
A good instance of this is the account of Kant. 
Especially noteworthy is the summary on page 
131. Particularly felicitous, in the Second 
Part, are the author's account of the larger or 
universal self (p. 378), and the development 
of the world of appreciation (pp. 407-10). 

WiLLisTON S. Hough. 

Briefs ox New Books. 

Few characters in hi8toi*y have more often at- 
tracted the biographer than Sir Walter Raleigh. 
That the subject still holds its fascination is shown 
by the recent large octavo of four hundred pages 
by William Stebbing, M.A., called "Sir Walter 
Ralegh: A Biography'* (Macmillan). The author 
has evidently desired to avoid being beguiled into 
describing an era as well as its representative ; has 
striven to refrain from writing history and to re- 
strict himself to the presentment of a life. Raleigh's 
multifarious activity, with the width of the area in 

which it operated, constantly involved him in a web 
of other men's fortunes and in national crises. And, 
even within the strictly biographical province, the 
difficulties are very great ; it is a confusing task to 
keep at once independent and in unison the poet, 
statesman, courtier, schemer, patriot, soldier, sailor, 
freebooter, discoverer, colonist, castle-builder, histo- 
rian, philosopher, chemist, prisoner, and visionary. 
Another confusion results from the discovery that 
not an action ascribed to him, not a plan he is reputed 
to have conceived, not a date in his multifarious 
career, but is matter of controversy. Posterity and 
his contemporaries have equally been unable to agree 
on his virtues and his vices, the nature of his mo- 
tives, the spelling of his name, and the amount of 
his *genius. He had a poet's inspirations, and the 
title to most of the verses ascribed to him is con- 
tested. He was one of the creators of modern En- 
glish prose ; and his disquisitions have for two cen- 
turies ceased to be read. He and Bacon are cou- 
pled by Dugald Stewart as beyond their age for 
their emancipation from the fetters of the school- 
men, their originality, and the enlargement of their 
scientific conceptions; yet a single phrase, "the 
fundamental laws of human knowledge," is the only 
philosophical idea connected with him. But amid 
all the tangled threads of this wonderfully versatile 
existence, our author has succeeded in unravelling 
so much of its secret that we agree with him that 
"if less various, Ralegh would have been less at- 
tractive. If he had shone without a cloud in any 
one direction, he would not have pervaded a period 
with the splendor of his nature, and become its 
type. More smoothness in his fortunes would have 
shorn them of their tragic picturesqueness. With 
all the shortcomings, no figure, no life, gathers up 
in itself more completely the whole spirit of an 
epoch; none more firmly enchains admiration for 
invincible individuality, or ends by winning a more 
personal tenderness and affection." 

The swelling tide of books of Asiatic travel has 
recently been acceptably increased by Julius M . 
Price's "From the Arctic Ocean to the Yellow 
Sea," a handsome English publication imported by 
Messrs. Scribner's Sons. Mr. Price, as special cor- 
respondent of the " Illustrated Loudon News," ac- 
companied a tentative expedition despatched by the 
"Anglo-Siberian Trading Syndicate" across the 
Kara Sea and up the river Yenesei to the city of 
Yeneseisk in the heart of Siberia, whence he jour- 
neyed independently through Mongolia, the Gobi 
desert, and North China, touching en route Krasnoi- 
arsk, Irkutsk, Durga, and Peking. The writer tells 
his story in a lively journalistic way, with a plenti- 
ful peppering of French phrases, and occasional 
lapses into rather slip-shod English. Mr. Price is 
a capital observer. It was no part of his plan in 
entering Siberia to ferret out Russian barbarities 
with a view of harrowing the souls and tickling the 
sensibilities of a humane British public. He touches, 
however, en passant^ on the Russian prison and ex- 

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ile system, which he had a fair chance of observing, 
and his conclusions would seem to gain some a pri- 
ori trustworthiness from the fact that the pai*veying 
of horrors was not his special mission as a correspond- 
ent. ^< Words/' says Homer, ^^ may make this way 
or that way." So may statistics; and a touring Rus- 
sian who should confine his English observations to 
Whitechapel might not unreasonably tell his grati- 
fied countrymen that ^^ wife-beating is the common 
diversion of the English people." We cannot go 
into the details of Mr. Price's readable book. As to 
political prisoners in Irkutsk, he observes : '^ It was 
easy to distinguish which were the * politicals,' for 
they were in ordinary civilian costume, and had no 
chains on, as far as I could see ... To my aston- 
ishment — for I had always read to the contrary — 
I noticed that all these political prisoners were not 
only allowed books to read, but in most cases were 
smoking also, and in every instance had their own 
mattresses and bedding ; so their cells, at any rate, 
looked cleaner and more cheerful than those of or- 
dinary criminals, to whom filth seemed indifferent." 
One is glad to know that the Siberian picture has a 
brighter side than is usually shown us. Mr. Price's 
account of the perilous passage of the Kara sea, 
and of the trip up the Yenesei and across Mongo- 
lia, and his sketches of social life in Yeneseisk, Ir- 
kutsk, etc., are very entertaining ; and the numer- 
ous illustrations (reproduced by permission from 
the " London News " ) are unusually vigorous and 

Augustine Birrell's "Res Judicatae" (Scrib- 
ner), a compact volume of reprinted lectures and 
essays which are mostly brief literary causeries in 
the style of the author's popular " Obiter Dicta," is 
a capital book for the impending dog-days, a season 
wherein the most savagely-serious student makes 
concessions in the way of " summer reading." Most 
of our readers are familiar with Mr. Birrell's pleas- 
ant, lively way of chatting about books and authors. 
It is not his critical humor to probe very deep or to 
carry analysis to the brink of distraction, — his 
author being to him not so much a "subject" for 
dissection as a pretext for pleasant fancies and ap- 
posite allusion and quotation. With the respectable 
but rather trying family of the Gradgrinds, Mr. 
Birrell has little in common. Not that we mean to 
imply that he is the mere sayer of good things, the 
delightful but futile " agreeable rattle "; his literary 
appreciations are usually sound and suggestive and 
imply a considerable gift of touching intuitively the 
salient features of a performance or a talent. Few 
writers of to-day have a better average of good 
things to the page than Mr. Birrell. He thus neatly 
touches off, in an effective paper on Cardinal New- 
man, a perhaps not unimportant aspect of Angli- 
canism : " If the Ark of Peter won't hoist the Union 
Jack, John Bull must have an Ark of his own, with 
a patriotic clergy of his own manufacture tugging 
at the oar, and with nothing foreign in the hold 
save some sound old port." ^^ Sound old port/'* 

What a finely orthodox, ultra-clerical ring that has ! 
What an august tang of lawn sleeves. Hooker's 
" Polity," and the Thirty-Nine Articles ! For that 
acute, vigorous, too-little-read author, William Haz- 
litt, Mr. Birrell has some handsome words : " It is 
true he does not go very deep as a critic, he does 
not see into the soul of the matter as Lamb and 
Coleridge occasionally do — but he holds you very 
tight — he grasps the subject, he enjoys it himself 
and makes you do so. Perhaps he does say too 
many good things. His sparkling sentences f oUow 
so quickly one upon another that the reader's ap- 
preciation soon becomes a breathless appreciation. 
There is something almost uncanny in such sus- 
tained cleverness." 

A CERTAIN happy distinction of style is a qual- 
ity we have learned to expect in all tliat comes 
from the pen of Robert Louis Stevenson, and 
his latest volume, " Across the Plains " ( Scrib- 
ner), does not disappoint us. For the secret of his 
art, we have his own confession made years ago : 
" Nobody had ever such pains to learn a trade as I 
had, but I slogged at it day in and day out, and I 
frankly believe (thanks to my dire industry) I have 
done more with smaller gifts than almost any man 
of letters in the world." Admitting this view of 
the case, we have to congratulate ourselves on this 
devotion to the " trade " of writing, when it became 
clear that he had no aptitude for the family calling, 
and that he was not likely to add fresh laurels to 
the name in the direetion in -which it was already 
illustrious, namely, lighthouse construction and illu- 
mination. The first of the twelve sketches which 
make up the present volume, and from which it 
takes its name, is the story of Mr. Stevenson's own 
travels from New York to San Francisco, in an 
emigrant train, thirteen years ago ; this is followed 
by a description of " The Old Pacific Capital " and 
another of Fontainebleau. The later essays have to 
do rather with the inner than the outer life. " A 
Chapter on Dreams," in which Mr. Stevenson fur- 
nishes an account of his own mental processes dur- 
ing sleep, does much to discredit the author's own 
theory of his degree of indebtedness to " dire indus- 
try" in the mastery of his art, and reveals how 
lu*ge a factor in the matter must be his most unus- 
ual and fanciful order of mind. 

The "Great Educators Series," published by 
Messrs. Scribner's Sons, begins fitly with " Aristotle 
and the Ancient Educational Ideals " ; also, most 
fitly, it is to Mr. Thomas Davidson, the thorough stu- 
dent of Aristotle, that the theme has been entrusted. 
It has been often said that Aristotle's greatness was 
not recognized till the Middle Ages. By a strange 
accident, his principal works disappeared from view 
for two centuries, till brought to Rome by Sylla 
and edited by Andronicus ; in the turmoil of bar- 
barian invasion, and during the building up of the 
Catholic Church, his name was almost forgotten.. 
Averrhoes and the Jew Maimonides were his prin- 

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cipal introdacers to the Western world. The growth 
of positive science daring the last three centories 
has brought new insight into Aristotle's power. It 
has come to be recognized that in many fields of 
thought he was not merely the first to introduce 
positive method, but attained results by it to which 
thinkers of our own times have recurred, and will 
yet recur, with profit. Thus, Mr. Davidson's work 
is much more than a mere re-statement of what 
Aristotle says on the subject of education ; it is a 
treatise showing Aristotle's relation to ancient ped- 
agogy as a whole. It traces briefly the whole his- 
tory of Greek education up to Aristotle and down 
from Aristotle ; it shows the past which conditioned 
his theories, and the future which was conditioned 
by them. It exhibits the close connection that ex- 
isted at all times between Greek education and 
Greek social and political life, a connection which 
lends to the subject of Greek education its chief in- 
terest for us. In these days, when Church and 
State are contending for the right to educate, it 
cannot but aid us in settling their respective claims, 
to follow the process by which they came to have 
distinct claims at all, and to see just what these 
mean. The concluding chapters of the book deal 
with the period that passed between the loss of 
Greek autonomy and the triumph of Christianity, 
thus paving the way for the consideration of the 
rise of the Christian schools. Not one of the least 
valuable portions of the book is the Appendix de- 
voted to the Seven Liberal Arts. 

The second volume in the series of << Great Edu- 
cators" is on <* Loyola and the Educational Sys- 
tem of the Jesuits." The author is the Reverend 
Thomas Hughes, of the Society of Jesus, and his 
exposition of the principles and methods of his 
order is a very able and eloquent one. The book 
is divided into two portions, — the first, a bio- 
gi-aphieal and historical sketch, having for its chief 
subject Ignatius Loyola, the second, a critical an- 
alysis of the Ratio Studiorum, or S3r8tem of Stud- 
ies. The author explains the rise of the Jesuit sys- 
tem as resulting from two elements in the educa- 
tional condition of Europe, — the fallen splendor of 
the grreat developed system of university learning 
in the sixteenth century, and the decline therein of 
the essential moral life. Had the universities of his 
time continued still to do the work which originally 
they had been chartered to do, the founder of the 
Society of Jesus would not have been impelled to 
draw out his system as a substitute and an improve- 
ment ; he would have used what he found and have 
turned his attention to other things more urgent. 
As it was, he devoted himself to a plan of educa- 
tional reform that proved to have such vitality that 
during two and a half centuries the vast majority 
of the secular schools of Catholic Christendom had 
passed into the hand of this powerful religious order. 
The author looks forward to a time when, gathered 
to the other remains which moulder in the past, 
the Jesuit system of education can look down from 

a grade and place of its own in evolution and look 
out, like others, on a progeny more favored than 
itself, the fair mother of fairer children. To the 
less partisan reviewer the prophecy seems some- 
what bold; for has it not thus far conspicuously 
failed in the development of great men? has it not, 
when left to work freely, often shown its incompat- 
ibility with the best spirit of modem life and society ? 

It is forty-three years since Auguste Comte pub- 
lished his concrete view of the preparatory period 
of man's history, calling it the Positivist Calendar, 
Therein he arranged a series of typical names, il- 
lustrious in all departments of thought and power, 
beginning with Moses and ending with the poets 
and thinkers of the first generation of the present 
century. These names, 558 in all, were distributed 
into four classes of greater or lesser importance ; 
they ranged over all ages, races and countries ; and 
they embraced religion, poetry, philosophy, wai*, 
statesmanship, industry, and science. A coUection 
of condensed biographies of these 558 persons has 
now been issued under the title " The New Calen- 
dar of Great Men" (Macmillan), with Frederic 
Harrison as editor. The book does not enter into 
competition with works on biography of a volumin- 
ous and miscellaneous kind; the names are not 
given in alphabetical order but in historical sequence; 
the various biographies form a connected series of 
studies, being grouped in order of time within that 
branch of human progress to which their lives were 
dedicated. Consequently, each separate section of 
the book may be read in a continuous series as a 
distinct chapter dealing with a special subject. As 
a biographical manual of the geiieral course of civ- 
ilization, it serves an admirable purpose, and coold 
hardly be bettered unless by going outside of 
Comte's list as a basis ; and this is something that 
the writers and editor have disclaimed any wish 
to do. 

Possessors of Professor David Masson's recent 
admirable edition of De Quincey will hardly find 
it worth while to buy Mr. James Hogg's edition of 
" The Uncollected Writings of Thomas De Quincey " 
(Macmillan). Its title is in fact misleading, since 
it contains little or nothing of importance that can- 
not be found in Masson. The articles not found 
there are the foDowing: In Vol. L, "The Lake 
Dialect," "Storms in English History," "The En- 
glish in India"; in Vol. II., "The English in 
China," " Shakespeare's Text," •' How to Write En- 
glish." These articles cover but 140 pages out of a 
total of 700, and are probably the most ephemeral 
of the writings, which have yet been resuscitated, 
of this most sketchy and fragmentary of great auth- 
ors. The volumes contain some spirited and ex- 
tended essays, and will be found to supplement all 
editions of De Quincey except Masson's. 

The eighth volume of Professor Henry Morley's 
" English Writers " (Cassell) brings the story down 
to the year in which Spenser published his " Shep- 

Digitized by 





herd's Calendar'* (1579). The author modestly 
entitles this work ^^ An Attempt towards a History 
of English Literature." This chronicle history is 
fall of materials to serve, and its author lays all 
future writers upon the subject under a g^reat debt. 
The great philosophical and critical history is yet 
to come, but this work is likely to hold its place as 
the most copious source of information for the stu- 
dent. This eighth volume treats of Surrey, Wyatt, 
and the other ^< courtly makers" in the reign of 
Henry YIII.; of the rise of the drama; of the 
great reformers and Bible translators ; and of the 
busy and varied literary activity of the first twenty 
years of Elizabeth's reign. The ninth volumo will 
be on Spenser and his time. It is much to be hoped 
that Professor Morley will be spared to complete 
the work as far, at least, as to the date of Shake- 
speare's death (1616), which will be reached in the 
tenth volume. 

One of the recent numbers in Sonnenschein's 
convenient ••Social Science Series" (Scribner) is 
M. Rocquain's account of " The Revolutionary 
Spirit Preceding the French Revolution," con- 
densed and translated by Miss J. D. Hunting. The 
original has for some time been recognized as a 
valuable contribution to the history of the eighteenth 
century. The author holds that *^the state of pub- 
lic opinion which gave rise to the French Revolution 
was not the outcome of the teachings of the philoso- 
phers," who only '^ united in a Code of Doctrine the 
ideas that were fermenting in all minds. From the 
middle of the century the spirit of opposition had 
become the spirit of Revolution." In describing 
this spirit of opposition, M. Rocquain reaUy traces 
the history of public opinion in France from 1715 
to 1789, bringing to light much new information 
and presenting it clearly and impartially. The work 
of translation has not been well done, and the 
tran.>lator's explanatory notes are by no means sat- 
isfactory. The book deserves a better, and una- 
bridged, translation. 

The collection of twenty-two papers by William 
Winter, called ^* Shakespeare's England" (Macmil- 
lan), have nearly all had previous publication either 
in books or magazines. Yet they are well worth 
their new and dainty setting, being a sympathetic 
study of English scenery as hallowed by the spirit 
of English poetry and letters. Beside the War- 
wickshire portions, which occupy the chief space, 
there are pleasing chapters on such subjects as 
*' Literary Shrines of London," " A Haunt of Ed- 
mund Kean," '^ Stoke Pogis and Thomas Gray," 
and '^ A Glimpse of Canterbury." 

To GIVE one's days and nights to the volumes of 
Addison seems both less attractive and less feasible 
than when Dr. Johnson advised it for the acqui- 
sition of English style. Nevertheless, everyone de- 
sires some acquaintance with Addison, and the vol- 
ume of *' Selections from The Spectator " ( Dutton ) 
made by A. Meserole. LL.B., is a very convenient aid 

in that direction. Although the larger number of the 
papers included in the present volume are from the 
pen of Addison, a considerable number are by 
Steele, while Budgell, Hughes, and others, are also 
represented. A comparative study is hardly favor^ 
able to Macaulay's famous verdict that ^^ Addison's 
worst essay is as good as the best of any of his 
coadjutors." The volume is beautifuUy printed and 
bound, and contains a fine etched portrait of Addi- 
son printed on India linen, as a frontispiece. 


Messrs. A. C. McClurg & Co. beg to announce to 
the friends and readers of The Dial that with the 
present issue their interest in the paper is trans- 
ferred to Mr. Francis F. Browne, who has been its 
editor and a part owner since its commencement. 
This change, which is the first since the founding 
of the paper in 1880, is made for business reasons, 
with which the public is concerned only so far as to 
know that the change looks wholly to the good of 
the paper, which it is believed will be better served 
by its publication as a separate and independent en- 
terprise. Those who know anything of the history 
of The Dial know that it has from the start aimed 
singly at the position of a high-grade and wholly 
independent journal of literary criticism ; and they 
know, too, how absolutely and unvaryingly, and 
with what scrupulous freedom from constraint 
through publishers' or booksellers' influence, it has 
lived up to its high ideals in this direction. Yet it 
is perhaps but natural that a critical literary jour- 
nal like The Dial should be to some extent misun- 
derstood through its connection with a book-publish- 
ing and book-selling house. To relieve the paper from 
this disadvantage, and to make its literary indepen- 
dence hereafter as obvious as it ever has been reed, 
is the prime object of the present change. The re- 
tiring publishers are glad to be able to offer to the 
readers and friends of The Dial their assurance 
that, so far as the conduct of the paper is concerned, 
the change is but nominal. It will remain in the 
same expenenced and judicious hands that have 
conducted it from the beginning, and with the same 
working force as heretofore. Its successful publi- 
cation for twelve years, and its already acknowl- 
edged position as **the foremost American critical 
journal," will remain a matter of pride to its orig- 
inal publishers, who now part from it with the most 
hearty good-will and best wishes for its future. 

A. C. McClubg & Co. 
Chicago, June 30, 1892. 

Digitized by 





Topics in TjEAimng Perioi>ic;als. 

Jt i/y, 189 2. 

Abyasima. IIIds. Frederick Villien. Century. 
AlmondB in California. H. J. Philpott. Popular Science. 
America, A Briton^s Impressiona. J. F. Muirhead. Arena. 
American Chemists. lUus. M. Benjamin. Chautauquan. 
American Idealist, The. Gamaliel Bradford, Jr. Atlantic. 
American Spelling:. Brander Matthews. Harper. 
Anthropology in America. Illus. F.Starr. Pop. Science. 
Antique Art, Evolution of. Sara A. Hubbard. Dial. 
Arabian Horses. H. C. Merwin. Atlantic. 
Architecture at the Fair. Illus. H. Van Brunt. Century. 
Aristotle's Tomb. Illus. Charles Waldstein. Century. 
Bacon vs. Shakespeare. Edwin Reed. Arena. 
Base Ball. Illus. J. H. Mandigo. Chautauquan. 
BUck Forest to the Black Sea. Illus. F.D.Millet. Harper. 
Bnme-Jones, Edward. Dins. C.M.Fairbanks. Chautauq^n. 
Canoeing. Illus. W. P. Stephens. Lippincott. 
Canoeing in California. Illus. W. G. Morrow. Overland. 
Cheltenham College, England. Dins. D.Sladen. Cosmop^n. 
Chala, Lake. Illus. M. French-Sheldon. Arena. 
Coal Supply and Reading Leases. A. A. McLeod. Forum. 
Columbus at Court. Illus. Emilio Castelar. Century. 
Cowper. J. V. Cheney. Chautauquan. 
Czar^s Western Frontier. Poultney Bigelow. Harper. 
Daubigny, Charles F. Illus. R. J. Wickenden. Century. 
Declaration's Reception in the Colonies. C. D. Deshler. Harp. 
Ejgypt and Palestine, Prehistoric. J. W. Dawson. No. Am. 
Inland, Industrial and Commercial. J. W. Jenks. Died. 
Europe's Armies. Theo. A. Dodge. Forum. 
Federal Power, Growth of the. H. L. Nelson. Harper. 
Fiction, Geographical. Gertrude Atherton. Lippincott. 
finances of the Am. Revolution. H. C. Adams. Dial. 
Galvani, Luigi. Popular IHcience. 

Gold and Silver. Stewart, Springer, and others. No. Am, 
Government and Farmer. A. W. Harris. Century. 
Hay Fever as an Idiosyncrasy. Chautauquan. 
Hot Weather Diet. N. E. Y. Davies. Popular Science. 
Hypnotism and Suggestion. B. 0. Flower. Arena. 
Isabella at Segovia. Illus. H. Pierson. Cosmopolitan. 
Italian Situation. Signor Crispi. North American, 
Japanese Gardening. Lafcadio Heam. Atlantic, 
Kindergartens, etc. Mrs. H. M. Plunkett. Popular Science. 
Labor in the Campaign. S. Gompers. North American. 
Lady Jeune on London. W. H. Mallock. North American. 
Landor, Walter Savage. M. B. Anderson. Dial. 
Leather-Making. Illus. G. A. Rich. Popular Science. 
Lincoln as Strategist. A. Forbes. North American. 
Literary Independence of U.S. Brander Matthews. Cosmop^n. 
London's Great City Companies. Miss Bisland. Cosmopol. 
Lynch Law in the South. Fred'k Douglas. No. American. 
Marlowe. J. R. Lowell. Harper. 
Marlowe, Julia. Ulus. Mildred Aldrich. Arena. 
Marriage in Nanking. Harriet Beebe. Chautauquan. 
McClellan, General. Eben G. Scott. Atlantic. 
Natural Selection. Ulus. St. Geo. Mivart. Cosmopolitan. 
Newspaper Illustrators. Illus. Max de Lipman. Lippin. 
Northwest's Needs. Got. of Minn. North American. 
Orerland by the Southern Pacific. Illus. Chautauquan. 
Owls. Ulus. Frank Bowles. Popular Science. 
Peary's No. Greenland Voyage. lUns. Lippincott. 
Physiology and IHsease. J. M. Rice. Popular Science. 
Poetry, Beauty of. E. C. Stedman. Century. 
Political Assessments. Theodore Roosevelt. Atlantic. 
Politics and Pulpit. Bishops Doaneand Mallalieu. No. Am. 
Presidential Campaign, The. Rep. Springer and others. Aren. 
Presidential Candidates. J. R. Hawley, C. F. Adams. Forum. 
Quebec, Historic. Illus. Edith Tupper. Chautauquan. 
Religion and Philosophy, Recent Discussions. W. Hough. Dial. 
Rico, Martin. Illus. A. F. Jaccaci. Cosmopolitan. 
Riverside Hospital. Illus. J. A. Riis. Cosmopolitan. 
Russia's Land System and the Famine. W. C. Edgar. Forum. 
State and Forest. Illus. J. B. Harrison. Cosmopolitan. 
State Laws, Uniform. J. F. Colby. Forum. 
Women and the Alliance. Illus. Annie Diggs. Arena. 

Books of the Month. 

[T^e following list^ embracing 72 titles^ includes all books 
received by The Dial during the month o/June^ IS 92.] 


The Livery Companies of the City of London : Their Ori- 

S'n, Character, Development, and Social and Political 
aportance. Bv W. Carew Haxlitt. Profusely illus., large 
8vo, pp. 692, gilt top. Macmillan <& Co. $10.50. 

Lancaster and York : A Century of English History ( a.d. 
1%)0-1485). By Sir James H. Ramsey. In 2 vols., 8vo, 
gilt top, widi maps and illustrations. Macmillan & Co. $0. 

The Puritan in Holland, England, and America : An Intro- 
duction to American History. By Douglas Campbell, 
A.M. In 2 vols., 8yo, gilt tops, uncut edges. Harper <& 
Brothers. $5.00. 


Life and Letters of Charles Keene, of '"Punch." By 
George Somes Layard. With portrait, large 8vo, pp. •I&l, 
gilt top, uncut edges. Macmillan <& Co. $8.00. 

The Life of Thomas Paine, with a History of his Literary, 
Political, and Religious Career. By Moncure Daniel Con- 
way, author of *' George Washington and Mount Ver- 
non." Also, a Sketch of Paine by William Cobbett. In 
2 voIsm with frontispieces, 8vo, gilt tops, uncut edges. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. $5.00. 

Isaac Casaubon, 1 669 — 1 6 1 4. By Mark Pattison. Sec- 
ond edition, with portrait, 8vo, pp. 504, gilt top. Mac- 
millan <& Co. $4.00. 

The Earl of Derby. By George Saintsbury, with portrait. 
12mo, pp. 223. Harper's *' The Queen's Prime Ministers." 

Walt Whitman. By William Clark, M.A. With portrait, 
18mo,pp.l32. Maomillan's *' Dilettante Library.^' ^Wcts. 

James Russell Lowell: An Address by George William 
Curtis. Illus., 32mo, pp. 64. Harper's '' Black and White 
Series." 50oto. 


Essays on Literature and Philosophy. By Edward Caird, 
M.A. In 2 vols., 12mo, uncut. Macmillan & Co. $;i.OO. 

Res Judlcatsd : Papers and Essays. By Augustine Birrell, 
author of " Obiter Dicta." liimo, pp. 308, gilt top, uncut 
edges. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.00. 

The Reflections of a Married Man: By Robert Grant. 
12mo, pp. 165. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1.00. 

Shadows of the St^ge. By William Winter. 32rao, pp. 
387. BiacmiUan (& Co. 75 cts. 

Literary Landmarks of London. Bv Laurence Hntton, 
author of *' Literary Landmarks of Edinburgh." Eighth 
edition, revised and enlarged. Illus., 12mo, pp. 307. 
Harper <& Brothers. $1.75. 

Nineteenth Century Poets: Popular Studies. By J. Mar- 
shall Mather, author of "^Lite and Teachings of John 
Ruskin." 12mo, pp. 184. F. Wame & Co. $1.00. 

Goethe's Faust: The First Part. With the prose transla- 
tion, notes and appendices of the late Abraham Harward, 
Q.C. Revised, with introduction, by C. A. Bnchheim, 
Ph.D. 12mo, pp. 480, uncut. Macmillan & Co. $1.50. 

Familiar Studies in Homer. By Agnes M. CUrke. 8vo, 
pp. 30^3, uncut. Longmans, Gieen, A Co. $1.75. 

Wisps of Wit and Wisdom; or, Knowledge in a Nutshell. 
By Albert P. South wick, A.M., author of *' Handy 
Helps." 18mo, pp. 285. A. Lovell & Co. $1.00. 

The Claims of Decorative Art. By Walter Crane, ^q. 
8vo, pp. l^K), gilt top, uncut edges. Houghton, Mifflin ct 
Co. $2.25. 


Phaon and Sappho, and Nimrod. By James Dryden Hoe- 
ken. 16mo, pp. 32G, uncut. Macmillan & Co. $l..'i(). 

The Sisters: A Tragedy. By Algernon Charles Swinburne. 
12mo, pp. 126, gilt top. U. S. Book Co. $1.25. 

Seventeenth Century Lsnrios. Edited by George Sainto- 
bury. 24mo, pp. .')2G, uncut. Macmillan 's "" Pocket Li- 
brary." $1.00. 

Digitized by 






The Venetians: A Norel. By M. £. Braddon, author of 

" Aurora Floyd.*' 12mo, pp. 442. Harper <& Brothers. 

Mount Desolation: An Anstraliun Romance. By W. Carle- 
ton Dawe, author of '*The Golden Lake." 12mo, pp. 

317. Cassell PublishinfiT Co. $1.50. 
Colonel Starbottle's Client, and Some Other People. By 

Bret Harte. 16mo, pp. 283. Houghton, MifBin & Co. 

An Bdelweiss of the Sierras, Golden Rod, and Other 

Tales. By Mrs. Burton Harrison. 12mo, pp. 209. Harper 

& Brothers. $1.25. 
Veety of the Basins: A Novel. By Sarah P. McLean 

Greene, author of " Cape Cod Folks.*' 12rao, pp. 271. 

Huper <& Brothers. $1.25. 
Daucrhters of Men. By HanniUi Lynch, author of * Troubled 

Waters." 16mo, pp. 380. United States Book Co. $1.25. 
The Talldner Horse. By F. Anstey, author of "Vice Versa." 

12mo, pp. 298. United States Book Co. $1^. 
When a Man's Sinsrle : A Tale of Literary Life. By J. M. 

Barrie, author of ''The Little Minister.^ 12mo, pp. 303, 

gflttop. LoveU, Coryell & Co. $1.00. 
Stories and Interludes. By Barry Pain. 12mo, pp. 203. 

Harper A Brothers. $1.00. 
Manitou Island. By M. G. McOelland, author of " Obliv- 
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Out of the Fashion. By L. T. Meade, author of '' A Sweet 

Girl Graduate." Ulns., l6mo, pp. 270. Cassell Publishing 

Co. $1.00. 
A Tcherkeese Prince. By Madame de Meissner. 16mo, pp. 

305. De Wolfe, fiske 4& Co. $1.00. 
Kilmeny. By William Black. New and revised edition, 

16mo, pp. 340. Harper & Brothers. 90 cts. 
Madcap Violet. By William Black. New and revised edi- 
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Winona: A Storv of To-Day. By EUa M. Powell. 16mo, 

pp. 223. A. Lovell & Co. Paper, 50 cts. 
Stolen Steps: A Story. By Squier L. Pierce, author of 

" Di." With portrait, 12mo, pp. 189. J. B. Lippinoott 

Co. Paper, 50 cts. 
Saracinesca. By F. Marion Crawford, author of "Mr. 

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Gryle Grangre. By T. Love Peacock. In 2 vols., 16mo, 

uncut. MacmiUan & Co. $2.00. 
Mr. Faoey Rumford's Hounds. By the author of ''Sponge's 

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405. SiUicmillan & Co. $2.25. 
Handley Cross; or, Mr. Jorrock*s Hunt. By the author of 

" Spongers Sporting Tour." *' Jonocks " edition, illus., 

8vo, pp. 578. Macmillan A Co. $2.25. 
Nicholas NicUeby. By Charles Dickens. A reprint of the 

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Younger. jQlus., 12mo, pp. 786. Macmillan &, Co. $1. 


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Prloe-McGill Ck>.'s Golden Library: A Common Mistake, 
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IMego Plnzon, and the Fearful Voyage he took into the Un- 
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A Millionaire at Sixteen; or, The Cruise of The Guardian- 
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The Vacation Club. By Adolph J. Todd. Illus., 16mo, 
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How Women Should Ride. By '' C. de Hurst.'' Ulns., 
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Who Pa3rs Your Taxes ? A Consideration of the Question 
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Grover Cleveland on the Principles and Purposes of Our 
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Slavery in the District of Columbia: The Policy of Con- 

■■__■" ~, " ,Tn 

8vo, pp. 100, paper. **T 
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Bthnoloffy in Folklore. By George Laurence Gomme, 
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Phases of Thought and CritidBm. Bv Brother Azarias, 
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The Voice firom Sinai: The Eternal Bases of the Moral 
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The Word of the Lord upon the Waters: Sermons read 
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A Book of Prayer from the Public Ministrations of Henry 
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Old Wine: New Bottles. Some Elemental Doctrines in 
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** Spirit and Life." lOmo, pp. 84. Fords, Howard & Hul- 
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History and Teachings of the Barly Church, as a Basis 
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The Church in the British Isles: Sketches of its Continu- 
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(Church Club Lectures for 1889.) 12mo, pp. 258. E. & 
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The Church in the British Isles: The Post-Restoration 
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Church and State in Barly Marylemd. By George Petrie,v 
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Baltimobe, Md. 
Announcements for the next academic year are now ready, 
and will be sent on application. 

Digitized by 






A Novel. By L. T. Meade, author of «* Polly, a New- 
Fashioned Girl," "A Sweet Girl Graduate," "A World 
of Girls," etc. 1 vol., 12mo, with eight illustrations 
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numberless machines of tedium which nowadays are labelled 


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An Eighteenth Century Character.* 

Dr. Arbuthnot was a man careless of fame ; 
he tossed his wealth of good things right and 
left, and forgot to claim them. It is hard to 
be certain to-day just what is really his. It 
was time that his worlcs should be collected, 
and time that his life should be written. This 
task has been attempted by Mr. George A. 
Aitken, in a handsome volume issuing from 
the Clarendon Press, Oxford. The hour has 
come, but not the man. A little while ago Mr. 
Aitken collected the materials for a biography 
of Steele, and supposed he had written it. He 
has done much the same work in the present 
instance. He has the accumulative without the 
formative instinct of the biographer. The dry 
bones are brought together, but they do not 
live. The constructive imagination, which 
broods over isolated details until they group 
themselves and crystallize into a rounded whole, 
is altogether wanting in this painstaking in- 
vestigator. It is a pity, for Dr. Arbuthnot was 

*ThbLifx AND WoBKS OF JoHK Arbuthnot. By George 
A. Aitken. Oxford: The Clarendon PresB. New York: Mac- 
millan A Co. 

what is called ^'a character," and a life-like 
portrait of him would be a welcome addition 
to the gallery of the wits of Queen Anne's 
reign. There is more of him in the frontis- 
piece to the present volume than in the life 
that foUows. 

John Arbuthnot was born the eldest son of 
a minister of the Scotch establishment, in the 
manse of Arbuthnot, and baptized April 29, 
1667. It was the year of Swift's birth and 
of the publication of ^^ Paradise Lost." There 
were several other children. His father, a 
High Church Episcopalian, would not conform 
when Presbyterianism regained power, and 
was deposed from his living in 1689. He re- 
tired to a small property of his own in the 
neighborhood, and died two years later. The 
children were scattered. One became an emi- 
nent banker in Paris, and was mixed up with 
the affairs of the Pretender. John went up to 
London, taught mathematics for his livelihood, 
in 1694 entered University College at Oxford 
as a fellow-commoner and private tutor to a 
younger student, and in 1696 took his degree 
of Doctor in Medicine at St. Andrew's, acquit- 
ting himself with distinction. A year later 
the young physician made his mark by pub- 
lishing a fair and thorough criticism of a re- 
cent geological theory put forth by a professor 
of Gresham College. He became known in 
literary circles, and was a guest at the dinner- 
table of Samuel Pepys. How his mischievous 
humor must have played about the immortal 
diarist ! 

In 1701 Arbuthnot wrote an able " Essay 
on the Usefulness of Mathematical Learning," 
declaring, and evidencing, "the advantage 
which the mind reaps from mathematical knowl- 
edge in a habit of clear, demonstrative, and 
methodical reasoning." Except a few lines of 
verse, it is the only serious production among 
the works contained m this volume. It is a 
piece of simple, direct, manly argument. It is 
thoroughly readable to-day. It would be hard 
to state the uses of mathematics more convinc- 
ingly. The author shows the range of his study 
in quotations to the purpose from Quintilian 
and Plato, Diogenes Laertius and Pliny, Ovid 
and Hippocrates, Xenocrates and Aristotle. He 
cites with easy familiarity recent French, Ital- 
ian, Danish and English authorities in science, 
and illustrates his paper from painting, music. 

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architecture, fortification, navigation, ship- 
building, book-keeping, and astronomy. The 
paper contains one memorable sentence : 
" Truth is the same thing to the understand- 
ing that music is to the ear and beauty to the 

Arbuthnot became Fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety in 1704. Coming in chance contact 
with Prince George of Denmark, he was made 
physician extraordinary to Queen Anne the 
next year, and one of the physicians in ordin- 
ary four years later. From that time to the 
Queen's death, at which he was in attendance 
in August 1714, he was constantly about the 
court and on terms of intimacy with its poets, 
beauties, wits, and statesmen. He was of the 
High Church and High Tory faction, as be- 
came the son of his Jacobite father. He was 
more or less in the secrets of Swift and Har- 
ley and Bolingbroke and Lady Masham. His 
humorous " History of John Bull " is a party 
pamphlet levelled at Marlborough. He lacked 
Swift's fierce intensity and thirst for power, 
but shared his convictions and championed his 
causes in his own more quiet fashion. The 
Queen's death touched him nearly. He was 
made to feel what Bolingbroke so vigorously 
expressed, " What a world is this, and how 
does fortune banter us." Readers of " Henry 
Esmond " remember what a state intrigue was 
baf&ed by the Queen's sudden end. How far 
the good physician was cognizant of all the 
plans of his associates is uncertain. The death 
of his royal mistress was certainly a blow to 
his personal fortunes. He wrote Swift that he 
had not been unprepared for " the melancholy 
scene," had figured it in advance, and that his 
own ease was ^' not half so deplorable as that of 
Lady Masham and other court favorites." He 
had lost the perquisites of his office, but had 
his profession, and his bread was in no danger. 
Still, he felt the change. One does not breathe 
with impunity the atmosphere of court favor. 
A little later he writes to Pope, thanking him^ 
for taking notice of " a poor distressed cour- 
tier, commonly the most despicable thing in 
the world." There was a rising in behalf of 
the Pretender, in 1715, in which two of Ar- 
buthnot's brothers had part ; but there is no 
evidence that he himself was involved in it. His 
philosophic tone in a letter to Swift at the time 
implies the contrary : " I should have the same 
concern for things as you, were I not convinced 
that a comet will make much more strange 
revolutions- ujwn the faee of our globe than 
can be occasioned by governments and minis- 

tries. I consider myself as a poor passenger, 
and that the earth is not to be forsaken, nor 
the rocks removed for me." This is not the 
mood of a baffled conspirator. His sympathies 
were probably with the Stuarts, and his judg- 
ment with the house of Hanover. In 1720, 
when the South Sea bubble broke, the canny 
Scot had evidently kept out of danger, and es- 
caped the popular delusion. He could laugh- 
ingly maintain that ^^the Government and 
the South Sea Company had only locked up 
the money of the people upon conviction of 
their lunacy." Nine months later he was weary 
of the all-engrossing subject : " There is noth- 
ing in London but the same eternal question, 
when will S. Sea rise." 

In 1726 Arbuthnot was still about the 
court, and presented Swift to the Princess of 
Wales, the future Queen Caroline, who praised 
the Dean's "wit and conversation." Arbuth- 
not's reply is a revelation of his own nature : 
" I told her Royal Highness that was not what 
I valued you for, but for being a sincere hon- 
est man, and speaking the truth when others 
were afraid to speak it." The doctor was at 
this time in attendance on the Duchess of 
Marlborough, who recognized the worth of the 
physician even when wincing from the lash of 
the pamphleteer. He himself was suffering 
from graver ills, from calculus in the kidneys 
and from an abscess in the bowels which nearly 
made an end of him. While the event was 
uncertain, he sent a sportive message to Swift, 
advising him, if cured of his deafness, not to 
quit the pretense of it, " because you may by 
that means hear as much as you wiU, and an* 
swer as little as you please." A little later 
Pope writes that Arbuthnot is yet living : " He 
goes abroad again, and is more cheerful than 
even health can make a man, for he has a good 
conscience into the bargain, which is the most 
catholic of all remedies, though not the most 
universal." He solaced his pains with cards^ 
and with music, in which he was proficient. 
He knew Handel, and met him often ; and 
there is an anthem of Arbuthnot's extant. 
When "Gidliver's Travels " appeared, Arbuth- 
not, who was in the secret of its authorship^ 
recognized at once that it was a masterpiece of 
wit, and prophesied " as great a run for it as 
John Bunyan." He wrote Swift that " Gul- 
liver is in everybody's hands. I lent the book 
to an old gentleman, who immediately went to 
his map to search for Lilliput." 

The clouds gathered about the good doctor 
as the day went on. His health was precari- 

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0U8, his family large, his income insufficient. 
His happy home was broken up. He lost his 
wife suddenly in the spring of 1730, and his 
youngest son in the winter of the following 
year. His friend and patient, Gay, died a 
twelvemonth later. The world in the main 
displeased him. It was not a generous age, 
and the air about the court was tainted. He 
writes to Swift that things may be brighter in 
Ireland. " In your better country there is 
some virtue and honor left, some small regard 
for religion. Perhaps Christianity may last 
with you at least twenty or thirty years longer." 
It is hardly a triumphant hope. The worn 
physician is evidently breaking. He moved 
into the country for the summer, and found 
some relief. He wrote Pope that " God Al- 
mighty has made my distress as easy as a thing 
of that nature can be. . . A recovery in my 
case and at my age is impossible. The kindest 
wish of my friends is Euthanasia." That at 
least is what Pope chose to print as the words 
of Arbuthnot, but in the poet's wonted fashion 
the manuscript was tampered with. His un- 
scrupulous pen would meddle even with the 
letter of a dying friend. 

Then came a little lull in Arbuthnot's dis- 
ease. He looked forward to a return to town, 
and, though crippled, to his work, not being in 
circumstances to live in idleness. He hardly 
rejoiced in the respite which would give him 
the trouble of dying all over again. ^^ I am 
at present in the case of a man that was almost 
' in harbor and then blown back to sea ; who 
has a reasonable hope of going to a good place 
and an absolute certainty of leaving a very bad 
one. . . However, I enjoy the comforts of life 
with my usual cheerfulness." Swift, in his 
strong way, answered : " You tear my heart 
with the ill account of your health "; and then 
bore his witness, after five-and-twenty years' ac- 
quaintance, to the moral and Christian virtues 
of his failing friend, " not the product of years 
or sickness, but of reason and religion." It is 
not a flatterer's tribute. 

Arbuthnot died on the 27th day of Decem- 
ber, 1785, in his sixty-eighth year, at his house 
in Cork street, in much pain but devout com- 
fort. Pope and Chesterfield were with him 
the night before. The latter left an elaborate 
sketch of him as his physician and friend. He 
praised his great and various erudition, his in- 
finite fund of wit and humor, his almost inex- 
haustible imagination, his indifference to fame, 
his carelessness of money, his purity of char- 
acter, his kindness to the poor, his love of man- 

kind, and his underestimate of himself. His 
contemporaries bore consenting witness. Swift 
said that he had ^'more wit than we all have, 
and humanity equal to his wit." Pope declared 
him " in wit and humor superior to all man- 
kind." Lord Orrery pronounced him " equal 
to any of his contemporaries in humor antl vi- 
vacity, and superior to most men in acts of 
humanity and benevolence. No man exceeded 
him in the moral duties of life." Dr. Johnson, 
who had not known the charm of his presence, 
called him ^^the first man among them, the 
most universal genius, being an excellent phy- 
sician, a man of deep learning, and a man of 
much humor"; "a scholar with great brill- 
iance of wit ; a wit who in the crowd of life 
retained and discovered a noble ardor of reli- 
gious zeal." In our own day still the note of 
admiration is caught up, and Thackeray de- 
clares Arbuthnot ^' one of the wisest, wittiest, 
most accomplished, gentlest of mankind." 

His writings to-day have lost something of 
their original flavor. Only students of the time 
are likely to recur to them. Their politics are of 
an outworn fashion. The pedantry they mock 
at has departed. The allusions require vexa- 
tious explanation in endless footnotes. The 
humor is less direct and palpable than Swift's, 
the wit less pointed and flashing than Pope's, 
the sportiveness less dainty and delicate than 
Gay's. Yet the " History of John Bull " and 
the "Memoirs of Scriblerus" will long hold 
their place in the literature of scholars, for 
their pithy English, thfeir manly sense, their 
grotesque drollery, their vivid imagination. 
Their author had his faults. He was absent- 
minded to excess, "the king of inattention." 
Like others of his profession, he indulged him- 
self at the table and took little exercise, while 
commending diet, temperance, and exercise to 
others. He walked with a slouch or a shuffle. 
As a Scot, he pretended to believe himself 
gifted with the second sight. He was " a Ja- 
cobite by prejudice." He squandered instead 
of economizing his ideas. He took less care 
than he should of his fortune. He let his 
children make kites of his papers which held 
matter for folios. Perhaps in the multiplicity 
of folios this should be set down in the cata- 
logue of his virtues. 

The fine phototype which is the frontispiece 
to this volume is from a supposed original by 
Jervas. It is full of life and character. The 
face 19 a nearly perfect oval, the forehead is 
high, the eyes far apart, the lids full, the iris 
large. The nose is strong, with delicate noa- 

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trils. The upper lip is long. The mouth is 
of rare sweetness and beauty, with a quiet 
smile just ready to appear. The chin is long 
but rounded, with a marked cleft in the mid- 
dle. The hands are of special distinction and 
refinement, with long tapering fingers. The 
velvet cap and gown, the lawn kerchief loosely 
knotted at the neck, the ruffles at the wrists, 
the pen between the fingers, the hands crossed 
over a book that rests lightly on the lap, 
complete a delightful portrait of a playful hu- 
morist, a courtly gentleman, a thoughtful, true 
.and loving man. As you look upon it you 
think better of the early years of the eighteenth 
•eentury, and of that somewhat dismal English 
tx)urt which harbored and valued such a man 
as this. c. A. L. Richards. 

Freeman's Historical. Essays.* 

The fourth series of Historical Essays by the 
late Professor Freeman is larger and more varied 
than its predecessors. The essays in the second 
series dealt with ancient history, and those in 
the first and third chiefly with the Middle Ages 
— or, as their author would prefer to say, they 
dealt respectively with " the time when politi- 
cal life was confined to the two great Mediter- 
ranean peninsulas " and the time when the Teu- 
tonic and Slavonic peoples also had a part in 
the political life of Europe. The twenty-two 
papers which make up the present and last 
volume touch a wide variety of topics. Car- 
thage, French and English towns, Aquas Sex- 
tise. Orange, Perigueux and Cahors, Augusto- 
dunum, and the Lords of Ardres, serve as texts 
for local studies like the " Historical and Ar- 
chitectural Sketches" and many of the ear- 
lier historical essays. Then come a stray Ox- 
ford lecture on Portugal and Brazil, an inter- 
esting account of the conflict between Crown 
and chapter over the election to the deanery of 
Exeter, and a number of short reprints from 
the "Saturday Review." The other papers 
are more distinctively political, treating of the 
growth of commonwealths, the constitution of 
the German Empire, nobility, and the House 
of Lords. 

These essays indicate fairly well the subjects 
and interests that most appealed to Mr. Free- 
man. His sympathies were strong but not 
broad, and the range of his historical ideas was 

* Historical Essays. By Edward A. Freeman, M.A., 
Hon. D.C.L. and ijL.D., Regius Professor of Modem History 
in the University of Oxford. Fourth Series. New York : 
Macmillan & Co. 

somewhat limited. His conception of history 
was expressed in his well-known dictum, ^^ His- 
tory is past politics, and politics present his- 
tory." To him, history was first of all a rec- 
ord of political events ; for a people's litera- 
ture, for its art — except so far as seen in archi- 
tecture — for its economic and social life, he 
cared little or nothing. This dominant in- 
terest in things political shortened, as well as 
narrowed, his view of the field of historical 
study. No one insisted on the continuity of 
history more strongly than he ; the uni^ of 
ancient, mediaeval, and modern, he was never 
tired of proclaiming ; yet for him history be- 
gan with the Greeks, — the Orient he quite 
ignored. He frequently illustrated historical 
continuity by taking up a particular town, 
describing its architectural remains, and trac- 
ing its history through several centuries. Often 
he used the same method in a larger field, em- 
phasizing " the long-abiding life of the Roman 
Empire, Eastern and Western," and the un- 
broken dominance of the Teutonic element in 
English history. This influence in England 
he probably exaggerated, but his sympathy 
for oppressed nationalities kept him from the 
extreme views of those champions of ^^ triumph- 
ant Teutonism " who deny political rights to 
those not so fortunate as to be born Teutons. 

Mr. Freeman was much addicted to the use 
of historical parallels. He liked to see analo> 
gous causes producing analogous effects, and 
held that if the resemblances between distant 
events were not merely superficial, "real in- 
struction, practical iustruction, and not a mere 
gratification of curiosity " could be drawn from 
comparing them. Thus, in the first essay in 
the present volume he compares Carthage with 
other great commercial powers — Rome, Lii- 
beck, Venice, Spain, and England. This may 
easily lead to those '^plausible historical anal- 
ogies " from which Mr. Bryce says it is the 
chief practical use of history to deliver us ; but 
in Mr. Freeman's hands the comparative meth- 
od proved stimulating and suggestive. His 
work on " Comparative Politics " is one of the 
chief sources of his influence on the younger 
students of history. Comparisons between an- 
cient and modern events also help to give his 
books that strong sense of reality which his 
readers always feel. 

In discussing current questions, Mr. Free- 
man showed something of the historical senti- 
mentalist. Though he was not an extreme 
conservative, the changes he most desired were 
in the direction of a return to early historic 

Digitized by 





conditions. The Liberals he thought the true 
Conservatives. He wished to have the bishops 
retained in the House of Lords as a relic of the 
old Saxon witan and a protest against the mod- 
em idea of heredity. In a characteristic essay 
on "Alter Orbis," reprinted in the fourth 
series of his essays, he opposed a Channel tun- 
nel, not on military grounds, but from a fear 
that it might lessen the insular character of 
Britain, " the greatest fact in British history." 
Exact scholarship, political insight, a terse 
and vigorous style, and a vivid power of realiz- 
ing the past and making it live for his readers, 
place Mr. Freeman with Bishop Stubbs and Mr. 
Gardiner in the front rank of recent English 
historians. His death was a real loss to his- 
torical scholarship, and Lord Salisbury showed 
scant respect to his memory and to the cause 
of sound learning in appointing as his succes- 
sor at Oxford one who is conspicuously defi- 
cient in the truthfulness and accuracy which 
were Mr. Freeman's strongest characteristics. 

Charles H. Haskiks. 

Recent Books of Fiction.* 

" Calmire " is certainly a remarkable book, 
although not primarily remarkable as a work of 
fiction. Of its seven hundred and forty-two 
pages, the odd forty-two would be amply suffi- 
cient for all the story that is given us, and the 

* Calmire. New York : Maomillan & Co. 

Thb Quauty of Mercy. By W. D. Howells. New York : 
Harper & Brothers. 

Marionbttbs. By Julien Gordon. New York: Cassell 
Fabliflhing Company. 

A Member of the Third House. By Hamlin Garland. 
Chicago : F. J. Schnlte & Co. 

The Chevalier of Pensieri-Vami. By Henry B. Fuller. 
New York : The Centnry Company. 

Colonel Starbottlb's CuEirr, and Some Other People. 
By Bret Harte. Boston : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

The Governor, and Other Stories. By George A. Hib- 
bard. New York : Charles Scribner^s Sons. 

A Capillary Crime, and Other Stories. By F. D. Millet. 
New York : Harper <& Brothers. 

Van Bibber and Others. By Richard Harding Dayis. 
New York : Harper & Brothers. 

Don Finimondone: Calabrian Sketches. By Elizabeth 
Cavazza. New York : Charles L. Webster & Co. 

The Naulahka : A Story of West and East. By Rud- 
yard Kipling and Wolcott Balestier. New York : Macmillan 
A Co. 

The Wrecker. By Robert Louis Stevenson and Lloyd 
Osbonme. New York : Charles Scribner's Sons. 

The Misfortunes ob Elphin, Maid Marian, Crotchet 
Castle, Gryll Grange. By Thomas Love Peacock. In 
^yre volumes. New York : Macmillan <& Co. 

The Downfall. By Eraile Zola. Translated by E. P. Rob- 
ins. New York : Cassell Publishing Company. 

other seven hundred are devoted to philosophi- 
cal and religious discussion. We deem it only 
fair to warn the reader of this fact at the out- 
set, but it would be unfair not to state also that 
the discussion is so fascinating that it absorbs 
the attention quite as fully as do the dramatic 
features of the narative. After all, one is 
tempted to ask, since a work of fiction is neces- 
sarily made up largely of the conversations of 
its characters, why should they not be permit- 
ted now and then to converse upon serious 
subjects ? The chief characters of the book are 
the two Calmires, uncle and nephew, and Miss 
Nina Wahring, who, with her mother, is spend- 
ing the summer at the country house of the 
Calmires, somewhere on the Hudson. The two 
Calmires embody, each in his own way, the ad- 
vanced philosophical thought of the modern 
world, while Miss Nina, to begin with, repre- 
sents the conventional ideas of the average young 
person who has never reflected seriously about 
anything. Under the combined influence of 
admiration for the uncle and a more tender 
feeling for the nephew, her mind becomes sym- 
pathetically attuned to the new world of ideas 
to which she is introduced by their companion- 
ship, and, since at bottom she has an earnest 
and receptive nature, there follows for her the 
usual enlargement of horizon and revolution of 
thought, although the broader view to which she 
attains still keeps the emotional tinge due to 
her sex. Of course, the elder Calmire, in whom 
the author evidently speaks for himself, has 
things beautifully his own way, and the intel- 
lect of the young woman is plastic as wax in his 
hands. The reader who is after a story and noth- 
ing else will at once call Calmire a prig and im- 
patiently put the book aside. But we have 
warned such readers that the book is not meant 
for them in any case. The author, whoever he 
may be (and his strikingly individual man- 
ner compels to conjecture), is a man who has 
thought long and well upon the deepest subjects 
of inquiry, who has realized the absurdity of 
many or any " systems," who has safely weath- 
ered the period of indignant and passionate re- 
volt (here illustrated by the impetuous nephew), 
and who has gained at last the most peaceful 
and rock-protected of ethical havens. He seems 
to be a practised writer, yet one wholly unprac- 
tised in the form that he has here chosen as a me- 
dium of expression . But he must have had much 
practise in the difficult art of elucidating abstruse 
matters, for his success in this particular is very 
marked. He commands resources of apposite 
illustration and metaphor which make his expo- 

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sitions simply brilliant, while at the same time 
they are as far as possible from being stilted and 
other¥rise unnatural. " Calmire " is distinctly 
a helpful book ; that is, for those who want to be 
helped. The author does not shrink from en- 
visagement of the sternest problems of the uni- 
verse, nor is he turned to stone by their Gor- 
gonian gaze. Those who are not strong enough 
to look nature in the face, but, Perseus-like, 
view her only as reflected in the mirror of their 
childish creeds, will do well to avoid such books. 
And yet, for those who can comprehend it, the 
work offers a faith as far transcending that of 
our childhood as the wide world itself trans- 
cends the nursery. And it is not a faith that 
quarrels needlessly about terms, for it recog- 
nizes to the full whatever inspiration the dogma 
may conceal. The lesson of the book is all 
summed up in such a passage as the following : 

" Well, really, dear, I believe the great secret of calm 
is the realization of the pettiness of all that can disturb 
our lives, in contrast with the immensity that includes 

" Is that another name for faith in God ?" she asked. 

** Faith in God is one of the names for it/' 

" The Quality of Mercy " hardly needs to be 
strained to permit our welcome of the novel to 
which Mr. Howells has given this apt Shake- 
spearean title. The author has so long so- 
journed in the strange tents of those realists who 
conceive themselves impelled by duty to exer- 
cise their art upon the most uninteresting or 
even repulsive material obtainable, that we 
feared to have lost forever the old Mr. How- 
ells of " Indian Summer " and " A Woman's 
Reason." But the Mr. Howells of old, the Mr. 
Howells who knew how to tell in artistic man- 
ner a story of real human interest, has come 
back to us again, and has brought with him 
from his artistic aberrations a shrewder humor 
and a more deeply spiritualized insight than 
he took away. There is abundant analysis in 
his new work, probably more than there ought 
to be, but it no longer impresses us as being 
mainly introduced for its own sake ; it is con- 
sistently applied, for the most part, to the 
development of a distinct and desirable psy- 
chological type. A man like the defaulter 
North wick, though narrow his range and im- 
perfect his sympathies, is presumably possessed 
of something in the nature of a soul, and this is 
what, with admirable success, Mr. Howells has 
set himself to discover. He even reconciles us 
to Hatboro, which commimity, since its life was 
shadowed forth in " Annie Kilburn," has stood 
as the symbol or embodiment of all that is 

dull and devoid of interest. It seems that even 
in Hatboro there may be lives whose inner as- 
pects are worth scrutinizing, and we may take 
heart of grace once more to believe that no 
aggregation of human beings is without its 
possible appeal to the universal sympathy with 
which literature is concerned. There is in this 
new book all that is best of Mr. Howells ; and 
all that is worst, or nearly all, is conspicuously 
lacking. In its ethical proportions and envis- 
agement of life, it is as true as '^ A Hazard of 
New Fortunes" is false. Finally, its minor 
types of character are carefuUy worked out 
and generally kept within their limits. A hun- 
dred pages at a time are not given, for exam- 
ple, to the humors of village gossip or to the 
trials of flat-hunting in a great city. When 
the work of Mr. Howells shall have been duly 
threshed by time, this work, at least, will not 
be left with the chaff. 

The admirable qualities of style and char- 
acterization evinced by Mrs. Cruger's novels 
have a distinct value of their own, however 
trivial the incidents and artificial the world 
that she describes. That world, of course, is 
not the real world of human life and passion 
at all, but a world of a very narrow and hot- 
house sort, although to its exotic dwellers it 
doubtless makes up the sum of essential human 
existence. " Marionettes " is at least as good 
as anything that the author has heretofore 
done, — perhaps it is a trifle better. It has 
occasional faults of style, and occasional pages 
of essay-writing that had been better omitted, 
but its figures are incisively outlined, and its 
ethical tone (bearing in mind the relative na- 
ture of ethics) is all that could be expected 
under the conditions. 

If Mr. Hamlin Garland continues to pro- 
duce works as strong as " A Member of the 
Third House," he will make himself a distinct 
literary force. In this book he keeps his econ- 
omic vagaries well in the background, and sur- 
renders to the white-hot passion of indignation 
at the corruption of American legislatures. 
His expression taking the form of a compactly 
knit and strikingly dramatic narrative, he holds 
the attention almost breathless, and leaves the 
reader no opportunity to reflect upon his faults 
of style. His story is of a yoimg man who, 
with steadfast devotion to principle, puts aside 
all considerations of self-interest in a single- 
handed struggle with the powers of evil as rep- 
resented by an unscrupulous corporation, an 
infamous lobby, and a venal state legislature. 
Mr. Garland does not pause to woo the literary 

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graces, and his strongest pages are but slightly 
adapted transcripts of what may be seen and 
heard to-day in any political barroom or lobby- 
ist's den in any great city or state capital. 
The proceedings of his investigating committee 
are grimly real, and might be paralleled almost 
word for word in many a public record. He is 
terribly in earnest, and his earnestness is con- 
tagious. Such books are social forces rather 
than stories ; they do but masquerade in the 
novelist's disguise, and the sun itself shines on 
the mirror which they hold up to nature. 

" The Chevalier of Pensieri-Vani " has been 
reissued in an improved form, improved consid- 
erably by a new chapter and a revised text of 
the old ones, and more than considerably im- 
proved by its new typography, its charming 
chapter initials, and its tasteful binding. Per- 
haps the best tribute to its excellence is fur- 
nished by the fact that its forbidding first ap- 
pearance could not whoUy disguise its charm, 
and that so many competent critics penetrated 
the disguise to discover the real literary in- 
stinct at the heart of it. Those who contrived 
to read the book under the old conditions will 
need no urging to re-read it in a form that 
offers no offense to any sense. 

Volumes of short stories in the usual sum- 
mer variety occupy a conspicuous place in this 
season's fiction. The doyen of our short story 
tellers, Mr. Bret Harte, certainly deserves to be 
mentioned first. There are nine stories in his 
latest collection ; three or four of them trifles, 
the others almost novelettes. They deal in 
the accustomed surprises, and have the unvary- 
ing quality of interest. '* Colonel Starbottle's 
Client" is probably the best, unless we give that 
distinction to "The Postmistress of Laurel 
Run." In " The New Assistant at Pine Clear- 
ing School," the writer handles a favorite theme 
in so novel a manner that he may be forgiven 
for taking it up again. 

Mr. Hibbard's stories offer as complete a con- 
trast as possible to Mr. Harte's. The latter 
skims lightly over the period of action ; the for- 
mer concentrates his attention upon the " psy- 
chological moment" of the action, and makes us 
retrospectively acquainted with what goes be- 
fore. There is little choice between these six 
stories, except that the first three are more 
elaborate in their analysis. For intensity of 
force, "As the Sparks Fly Upward " is proba- 
bly the most admirable, but this adjective fits 
" The Governor " and " A Deedless Drama " 
almost equally well. Mr. Hibbard's style has 
a straightforward simplicity that makes his 

work very attractive. Such sobriety of diction 
is not too common a virtue with our younger 

Mr. Millet's stories, also six in number, are 
more or less about artists, but they are com- 
paratively free from the professional jargon 
into which artists so frequently fall when they 
abandon the brush for the pen. In a preface 
placed at the end of the volume (if the bull be 
permissible), the writer lets us into some of the 
secrets of his literary workshop ; in other words, 
he tells of the actual experiences that suggested 
the stories. This is particularly interesting, for 
they are related with a minuteness of detail that 
gives them a marked air of probability, and one 
is naturally tempted to ask what may be their 
basis in actual fact. Aside from their artistic 
associations, their dominant note is one of 
mystery, or, rather, of uncanniness, which is es- 
pecially noticeable in "A Faded Scapular" and 
"The Fourth Waits." The latter is about a black 
poodle, who seems to exercise a baleful influ- 
ence over the destiny of a group of four artist 
friends, marked out for destruction one after 
another by this canine fiend. The " fourth " 
who "waits" is naturally the survivor, who 
lives to tell the story. On the whole, Mr. Mil- 
let gives evidence of a very pretty talent for the 
art in which Poe was a master. 

The stories in Mr. Davis's volume are shorter 
than those before mentioned — there are no less 
than fifteen of them — but they are full of meat. 
As the title suggests, they are mainly about 
our old friend Van Bibber, whose experiments 
in economy, amateur philanthropy, and other 
pursuits, never fail to prove diverting to him- 
self and to us. Some of the stories are the 
merest sketches, but they are of the best in the 
book. Within their limits, it would be diffi- 
cult to match " The Hungry Man Was Fed " 
and "Mr. Travers's First Hunt." Mr. Kipling 
is the only other writer who can compress so 
much incident, humor, and general interest into 
so small a space. Mr. Davis seems in a fair 
way to make the streets of New York his own 
domain. This volume is a distinct advance 
beyond the point reached in " Gallegher," and 
compels the most careful attention from its 

In Mrs. Cavazza's " Calabrian Sketches " 
we have a very remarkable example of insight 
into the modes of Italian peasant life on the 
part of one herself Italian only in her married 
name. Her simple villagers, with the little 
interests that constitute their world, and their 
homely proverbial sayings, possess an extraor- 

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dinary vitality, and their presentation is artistic 
in a very high sense. The stories of " Don 
Finimondone " (so called from his dismal pre- 
dictions of future and final disaster) and of "A 
Calabrian Penelope " have a quiet and pathetic 
charm that make them the best of the half 
dozen included. " Princess Humming-Bird " 
alone is not a peasant tale ; its characters are 
aristocratic Neapolitans and an American girl, 
thus bringing it into the class of international 
tales, for the American girl comes, sees, and 
at once conquers, not only an interesting scion 
of the nobility, but all of his relatives as well. 
It is as charming a story as the others, only in 
a different way, 

^^ The Naulahka " is as preposterous a tale 
as has often been told, but Mr. Kipling's vivid 
depiction of the East Indian native, and (we 
assume) Mr. Balester's characterization of his 
own fellow countryman in the far West, tri- 
umphantly bear up the burden of the story 
until near the end, when it breaks down with 
its own weight. In other words, the story is 
carried on until its authors were evidently un- 
able to straighten out its tangled threads, and 
so took the heroic course of breaking them off. 
We shall probably never learn whether the 
three C.'s came to Topaz, or how Tarvin got 
out of his scrape with the jewel-loving wife of 
the railway president. The American part of 
the story is a rather weak imitation of Mr. 
Bret Harte, and the reader is glad when the 
scene is permanently transferred to Gokral Sec- 
tarun. The Naulahka, it should be mentioned, 
is a necklace of gems, which makes the moon- 
stone of Mr. Wilkie Collins's imagination in- 
significant in comparison. Tarvin's object is 
to get possession of this treasure, and, after a 
series of surprising adventures, he is successful. 
Then, to the consternation of the reader, he 
tamely relinquishes the prize. What is left in 
the reader's mind, aside from his recollection of 
the story, is a deepened sense of the immense 
difference between the oriental and the western 
mind. This has been Mr. Kipling's message 
(as far as he has had such a thing) in most of 
his work, and he has presented it with a force 
quite beyond the reach of the mere essayist or 

No misplaced ethical scruples on the part of 
the authors prevent them from allowing the 
characters of " The Wreckers " to act out their 
parts according to their several natures. They 
would not have returned an ill-gotten Naulahka, 
— not they I Mr. Stevenson (for his collabora- 
tor can be hardly more than a figure-head) 

has written a story of the most exciting de- 
scription without being deserted by the style 
that would bear up any kind of a story that 
he might choose to write. It is very long, 
but a good story cannot be too long. Of this 
one we are bound to say that it has one or two 
wearisome digressions ; so intent must a reader 
be upon the development of the main plot that 
he is impatient of side-issues that would other- 
wise fascinate. There is all the latitude of 
scene that could be desired : Paris, Edinburgh, 
San Francisco and the South Sea Islands dis- 
solve bewilderingly one into another. The 
plot is tremendously involved, but things get 
straightened out at last, and the strains upon 
credulity are few. Most of the characters have 
hopelessly muddled standards of right and 
wrong ; the author is wise enough to know that 
the fault is Nature's, not his. A story with no 
ulterior purpose whatever, we are inclined to 
call " The Wrecker " the best of the season. 

The new edition of Peacock's novels, so 
judiciously edited by Dr. Richard Gramett, is 
now complete. In "The Misfortunes of Elphin," 
the author found a rich mine of material in the 
Mabinogion and other lore of old-time Wales, 
and created a distinct character of the Falstaff- 
ian type in the person of Seithenyn ap Saidi, 
whose drinking feats excite to such admira- 
tion. A selection of the Welsh triads provides 
the story with chapter-headings, and Welsh 
lyrics, original or imitated, enliven its pages. 
Of this book. Dr. Gamett says: "Its posi- 
tion among the author's novels is unique ; in 
the charm of romantic incident it surpasses 
them all ; the humor, though less exuberant 
than where the writer is more thoroughly 
at home, is still plenteous and Peacockian." 
Readers of " Maid Marian " will perhaps dis- 
sent from the opinion that any other of the 
novels can surpass this one in "the charm 
of romantic incident." The fact that its inci- 
dents are the more familiar does not really les- 
sen their charm, and certainly their variety is 
sufficiently great. Dr. Garnett is at some pains 
to establish the fact that " Maid Marian " was 
written, although not published, a full year 
before the appearance of " Ivanhoe." The 
similarity of the two works is, of course, slight, 
and it is not at all a similarity of spirit ; but 
Peacock's invention might suffer some discredit 
from the fact that his romantic idyl was pub- 
lished three years later than Scott's romantic 
epic. A far closer resemblance is to be found 
between " Maid Marian " and " The Forest- 
ers," Lord Tennyson's lovely play. Here, 

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there is similarity of both spirit and incident, 
and all the more so because in '^Maid Ma- 
rian " Peacock often forgot that he had set out 
to be first of all a satirist, while in ** The For- 
esters" Lord Tennyson has for once drama- 
tized English history in a less heroic vein than 
usual. Perhaps we .should not say history, af- 
ter all ; for Robin Hood has gone the way of 
William Tell, but his character and exploits 
are still a permanent possession of our race, 
thanks to the three men of genius who have 
given them literary immortality. "Crotchet 
Castle," which was published in 1881, is the 
most genial, and in many ways the most nearly 
perfect, of Peacock's tales. " It is equally free 
from the errors of immaturity and the infirm- 
ities of senescence," says the editor. With 
added experience of the world of men, Peacock 
came to regard the intellectual vagaries of his 
feUows more indulgently, perhaps because he 
was growing half-conscious of the fact that he 
had developed a few hobbies of his own. The 
volume is provided with a motto aptly sugges- 
tive of this fact. 

** Le monde est plein de fous, et qui ii*en vent pas voir, 
Doit 86 tenir tout mqI, et oasser son miroir." 

In the character of the Reverend Doctor Fol- 
liott, the author produced a closer study in 
self-portraiture than is elsewhere to be found 
in his gallery. Utilitarianism and the new sci- 
ence of political economy are made the object 
of Peacock's keenest satirical shafts ; and Mr. 
Ruskin, if he has ever read the book, must 
have taken a sympathetic delight in many of 
its pages. The volume is particularly notice- 
able for the flexibility and grace of its dia- 
logue, and for the peculiar excellence of its 
poetic interludes. Even in the matter of style, 
the author seems for once to have surpassed 
himself. The Reverend Doctor Opimian, in 
" Gryll Grange," is really Doctor FoUiott un- 
der a new name, and embodies anew the au- 
thor's epicureanism, his literary lore, and his 
genial conservatism. " Gryll Grange," which, 
like " Melincourt," is long enough to make two 
volumes of the new edition, was written in 
1869, and was the last of Peacock's novels. 
Its scene is another of those delightful country 
houses, abounding in good cheer and good 
company. As a story it is the slightest of Pea- 
cock's seven ; but we read these books for 
something better than their stories. It would 
be impossible to characterize the book in more 
fitting terms than those of the editor, who says : 

" The septuagenarian has lost the buoyancy of mid- 
dle age; his animal spirits no longer effervesce, and 

need to be husbanded ; he retains the cafMicity of laugh- 
ter for himself, but has well-nigh lost his command 
over the springs of merriment in others. In fine, < Gryll 

Grange * is rather amusing than humorous The 

years which have incontestably enfeebled the satirist 
have widened the knowledge and matured the wisdom 
of the scholar. We still have to do with a classic, but 

Lucian has given way to Athenseus Ethically, 

indeed, < Gryll Grange' is an advance upon Peacock's 
former writings. There is more tenderness, more con- 
siderateness, a deeper sense of the underlying pathos of 
human life.'' 

We suspect that the moralists who have so 
long been denouncing the immorality of war- 
fare have found an unexpectedly powerful ally 
in the novelists who have set themselves to de- 
pict warfare in its actual colors. The horror 
that may be created by the phrases of rhetoric 
is but feeble and short-lived in comparison 
with that which accompanies a vivid realiza- 
tion of what battlefields really are. This reali- 
zation has been given to ours as to no earlier 
generation, by such works as Tolstoi's " War 
and Peace," the Baroness von Suttner's "Ground 
Arms"; and, we may now add, M. Zola's 
"The Downfall." After all, morality, as has 
so often been said, is merely the nature of 
things ; let things be shown as they are, and 
they convey their own lesson ; nothing explicit 
is needed. For once, we are almost disposed to 
defend and to praise M. Zola's realism. He 
spares us none of the horrors of his subject ; 
nor in such a case should they be spared. 
" La Debacle " is the expressive name that he 
has given to the cataclysm of 1870, and the 
tremendous events that led up to and followed 
upon the fatal day of Sedan are described 
from the standpoint of the private soldier. We 
doubt if the conditions of that struggle have 
ever received a more careful and masterly an- 
alysis than M. Zola has here given them. The 
complete rottenness of that empire of fraud, 
the utter ineptitude of the sham Emperor, 
whose career was one long and blood-stained 
carnival of crime, and the ignorant and insane 
fatuity with which the French nation rushed 
to its doom, are most impressively presented 
in these pages. It was patriotism in a very 
high sense that dictated this stem record, the 
patriotism that sees a nation's virtues all the 
clearer for not being blind to its faults. To 
those who read, history aright, the expiation of 
that annee terrible was a blessing in disguise, 
for it quickened the sluggish pulse of the na- 
tion, and made possible the chastened new 
France whose resurgence has almost marked a 
new epoch in the growth of the human spirit. 
William Morton Payne. 

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Books ox English liiTERATURE and 


It is a pleasure to take up the little volume 
Professor Corson so modestly styles "A Primer 
of English Verse." Or rather, I may say, it 
is a pleasure to find the primer no dry-as-dust 
statement of the mechanism of verse, as are 
most books on prosody, but an aesthetic treat- 
ment from the standpoint of sympathetic ap- 
preciation of its beauties. In fact, almost no 
attention is given to metre in the classical 
sense, the book being devoted exclusively to 
those subtler characteristics of poetry that 
make it appeal to the love of the beautiful. 
The book contains, among others, chapters on 
" Poetic Unities," " Exceptional and Varied 
Metres," and studies of some of Tennyson's 
stanzas, the Spenserian stanza, and blank verse. 
Under "Poetic Unities" Professor Corson takes 
up " rhythm, metre, stanza, rhyme, assonance, 
aUiteration, melody, and harmony," each of 
these being considered in its SBsthetic rela- 
tions. These chapters are introductory, and 
give the standpoint of all the criticism that 
follows. In discussing Tennyson, special at- 
tention is paid to the stanzas of " In Memo- 
riam," " The Two Voices," and " The Palace 
of Art." All these are treated in their adap- 
tability to the subject matter, as the stanza of 
" In Memoriam " to continuity, and the stanza 
of " The Two Voices," with its closely bound 
rhyme-scheme, to the interrupted dialogue of 
which the latter poem is composed. Another 
excellent example of the way in which Profes- 
sor Corson deals with metre is shown by his 
chapter on the Sonnet. The relation of the 
English sonnet to the Italian model is pointed 
out, as well as the changes made by English 
poets both in the rhyme-scheme and in respect 
to the octave and sestet. Copious examples 
are given (this is one of the best features of 
the book), illustrating the sonnet of Milton, 
Shakespeare, Wordsworth, Mrs. Browning, and 
others. The treatment of blank verse, and 

* A Primxr or English VuBSBf Chiefly in its .^Esthetic 
and Organic Character, fiy Hiram Corson. Boston : Ginn 
<& Company. 

The Study Class. A Ghiide for the Student of Engrlish 
literature. By Anna Benneson McMahan. Chicago : A. C. 
McClurg & Co. 

Lectures on English Poetry. By William Hasditt. 
New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. 

Popular Studies of Nineteenth Century Poets. By 
J. Marshall Mather. New York : Frederick Wame & Co. 

Beowulf, an Anglo-Saxon Epic Poem. Translated by 
Jno. Leslie Hall. Boston : D. C. Heath & Co. 

The English Language and English Orammar. By 
Samuel Ramsey. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

other portions of the book, are equally in- 
teresting; so that, it may be said, not only 
does this primer occupy a unique place, but it 
is indispensable to a right knowledge and ap- 
preciation of the best in English verse. 

One of the most remarkable facts of the 
present age is the intellectual eagerness of 
women. For not only are young women de- 
manding education of the most advanced char- 
acter, but matrons as well as maids have felt 
the impulse toward knowledge and have been 
trying to make up the deficiencies of early 
training. It is to direct such effort that " The 
Study Class" has been written by Mrs. Anna B, 
McMahan. We cannot commend too highly 
the aim and plan of this handsome little book. 
"These outlines," the author tells us, "con- 
cern themselves with literature itself rather 
than with the history of literature. In general, 
their questions can only be answered by direct 
study of the author in hand." It is plain from 
this that the author's aim is the only true one. 
The book is introduced by five short essays, of 
which those on " Methods in Study " and " In- 
terpretation of Literature " are especially to be 
commended. These are followed by general 
divisions on Shakespeare, the English Drama, 
English Poetry, Robert Browning, the En- 
glish Essay. Shakespeare is represented by 
outlines on "A Midsummer-Night's Dream," 
"Merchant of Venice," "Macbeth," and "Ham- 
let." The student is aided by the indication 
of difficult passages, the explanation of which 
is to be sought, and by suggestive questions 
as to the interpretation of plot and character. 
In addition occur references to some of the 
best books, so that the student cannot be at a 
loss as to what or how to read. The same plan 
is taken in the other general divisions, each of 
which deserves special comment. It is note- 
worthy that one section is given to a study of 
English prose as exemplified in the Essay. 
This is particularly to be noticed because the 
study of prose' is so often neglected both in and 
out of schools. Here we have outlines on Sid- 
ney, Bacon, Milton, Dryden, Addison, John- 
son, besides the rise of the newspaper and 
periodical, and the later criticism. An "Af- 
terword" on books, with a helpful bibliography, 
closes a useful little manual that we hope may 
find its way to study-classes in many parts of 
our country. 

The reprint of Hazlitt's " Lectures on the 
English Poets " is valuable for two reasons : 
first, as the opinions of a keen critic for his 
generation, and next in its i*elation to the his- 

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tory of literary criticism. Perhaps the latter 
is more important at the present time. For, 
while the essays on the older poets — Chaucer, 
Spenser, Shakespeare, and Milton — are of 
interest on their own account, even these are 
not seldom inaccurate from the standpoint of 
present knowledge, and are therefore some- 
times an unsafe guide. But it is especially 
in his criticism of contemporaries that Hazlitt's 
judgment ia now of least value. In his day, 
Wordsworth, Byron, Coleridge, Moore, and 
Southey were writing, and Hazlitt's opinion of 
these poets accords in few particulars with the 
judgment of posterity. Speaking of the poets 
living in 1818, he says : "I cannot be abso- 
lutely certain that anybody, twenty years 
hence, will think anything about any of them." 
Starting with such a belief, it is hardly to be 
expected that Hazlitt's estimate would be of 
present value, except as it may be placed be- 
side the similar criticism of the great reviews, 
whose judgment of the Revolutionary poets is 
one of the wonders of that interesting but 
erratic age. 

"Popular Studies of Nineteenth Century 
Poets," the author tells us, " were prepared for 
a class of workingmen, with the sole aim of 
rousing their interest in, and provoking them 
to a study of, our nineteenth century poets." 
Judged from this standpoint, — and this is but 
fair to the author, — the studies deserve suc- 
cess with " a wider section of the same commu- 
nity for whom [which ?] they were originally 
prepared." The chapters here given, how- 
ever, are not profound criticism ; indeed, there 
is little that is original ; but they do take up 
in a pleasing way some characteristics of the 
poets considered. The seven chapters are on 
"Wordsworth the Naturalist," "Shelley the 
Idealist," " Coleridge the Mataphysician," 
" Byron the Pessimist," " Hood the Humorist," 
"Tennyson the Moodist," "Browning the 
Optimist." It will be seen at once that the 
terms chosen are in most cases only partially 
descriptive, and in some instances misleading. 
Tennyson and Browning are least profoundly 
treated, perhaps ; a blunder being made in the 
interpretation of the latter's beautiful poem, 
"Wanting is — What?" from the desire of 
reading too much philosophy into it. Still, to 
one taking up one of these poets for the first 
time the book would serve as a helpful intro- 
duction ; and this is its real purpose. 

One of the best signs of the time in educa- 
tion is the new impulse to the study of our old- 
est poetry and of the language in which it is 

written. It is now ten years since Professor 
Gamett published his translation of Beowulf, 
which has already gone through four editions. 
The next year appeared the first volume of his 
" Library of Anglo-Saxon Poetry," and the re- 
maining years of the decade have been equally 
fruitful. Now we have come round to Beo- 
wulf again, in a new translation by Professor 
Hall of William and Mary College. The ques- 
tion how Beowulf should, be translated will re- 
ceive various answers, no doubt, until another 
Matthew Arnold shall settle it by such an essay 
as that " On Translating Homer." Professor 
Hall's translation differs from Professor Gar- 
nett's in being metrical throughout, and it will 
therefore appeal more strongly to the ordinary 
reader, although it is not always so literal. Pro- 
fessor Hall has also preserved the alliteration 
in most cases ; and this is a distinct advantage 
as representing the older metre, although it be- 
comes a distinct disadvantage when obtained 
by introducing a word not preserved in modem 
English, as is sometimes done. On the other 
hand, some of the words in the list " not in 
general use " hardly require an explanation to 
readers of English ; such are harrow^ beaker^ 
bight^ boss (of a shield), brandy eke^ erat^ etc., 
But notwithstanding minor criticisms, we hope 
with the author that the book will hasten the 
day when the story of Beowulf will be familiar 
to English-speaking peoples, and if it shall 
serve as an introduction to the study of our 
earlier English, this alone will be sufficient 
reason for its existence. 

In the preface to his bulky volume on " The 
English Language and English Grammar," 
Mr. Ramsey says the book is not intended " for 
those who are already familiar with all the re- 
sults of past labors, and who, therefore, can 
find nothing here to add to their present ample 
stores of knowledge, there being no claim to 
original discovery or invention." Scholars are 
therefore warned that they have nothing to look 
for in this work. The question then comes, 
has the book been so prepared as to give a cor- 
rect idea of present knowledge in respect to the 
English language and its grammar? Unfortu- 
nately for Mr. Ramsey, this question cannot 
be answered in the affirmative. Many things 
here stated are true, but in scarcely a chapter 
is everything true, and many points are incom- 
pletely treated. For example, from the chapter 
on " Grimm's Law " no one would get an ac- 
curate conception of either consonant-change, 
while "Vemer's Law," a necessary complement 
to the law of Grimm, is not mentioned. In the 

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same way, when the statement is made that 
hleed^feed^ Atrfe,.etc., "have the essential fea- 
tures of strong verbs," it shows that the author 
has no correct idea of the essential differences be- 
tween weak and strong verbs. On the other hand, 
the writing of Mr. Ramsey is clear, forcible, and 
suggestive ; so that, considered from the stand- 
poi^t of essays on subjects connected with En- 
glish language and grammar, this volume may 
be read with interest. 

Oliver Farrar Emerson. 

Briefs on New Books. 

In the volume of essays upon poetry and the 
poets, entitled "The Grolden Guess" (Lee & Shep- 
ard), Mr. John Vance Cheney, already known as a 
poet, makes some welcome additions to the always 
too slender stock of sound criticism. In his es- 
says entitled " The Old Notion of Poetry " and 
" Who are the Great Poets ? " Mr. Cheney collects, 
canvasses, and coordinates the most memorable 
definitions of poetry. Much in these two essays is 
admirable; all is deserving of being carefully 
weighed. Mr. Cheney has a noble faith in the 
value and the destiny of poetry ; he is in these mat- 
ters a conservative of the school of Matthew Ar- 
nold. Yet one is forced to doubt whether this critic 
has himself quite realized the vast scope of the art 
whereof he discourses. He is of course far in ad- 
vance of the old bloodthirsty school of Jeffrey and 
the rest, with their Procrustean bed of definitions 
and standards ; still his definitions are too narrow 
for a poet of the robust proportions of Browning. 
In dealing with Browning and with Matthew Ar^ 
nold, the critic is not quite sure of his ground. 
Matthew Arnold was a poet, it seems, and one of 
the best, yet not a " born poet " — whatever the dis- 
tinction may mean. Considering the mortal length 
of the ^< eternal bead-roll " of English poets whose 
verses seem less profound and memorable than 
Matthew Arnold's, would it not have been as well 
had some of the rest been granted this happy ex- 
emption from ^* birth's invidious bar"? As to 
Browning, the critic does admit that he was a poet 
— presumably a born one, — but the admission 
seems made only to be vigorously retracted. All 
this fumbling and groping, this saying and unsaying, 
is due to the fact that poetry is much too large a thing 
for Mr. Cheney's definitions to surround. So, after 
imprisoning himself, he is obliged to pick the locks. 
His own verse has shown that he has learned for 
himself the old lesson that art is long ; he has yet 
to learn that it is at least equally wide^ — a les- 
son for the critic still more important. He gives 
us some very just negative criticism of Browning, 
but it does not advance us, simply because it is not 
the fruit of the vision which is born of sympathy. 
Mr. Cheney is at his best where his sympathy has 

full play, for here his standards and definitions do 
not restrict him. For Arnold as a critic, for Ten- 
nyson, for Hawthorne, for Shakespeare, for the 
Hebrew poets, for <* music, or the tone poetry," he 
has a sympathy that opens his eyes and enables 
him to g^ve happy expression to many truths worth 
speaking or repeating. Thus, in the essay on Mu- 
sic, he says of Shakespeare's poetry that no other 
comes so near as his *< to slipping back from articu- 
lation into the mother sound." Hawthorne, contrary 
to all his principles, he virtually classes among the 
poets, where of course he belongs. '< His charming 
books are of the poet's sort, — the blossom, not 
the root, of conviction." When Mr. Cheney likes 
a poet, as in the case of Tennyson, he judges 
him by his best, and the result is excellent criti- 
cism ; when he dislikes a poet, as he does Brown- 
ing, he judges him by his worst, and reverses 
the result. But after all deductions have been 
made, the volume has the very unusual merit of 
dealing in a serious, single-hearted way, sometimes 
with considerable insight, with the noblest of the 
arts. It should be very useful in giving readers a 
more religious conception of poetry than that gen- 
erally current 

The drift of Mr. Thomas Nelson Page's volume 
of essays, **The Old South" (Scribner), is indi- 
cated in the chapter-headings : " Authorship Before 
the War," "The Old Colonial Places," "Social 
Life in Old Virginia Before the War," « The Old 
Virginia Lawyer," " The Negro Question," etc. In 
his retrospections, Mr. Page pleasantly illustrates 
the tendency of gentlemen from his " section," when 
dwelling upon the halcyon period "befo' the wah," 
to soar away from the plain facts of a rather crude 
and prosaic reality, and to paint their former selves 
as in some sort a survival of the days of chivalry, 
— the conservators of the high-flown sentiments 
that addled the brains of Don Quixote. A cooler 
fancy finds it pretty hard to see in the young peo- 
ple of the sugar and tobacco plantations a belated 
race of Tristans and Calidores, or even to accept as 
" a delicious, low, slow, musical speech " a harrow- 
ing drawl and accent, caught, like the measles, from 
" darkey " nurses and playmates. The most im- 
portant paper in the volume is a thoughtful and 
temperate presentment of the Southern side of 
" The Negro Question." Premising ( not very log- 
ically) that although the right of secession, having 
been adjudicated by the war, is no longer an issue, 
" it is important, however, to make it clear that the 
right did exist, because on this depends largely the 
South's place in history," Mr. Page goes on to ar- 
gue that the Southern whites, in the face of the 
physical and moral peril resulting from the over- 
crowding among them of an ignorant and hostile 
race, are, in their evasion of the law as to the ex- 
ercise of the elective franchise, obeying the impera- 
tive instinct of self-preservation, — acting, in short, 
(though he does not make the comparison), as their 
Northern brethren would act if matched or over- 

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whelmed at the polls by a horde, say, of enfran- 
chised and politically ^< solid" Chinese. Without 
altogether admitting Mr. Page's facte, we may at 
least admit the force of his logic. He stoutly combato 
the notion that the South <* brought the negro here 
and bound him in slavery*' or that it << still desires 
the re-establishment of slavery," sketches the early 
history of the institution in America, triumphantly 
shows that '' Massachusetto has the honor of being 
the first community in America to legalize the slave 
trade and slavery by legislative act," that she most 
violently opposed and persecuted the early emancipa- 
tors, and cites an imposing aiTay of cases tending to 
show that " scientifically, historically, and congenit- 
ally the white race and the negro race differ," that the 
latter, despite exceptions, and in the face of golden 
opportunities, has "never exhibited any capacity 
to advance," that, as a race, negroes are organically 
and, in great measure, irremediably inferior. Let 
us then, urges Mr. Page, the negro being here and 
irremovable, deal with the question philosophically 
and humanely. We have, of course, but faintly 
indicated the leading pointe of Mr. Page's case — 
which is undeniably a strong one. While it is highly 
improbable that he and those who think with him 
are wholly right, it is at least as improbable that 
they are wholly wrong ; and it is certainly time for 
us in the North to inquire just how far they are 
right on this menacing question. The other papers 
in the volume are, allowing for certain florid ten- 
dencies already noted, of interest as descriptive of 
Southern ante-bellum manners. 

In writing his life of William Gilmore Simms for 
the "American Men of Letters " seiies (Hough- 
ton ), Mr. WiUiam P. Trent has done a genuine bit 
of biographical work, and has carefully examined 
and sifted for his purpose all the available material. 
He has so well avoided all appearance of partisan- 
ship, that it is hard to judge from the tone in which 
the book is written whether the author is a South- 
erner or a Northerner. The limite prescribed for 
volumes of the series are somewhat too brief to per- 
mit Mr. Trent to carry out fully his plan of treat- 
ing Simms's life as that of a typical Southerner to 
be explained by the history of the South during the 
first seven decades of the nineteenth century. In- 
deed, the life led by Simms had so many phases and 
relations, and was so full of work of many different 
kinds, that often, owing to lack of space, the book 
ceases to be a narrative and becomes a mere cat- 
alograe of the various irons he had in the fire. To 
explain his career his biographer is obliged, how- 
ever, to treat quite fully of Southern life and litera- 
ture, and to say many things that are helpful in 
rendering the Southern attitude of mind intelligible 
to Northern readers. As James Fenimore Cooper 
was a robust and prolific American Scott, so was 
Simms a robust and prolific Southern Cooper. Coop- 
er is inferior to Scott in no greater degree than 
Simms is inferior to Cooper. Simms resembled the 

two great romancers mentioned, in the careless ra- 
pidity of his work and in treating chiefly native 
scenes and characters. Like Scott, he made his first 
attempte in verse ; but he would have been wiser 
if, when he found his true field in prose fiction, he 
had abstained, as Scott did, from writing poetry, 
and wiser still if, like Cooper, he had never pub- 
lished verses. Lacking a proper sense of his own 
limitations, Simms attempted almost everything, 
and set up by turns as poet, editor, romancer, dram- 
atist, orator, historian, biographer, politician, re- 
viewer, geographer, planter, and military adviser. 
He lacked also the sense of humor so conspicuous 
in Scott and to a less degree in Cooper. Had Simms 
possessed this sense it might have saved him from 
publishing much of his prose and most of his verse. 
It would at least have saved him from belated at- 
tempte to improve upon the rude rhymes of Mother 
Groose. Simms was a writer of great energy, great 
versatility, great indefatigability, great talent for 
producing speedily an indefinite amount of " copy," 
great powers of imagination and narration, but he 
does not rank with our great writers in any depart- 
ment of literature. He stands highest in romance- 
writing ; and in a few works of this kind, such as 
" The Yemassee " and " The Partisan," he deserves 
the epithet Mr. W. P. Trent gives to Ijogar^, " just- 

Joseph Pennell's new book " The Jew at Home " 
( Appleton ) is the result of a recent trip to south- 
eastern Europe during which the opportunity was 
*' thrust upon " him of observing the Polish, the 
Austro-Hungarian, and the Russian Jew in all his 
squalid loathsomeness. " I am neither a Jew hater 
nor a Jew lover," says the author in his preface. 
*< What I did see I have simply put down in black 
and white." What Mr. Pennell saw is assuredly 
enough to make the meanest Gentile blush for his 
species. Qne is loth to believe that a human crea- 
ture can reach such depths as Mr. Pennell's Jew 
reaches. He is certainly not to be touched with 
anything so short as the tongs, and would make 
*' Uncle Toby " himself a Jew-baiter. Seriously, we 
think — and hope — that Mr. Pennell has laid on his 
darks too heavily, our own observation arguing that 
much may be made of the Russian or the Polish Jew 
if, like Dr. Johnson*s Scotchman, '< he be caught 
young." Mr. Pennell sketched his first type in 
Carlsbad — << a miserable, weak, consumptive look- 
ing specimen of humanity, a greasy cork-screw ring- 
let over each ear, head bent forward, coat-collar 
turned up, hands crossed on the stomach, each buried 
in the opposite sleeve, coat reaching to his heels, and 
a caricature of an umbrella under his arm." In 
Vienna Mr. Pennell ^^ began to hear a great deal 
about him — not only from the philanthropiste who 
knew him not, and therefore longed to take him 
into their midst, but from those who, knowing him, 
long to get rid of him for evermore." Of the Aus- 
tro-Hungarian Jew, he says : '* He produces nothing, 
he lives on nothing, and apparently he wante noth- 

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ing. His home is cheerless, his costume is disrep- 
utable, and he stands around doing nothing with lus 
hands in a country where everyone else of his class 
is at work, takes a pride in his home, and dresses 
like a picture." Mr. Pennell's description of the 
Jewish city of Brody — "a hideous night-mare 
of dirt, disease, and poverty *' — the squeamish 
reader would better avoid. Arrived in Russia, 
he writes : " No one who has ever seen the Jew 
in Russia can wonder that they want to get rid 
of a creature who is so clannish and so dirty, who 
is so entirely bent on making a little money for 
himself, whose shops in all the large commercial 
towns are always the meanest." Out of Russia the 
Jew is still worse : " With their liberty they sink 
deeper into, instead of seeking to escape from, the 
degradation which we are chaiitable to think entirely 
the result of Russian persecution." Mr. Pennell's 
book is liberally iUustrated, and the sketches cer- 
tainly go far to bear out the text. 

Considering the obvious need for the work, it 
seems at first sight rather odd that the credit of 
preparing a satisfactory literary guide to London 
should fall to an American, Mr. Laurence Hutton ; 
and, to quote a leading English review, his '* Liter- 
ary Landmarks of London" (Harper), an eighth 
edition of which is now reached, is indeed '^a 
book of which literary America may be proud, and 
literary London ashamed." It is not, however, 
after all so surprising that English writers have 
been forestalled in this field, when one remembers 
the amazing indifference of Londoners generally to 
what is most interesting to intelligent foreign visi- 
tors — the literary and historical associations of the 
metropolis. No place in the world is so rich in its 
literary shrines as London, and in no place in the 
world have they been heretofore so hard to find. Ask 
the average Londoner as to the whereabouts of the 
stock " sights " of the city, the " Bank," the Crystal 
Palace, the great caf ^s, etc., and he is ready enough 
and courteous enough with his answer ; but touch him 
as to "Will's Coffee House," "The Cocoa Tree," 
"The Globe Theatre" Bankside, the homes and 
haunts of Johnson, Goldsmith, Lamb, Addison, Swift, 
Thackeray, the scores of hallowed sites laboriously 
identified and marked for us by Mr. Hutton, and it is 
ten to one he will stare blankly with an obvious effort 
to realize what you are " driving at." Probably he 
will put you down as an American, and wonder at 
the vagaries of the species. Mr. Hutton*s book is 
one which no intelligent tourist to England can 
afford to be without. It presents in moderate com- 
pass the leading facts relating to the London careers 
of British authors, from Addison to Young, and fur- 
nishes a ready clue to their homes and resorts in the 
metropolis. It has been carefully revised for the 
present edition ; a number of supplementary notes 
have been added, and, as far as possible, it has been 
brought down to the present day. The attractive- 
ness of the work has been greatiy enhanced by the 
addition of seventy-four full-page portraits. The 

work seems to be very complete, though we ven- 
ture to suggest that some mention might have been 
made of George Chapman, whose grave, marked by 
a legible inscription, is to be found in the church- 
yard of St. Giles's-in-the-Fields. 

Mb. Fkoude's latest volume, " The Spanish Story 
of the Armada and Other Essays " (Scribner), con- 
sists of two pleasant papers on Norway, a sketch of 
the Templars, and three more serious studies in the 
history of Spain — rounded fragments of a work in 
which the author hoped to reconstruct an important 
period in Spanish history. Having rescued the char- 
acter of Henry the Eighth from execration, he in- 
tended to come to the aid of Charles the Fifth and 
Philip the Second and make the " wide correction " 
needed in the prevailing opinions about these princes. 
Circumstances compelled him to postpone the task, 
and the only published results of his researches 
are the volume on Queen Catherine's divorce and 
the essays on the Armada, Antonio Perez, and Saint 
Teresa. The longest and most important of the 
three re-tells the story of the Armada from con- 
temporary Spanish documents, showing that the 
ruin of the great fleet was due not only to the storm 
and the valor of Howard and Drake, but to disease, 
hunger, and the mistakes of a reluctant and inca- 
pable commander. In tracing the tangled history 
of Antonio Perez, Philip's private secretary, Mr. 
Froude gives his picture of Philip the Second, " a 
painstaking, laborious man, prejudiced, narrow- 
minded, superstitious, with a conceit of his own 
abilities not uncommon in crowned heads, and fre- 
quently with less justification, but conscientious from 
his own point of view, and not without the feelings 
of a gentleman." Is this very far from the " prevail- 
ing opinions " which Mr. Froude proposed to cor- 
rect " on more tolerant lines " ? Certainly every 
sober student of the sixteenth century would agree 
that it is " as unjust as it is uninstructive " to regard 
Philip and his father " merely as reactionary big- 
ots." It would of course be unfair to judge the pro- 
jected work by these fragments ; so far as they go, 
Mr. Froude seems to leave the Spanish princes 
about where he found them. 

The latest volume of " The Queen's Prime Min- 
isters" (Harper), a life of the Earl of Derby, is 
contributed by Mr. George Saintsbury. In a curt, 
characteristic preface, the author states that <Mn 
some considerable reading of books of history " he 
has " found that the most profitable are usually those 
in which the author, while giving his facts as fully 
and loyally as he can, makes no secret of his opin- 
ions and argues as stoutly as he may for them." 
Coupling this view with the fact that the holder of 
it is a stanch Tory, the reader will readily infer the 
general tone of Mr. Saintsbury's book — a forcible, 
compact, yet, space considered, fairly thorough re- 
view, from the Tory standpoint, of Lord Derby's 
public career, with the due infusion of characteristic 
anecdote and personal detail. There is nothing per- 

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fanctory in Mr. Saintsbury's style, no matter what 
hiB subject may be, and he sketches rapidly and 
S3rmpatheticaUy, with a sufficient mastery of his 
facts and a constant eye to their polemical bearing, 
the salient events of Lord Derby's political life, his 
part in fighting the Reform Question, his attitude 
towards the Corn Law agitation, his first, second, 
and third Ministries and the stirring political inci- 
dents they covered. Lord Derby's connection with 
the turf is not forgotten ; and in an interesting chap- 
ter on his literary work — notably as to the trans- 
lation of the Iliad — Mr. Saintsbury contributes 
his quota to the vexed question, '< On Translating 
Homer." Comparing Lord Derby's version with 
those of Hobbes, Dry den, Pope, Cowper, and Soth- 
eby — from each of which parallel citations are 
made, — Mr. Saintsbury says : " Nor am I much 
afraid of any competent contradiction when I say 
that, if they be compared with each other, and with 
the original. Lord Derby's is the only one that de- 
serves the name of a translation at all, while it is at 
least the equal, poetically, of all but Dryden's." 
The closing chapter is a careful and not too partial 
summary of Lord Derby. Despite certain unpleas- 
ant peculiarities of the author's manner, — which is 
too often of the snappishly assertive sort that pro- 
vokes contradiction irrespectively of the views ad- 
vanced, — he has given us one of the best numbers, 
so far, of the series. 

Newman's pious and amiable curate of Saint 
Mary's, Isaac Williams, after retiring to Stinch- 
corabe wrote- out for bis children, some years before 
his death, his recollections of his earlier and more 
active years. He has much to say of the inner 
history of the Oxford tractarian movement ; and 
since a large public now interests itself in this move- 
ment, the Rev. Sir Greorge Prevost, brother-in-law 
of Mr. Williams, has seen fit to edit and publish 
this account as the ^^ Autobiogi*aphy of Isaac Wil- 
liams" (Longmans). Mr. Williams wrote several 
of the ** Tracts for the Times," some poems for 
*' Lyra Apostolica," and numerous other devotional 
and poetical works. The present work contains 
reminiscences of John and Thomas Keble, Hurrell 
Froude, Newman, Pusey, Ward, Copeland, Robert 
and Samuel Wilberforce, and others. Appended 
are several kind letters from Newman, an account 
of the dangerous illness from which Williams was 
said to have been saved by prayer, a statement of 
the reasons for Williams's retirement from the can- 
didacy for the Poetry Professorship at Oxford, a 
characteristic sermon by Thomas Keble, etc. To 
show that the tractarian movement did not neces- 
sarily lead to Romanism, Mr. Williams points out 
that, of the fourteen persons who had any share, 
however slight, in writing the "Tracts for the 
Times," Newman is the only one who joined the 
church of Rome. The book is written in a ramb- 
ling and disjointed fashion, and gives no connected 
or coherent treatment, either of the life of Isaac 
Williams, or of the tractarian movement. 

A WELL PLANNED and admirably arranged volume 
is " Stories from £nglish History for Young Ameri- 
cans," published by Messrs. Harper & Brothers. 
The old stories gain a fresh interest through their 
simple and picturesque telling, the illustrations are 
numerous and somewhat unusual, and a specially 
happy feature of the book consists in the introduc- 
tion of poems celebrating the various epochs and 
incidents. Shakespeare, Scott, Cowper, Southey, 
Byron, and many lesser writers, are cited appropri- 
ately, so that the young reader's interest in English 
literature is naturally quickened along with his 
knowledge of history. 

A HANDY little manual compiled by Albert P. 
Southwick, author of " Handy Helps," is " Wisps 
of Wit and Wisdom " (A. Lovell & Co.), in which 
the puzzled seeker may find answers to all sorts of 
recondite queries, the scope and variety of which 
beggars description. The book should be a boon to 
harassed editors of the ^' Correspondents' Column," 
and a careful perusal of it may enable ambitious 
readers, at little cost, to make a handsome show of 
curious erudition. 

Books of the Month. 

[The following list^ embracing 50 titles, includes all books 
received by The Dial during tke month of July, 189£.] 


The Dlalogruee of Plato. Translated into English, with 
Analyses and Introductions, by B. Jowett, M.A. Third 
edition, reyised and corrected throughout. In 5 vols., 
8yo, uncut edges. Macmillan & Co. $20.00. 

A History of .£lsthetlc. By Bernard Bosanguet, M.A. 
(Ozon.) Large 8vo, pp. 502, uncut. Macmillan & Co. 
$2.75. ^ 

Serampore Letters: Being the Unpublished Correspon- 
dence of William Carey and others with John Williams, 
1800-1816. Edited b/Leighton and Momay Williams, 
with Introduction by Thomas Wright. lUus., 12mo, pp. 
150. G. P. Putnara^s Sons. $1.50. 

Brownlner's Criticism of Life. By William F. Revell, 
author of "Ethical Forecasts." With frontispiece, 18mo, 
pp. 116. Macmillan's '* Dilettante Library." 90 cts. 


Dictionary of National Biography. Edited by Sidney 
Lee. Vol. XXXI., Kennett — Lambart. Large 8vo, pp. 
448, gilt top. Macmillan & Co. $3.75. 

Memoirs of the Prince de Tallesnrand. Edited by the 
Due de Broglie. Translated by Mrs. Angus Hall, with 
Introduction by Hon. Whitelaw Reid. Vol. V., illus., 
large 8vo, pp. 432, gilt top. 6. P. Putnam's Sons. $2.50. 


City Festivals. By Will Carleton, author of " Farm Bal- 
lads." Illus., square 8yo, pp. 164. Harper & Brothers. 

Love Letters of a Violinist, and Other Poems. By Eric 
Mackay. Special copyri|rht American edition, newly re- 
vised. 12rao, pp. 277, gilt top. Lovell, Coryell & Co. 

Told in the Gate. By Arlo Bates. 12mo, pp. 215, gilt top, 
uncut edges. Roberts Brothers. $1.25. 

Helen of Troy : Her Life and Translation. Done into Rhyme 
from the Greek Books, by Androw Lang. 16mo, pp. 204, 
uncut. Macmillan & Co. 75 cts. 

Barrack-Boom Ballads, and Other Verses. By Rudyard 
Kipling. 12mo, pp. 270, paper. United States Book 
Company. 50 cts. 

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The Naulahka: A Story of West and East. By Rndyard 

Kipline and Wolcott Balestier. 12mo, pp. 379. Macmil- 

lan&Co. $1.60. 
The WredLer. By Robert Louis Steyenson and Lloyd Os- 

beme. Bins., 12mo, pp. 553. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Anthony Melgrrave. By Thomas M'Caleb. 12mo, pp. 203, 

gilt top, nnout edges. G. P. Patnam^s-Sons. $1.50. 
Mansfield Park. By Jane Ansten, in 2 vols., 16mo, gilt 

tops. Roberto Brothers. $2.50. 
The Downfall: (La D^bfiole). ByEmileZola. Translated 

by £. P. Robins. Illus., 12mo, pp. 565. Cassell Publish- 
ing Company. $1.50. 
Mrs. Keats Bradford: A Novel. By Maria Louise Pool, 

author of '' Dally." 12roo, pp. 309. Harper & Brothers. 

The Mafflc Ink, and Other Stories. By William Black. 

nius.. 12mo, pp. 258. Harper & Brothers. $1.25. 
The Averaere Woman. By Woloott Balestier. With a 

Prefaoe by Henry James. 12mo, pp. 260. United States 

Book Co. $1.25. 
That Dakota Olrl. By StelU Oihnan. 12mo, pp. 240. U. S. 

Book Co. $1.25. 
Manuelita: The Story of San Xavier del Bac. By Marion 

Calvert Wilson, author of '* Renee." With frontispiece, 

12mo, pp. 305. U.S. Book Co. $1.25. 
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This iuTaluable picture of the times, translated from the 
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most interesting and eventful decades in English history. 
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monarch," nis gaities and intrigues. The plague of 1665, 
followed bv a life-like record of the great nre, and the re- 
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snd old-fashioned dub-life, are all graphically described. 

BLAY (Frances Bumev). With Notes by W. C. Ward, 
and prefaced by Lord Maoaulay's Essay, with frontispiece 
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The diary of the author of '' Evelina " is replete with inter- 
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We shall be pleased to mail you, on application, a detailed 
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By the author qf **Life and Teachings of John Buskin.^'' 
TURY POETS. By J. Marshall Mather. In 12mo, 
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Simple studies on Wordsworth, Shelley, Coleridge, Byron, 
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interest in the poet and his works. 

Now ready in IJmo, cloth, ^1,00. 

J. Marshall Mather. Third edition, revised. 
This volume is not a criticism, but simply an outline of 

Roskin's life and teaching, intended for tnose who purpose 

a csrefd study of his works. 

'*Mr. Mather's book, with its careful and sympathetic an- 

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of his philosophy of art. education, and life, is a volume of the 
t hdpfnl sort."-rAc Dial, 


Of all hooksdlers. Sent free on receipt qf price, by the Publishers, 
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fobn IVyclif, 

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Bv the Rey. J. F. Cowan, author of '' The Jo-Boat Boys." 
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A book of mach merit, quite above the average, and will do good ' 
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The Rev. Francis E. Clark, D.D., president of the Christian Endeavor 
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telling way of teaching a wholesome truth than by embodying it m a 
good story. " 

THE EVERY-DAY OF LIFE. By the Rev. J. R. , 
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WORDSWORTH'S POEMS. (Selections.) Illustrated j 
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DREN. By Mrs. Harriet C. Cooper. Fully illustrated, 
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Wilder. 12mo. Unique parti-cloth binding, 75 cts. 

A series of object lessons in spiritual teaching. A study in character 
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Hezekiah Butter worth, author of the '* Zigzag Books," 
etc. A companion yolume to *' Little Arthur^s England 
and France." Illustrated. 12mo, $1.25. 
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better understands the requirements of the young than Mr. Butter- 
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GIRLS; Faults and Idkals. By Rev. J. R. Miller, 
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binding, IV) cts. 

Plain, practical, common-sense advice from one who admires and rev- 
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IN BLUE CREEK CANON. By Anna Chapin Ray, 
author of "Half a Dozen Girls," *'Half a Dozen Boys," 
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Miss Ray transports to the Rocky Mountains a party of her happy, 

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DAILY FOOD. New illustrated edition, with 12 
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A PLEA FOR THE GOSPEL. By the Rey. George 
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The autbor^s previous volumes have been hailed by men of all denom- 
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EQUITABLE TAXATION. A Series of Prize Essays 

by Walter E. Weyl, Robert Luce, Bolton Hall, and 

others. Introduction by the Hon. Jonathan A. Lane. 

Biographical sketches and portraits. 12mo, 75 cts. 

Nothing is more evident than that there is a crying need for change 

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Opinion^ and printed vrith enconiums and the award of prises. A most 

stimulating and valuable book. 


H. Raymond. Illustrated, 12mo, $1.25. 

Monica is a Spanish girl of Southern California, who lives In a quaint 
old house of adobe, surrounded with vines and flowers, and is the main 
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their quiet life comes a current from the outer world. Monica goes in 
search of her missing brother, and meets with strange adventures, 
which result in the unravelling of a complicated chain of destiny. It is 
a remarkable storj', with a charming flavor of Idyllic Spanish-American 

K. Bolton, author of "Poor Boys Who became Famous," 
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Mrs. Bolton here gives in an entertaining style vivid pictures from 
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MIXED PICKLES. By Mrs. Evelyn H. Raymond, 
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Under this mysterious and alluring title Mrs. Raymond describes the 
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THE Tow Path, by Homer Greene, author of "The 
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Tlie flrst is the story of an episode in a military school on the Hudson, 
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imitable way. 

TOM CLIFTON; or, Western Boys in Grant and 
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Chapin Ray, author of "Half a Dozen Girls," Half a 
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It is a story full of enthusiasm, with exciting adventures, genial fun, 

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EXPECTATION CORNER. By E. S. Eluott, from 
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CONFLICTING DUTIES. By E. S. Eluott, from 
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ROBERT BROWNING'S POEBIS (Selections). 2to1s. 
BURNS' POEMS (Selections). 
LADY OF THE LAKE. By Sm Waltbr Scott. 
LALLA ROOKH. By Thomas Moore. 
LUCILE. By OwKN Meredith. 

n)TLLS OF THE KING. By Alfred Lord Tennyson. 
IN MEMORIAM. By Alfred Lord Tenntson. 
THE PRINCESS. By Alfred Lord Tennyson. 
EARLY SONNETS, etc. By Aured Lord Tennyson. 
LOCKSLEY HALIi, etc. By Alfred Lord Tennyson. 
SARTOR RESARTUS. By Thomas Oarlylb. 

PAUL AND VIRGINIA. By Bernardin de St. Pierre. 
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i Golden Words for Daily Counsel 1 .25 

Meditations of Joseph Roux, . . 1.26 

I Pilqrim's Progress, 1.25 

I Making the Most of Life, ... 1.25 

I Silent Times 1.25 

The Every Day of Life, ... 1.25 

I Tely Jesus, 1.00 

I The Soul's Inquiries Answered, .75 


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HISTORY OF PERU. By Clements R. Mabkham, C.B., F.R.S., F.S.A., President Haklayt 

Society, (late) Secretary Royal Geographical Society, author " Cazco and Lima," " War Between 

Chile and Peru," etc. 8yo, cloth, with 25 fall-page illuBtrations and 5 maps, $2.50. 

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famous generals, viceroys, presidents, and patriots. The book is well equipped with maps, abounds with pictures, 

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HISTORY OF CHILE. By Anson Urial Hancock, author of "Coitlan: A Tale of the Inca 
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II. BARBARINE AND OTHER COMEDIES. By Alfred de Musset. 16mo, cloth, $1.50. 

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a Srmi=ilR0ntfjl2 3oumal of litetarg Criticfent, fflfecuggion, anlJ Jnfotmation. 

THE DIAL (Jounded in 1880) Upubliihed on the 1st and 16th of each 
month. Tbrms of Subscription, fS.00 a year in advance^ postage prepaid 
in the United States^ Canada^ and Mexico; in other countries comprised 
in the Postal Union, CO cctUs a year for extra postage must be added. 
Unless otherwise ordered, stthseriptions will begin with the current 
number. RsiiiTTAtfCBi should be by check, or by express or postal 
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subscriptions with other publications will be sent on application, and 
Sakplb Copt on receipt of 10 cents. Advbbtisino 'Sikm furnished on 
application. All communications should be addressed to 

THE DIAL, JV'o. 24 Adams Street, Chicago. 

No, 149. SEPTEMBER 1, 1892. 

Vol. XI IL 



. ... 127 


. ... 128 

W. B. P. 




Eiiienon's Obtusenefls to Shelley. Anna B. Mc- 

Mohan 130 

UnWersity Extension Work in Chicago. W. F. Poole 130 
Who Reads a Chicago Book? J. K. 1.30 


A New Phase of the Rights of Authors. — Purchase 
and Gift of a Great English Library.— Plans for the 
Tilden Library in New York.— The Shelley Memorial 
at Viareggio.—Omar Khayyam. 



Lathrop 136 

JOSHUA R. GIDDINGS. Samuel Willard 


138 I 


Marian Mead 143 


Caird's Essays on Philosophy and Literature.— Stud- 
ies of Homer as a Poet and a Problem.— A judicial 
view of the American Colonial Era. — A father and 
daughter in the Swiss Highlands.— A companion to 
the ** Reyeries of a Bachelor."— A serviceable yolume 
about Julius desar.— The life of an American Col- 
lege President.— A plea for the Organic Unity of 
Chriaten4oro. — Recreations of an old-fashioned 
Scholar. — The folk-lore elements of modem culture. 
— A boon to Goethe students.— Charles Sumner as a 
Maker of America.— An injudicious and one-sided 
Kansas History. 







When The Dial was established, in May, 1880, 
it was the intention of the editor and publishers to 
make of it a critical review of the first rank, which 
should occupy in this country a field somewhat sim- 
ilar to that occupied in England by such papers as 
" The Athenaeum " and "The Academy.*' At that 
time no such review was in existence, or had existed, 
in the United States, and the interests of literature 
found but scanty or casual representation. The 
success of The Dial in its attempt was instant and 
pronounced. It won recognition from the start, as 
embodying a higher critical standard than had 
hitherto l)een upheld in American letters, and as 
dealing wiUi literary interests in a just, dignified, 
and authoritative manner. During the twelve years 
of its publication it has received cordial commenda- 
tion from the most diverse sources, American and 
English ; it has won for itself a permanent place in 
the regard of the iatellectually disposed portion of 
the public ; and it has so maintained the standard 
with which it set forth that it has found no serious 
competitor in its special field of literary criticism. 
But gratifying as these evidences pf success have 
been, we have felt for some time ihat within our 
reach lay an opportunity not fully grasped. On 
many occasions friendly critics have hinted that a 
review appearing but monthly could not keep its 
readers fully abreast of the stream of literary pro- 
duction, and that many literary interests, quite as 
genuine as those immediately relating to the ac- 
tual publication of books, were ignored by the t^o 
rigid method of devoting our space almost wholly 
to reviews of new works. Realizing the force of 
these criticisms, we have for a considerable time had 
I in contemplation plans for the enlargement and im- 
j provement of The Dial, and these plans we now 
I have the pleasure of outlining for our readers. 
I In the first place, The Dial, while retaining its 
I familiar form and size, becomes with this issue a 
j semi-monthly publication, and will appear promptly 
I on the first and sixteenth of each month.^ Having 
I thus at our command twice as much space as for- 
I merly, we shall be enabled both to give a more ade- 
I quate treatment than heretofore to current publica- 
I tions, and to extend the scope of our review by the 
^ inclusion of new, and not strictly critical, depart- 
I ments. Of these new departments, some indication is 
I afforded by the contents of the present number, and 
I their general character may be here summarized. 
I The new sub-title of The Dial states its purposes 

* Although douhle the amount of matter will be furnished, 
the annual subscription is raised from 1^1.50 to !|)2.00 only. 
I Subscriptions already paid will be continued for the full period 
I without extra charge. 

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[Sept. 1, 

as accurately as such narrow limits allow. It is 
** a semi-monthly journal of literary criticism, discuH- 
sion, and information." Discussion of matters of 
current literary interest, botli by editors and con- 
tributors, will hereafter he one of its prominent 
features, and the paper will assume a distinct voice 
upon questions of general intellectual concern. The 
lives and works of writers recently deceased will re- 
ceive careful attention. A special feature of each 
issue will be the leading review, descriptive and ex- 
tractive rather than critical, of the most important 
book of the fortnight, provided it lend itself to such 
treatment. As a journal of literary comment and 
information, The Dial will give the latest news 
about books, their writers and publishers, and other 
subjects of allied interest. Its regular bibliograph- 
ical features will be retained, and new depaHments 
will be added from time to time as the broadening 
field of intellectual activity shall seem to make 
them desirable. l^E Dial aims to make itself in- 
dispensable to educators and librarians, to authors 
and their publishers, to book-sellers and book-buy- 
ers, and to the intelligent reading public in general. 

While its field is thus co-extensive with the field 
of culture, the critical review, which in the past has 
been The Dial's almost sole mode of expression, 
will continue to be the principal means of its ap- 
peal to the reader. As heretofore, these reviews lyill 
be the work of competent specialists, and the longer 
ones will bear the authority of their authors' sig- 
natures. As our readers well know, the list of con- 
tributors to The Dial includes the names of many 
scholars of the highest eminence, representing the 
universities, the professions, and the ranks of pri- 
vate scholarship. This list is being constantly re- 
cruited, and is one of which a journal may well be 
proud. The Dial stands preeminently for object- 
ive and scientific criticism ; it believes in the ex- 
istence of critical canons, and endeavors to discover 
and adhere to them. On . the other hand, it en- 
deavors to avoid that miscalled criticism of the 
subjective sort which displays the mood of the critic 
rather than the character of the work that he is 
handling, and whose flippancy or triviality of tone 
seems mainly designed to excite admiration for the 
cleverness of its wnter. This sort of writing may 
be amusing enough to read, but it fails utterly of 
the purpose of criticism in the genuine sense. 
Again, the constituency of such a journal as The 
Dial demands that the specialist reviewer shall not 
be too technical in his criticism, that he shall com- 
bine scientific accuracy, on the one hand, with a 
readable and generally interesting treatment of his 
theme, upon the other. This sort of treatment will 
continue to be, as it always has been, the prevailing 
note of our criticism. 

In closing, a word may be said of Chicago as the 
place of publication of such a review as The Dial. 
In most respects, the place of publication of such a 
review matters very little, and its contents should 
rarely offer any indication of the particular section 

or community in which they see the light. But the 
rapid growth of Chicago in other than material 
directions is a phenomenon which, although recent, 
is rapidly forcing itself upon the attention of the 
country. Chicago is in the centre of the great 
book-buying and book-reading section of the coun- 
try, and as a point of distribution it has already 
gained the importance that it is certain to have be- 
fore long as a point of publication also ; its public 
collections of books are in a fair way to rival tliose 
of any other city, and its new university is about to 
give a marked impetus to the interests of culture. 
In view of these facts it is at least not inappropriate 
that the name of Chicago should stand upon the 
title-page of The Dial. 


The educated men and women of the northern 
Valley of the Mississippi are looking with keen yet 
sympathetic interest toward one of the largest edu- 
cational experiments ever undertaken. "Within two 
years President Harper has gathered, upon an ut- 
terly bare site, five millions of dollars, and a force 
of ninety instructors and investigators, many of 
them chosen from the very Slite of the world's edu- 
cational corps. The work of organization will now 
speedily follow, and in a few weeks another great 
teaching university will be in active operation. 
The Dial will have occasion from time to time to 
comment upon features of this fairly unique un- 
dertaking, which it recognizes as a collaborator for 
the advancement of high thinking in this new world 
of the mid-continent Its first word will be one of 
friendly welcome, as it seeks to call attention to 
what it considers the gain already accrued to this 
Chicago-centred section through President Harper's 
personality and influence. His institution has yet 
to engage in the work of educating the youth of 
this wide field ; but for two years its head has been 
engaged in the even more important work — which 
he will still continue — of educating the business 
men of his constituency : of transforming shrewd 
money-getters into intelligent money-givers. As 
one looks back for thirty-five years over the many 
attempts to found and develop educational institu- 
tions in and about Chicago — whether his gaze may 
rest upon the old Chicago University, or the uni- 
versities at Lake Forest and £vauston, — the same 
phenomena are recalled: an army of Western 
youth, too limited in means to attend our Eastern 
institutions, yet eager for knowledge, for educa- 
tional discipline, for culture ; small bands of single- 
hearted and devoted teachers, putting to one side 
! their ambition for investigation and research, and 
I for slender pay giving themselves to the work of in- 
struction ; boards of well-meaning but short-sighted 
trustees, expecting the same financial balance to 
the debit account as would be looked for in a pack- 
ing establishment, and unable to grasp the old- 
world truth that education costs in money but paya 

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richly in a hundred other ways. And so things 
went on for years, with presidents and faculties 
crippled in their educational plans by a half-hearted 
financial support, and everyone who could afford 
it sending his sons and daughters to the East for 
their education. 

But in a happy moment Dr. Harper was called 
t» establish a university anew in Chicago. Other 
preeid^nts had indeed done yeoman service before 
he came. The devoted Burroughs of the old Chi- 
cago University, Haven and Fowler and Cum- 
mings at EvansUNi, Gregory and Roberts at Lake 
Forest, all helped to prepiire the way for Dr. Har- 
per. But they were voices crying in a financial wil- 
derness, and Uieir persuasions uulocked few pockets 
beyond those of their own boards of trust. At last a 
better hour brought in a more fortunate man. Much 
was said of Dr. Harper's scholarship, and such he 
undoubtedly has in a high degree; yet his peei*s 
in the land are not a few. His teaching facility 
was extolled — and that he is an inspiring and 
gifted teacher, teachers can best bear witness, — 
but he is here also only one of a large brother- 
hood. Had he possessed both scholarship and 
teaching faculty in a far higher degree, he might 
have come and gone, and, like many another, left 
only a reminiscence in the Chicago sensorium. But 
something in this man's personality has taken hold 
on the potential benefactors and donors of Chicago, 
and has constrained them to do his bidding, and 
to do it gladly. For while we do not forget that 
over two and a half of his millions have come from 
Mr. Rockefeller, and almost another million froi^ 
other outside sources, we still note that Chicago has 
paid in a million and a half of hard dollars toward 
this enterprise. We do not overlook the advantage 
that President Harper has derived from the pioneer 
work of his predecessors. Nor do we attempt to 
analyse or explain the peculiar power by which 
he has been able to unloose the purse-strings of our 
rich men. We merely wish to emphasize the fact 
that he has done so, and then to indicate the im- 
portance of his success to the cause of education in 
the West. For what he has done, in our judgment, 
has been to produce a change of tissue in the brain 
of moneyed Chicago, to set up a contagion in the 
financial corpuscles of its social being. He has led 
and is leading the wealth of Chicago to view its 
obligations to society more seriously, — to realize 
that there is more fame in a memorial endowment or 
haU, or scholarship, than in an obelisk at Rose Hill ; 
to understand more discerningly the need for edu- 
cation here in the West, and the cost that it must 
entail and should entail on Chicago herself. Under 
the stimulus of his purposes and his personality, 
men find not only that they cannot refuse to give 
to aid his plans, but that they have confidence in his 
leadership, which commends to them what it takes 
for its aims. He himself says it is easiest to beg for 
a large undertaking, and he has at last convinced 
our Chicago merchants that it is easy to do largely 

for education, as well as for public improvements 
and Columbian Expositions. 

This awakening of the moneyed classes of Chi- 
cago in behalf of the new university will inure to- 
the benefit of sister institutions. Already there 
are indications that the colleges at Evanston and 
Lake Forest are to appeal to a more enlightened 
constituency hereafter, when the cause of educa- 
tion under denominational control is presented to 
the Methodists and Presbyterians of the vicinity. 
But all eyes seem to be looking to the plans and 
pui*poses of the new Chicago University for sugges- 
tion and instruction. Boards of trust cannot escape 
the information on educational matters which the 
daily press of the city is giving them so frequently 
and so lavishly, and our business men gradually 
are accustoming theu* minds to the thought that 
educational institutions are at their doors, are 
come to stay, and are to be carried on by their 
funds, but along lines laid down by others more 
expert in educational details than themselves. Pres^ 
ident Harper has at last produced an educational 
atmosphere in Chicago, and all workers for culture 
and ideas must hail its creation as one of the most 
beneficent dispensations that have ever befallen the 
city. It is of secondary importance that details of 
his plan may be criticised. Time alone can de- 
cide how workable a plan it is, but the lapse of 
time will only strengthen the conviction that with 
his coming a less material epoch began for Chicago. 


A hundred years have passed since the birth of 
Shelley, and the star of his fame seems fairly to 
have emerged from the mists of the horizon upon 
which it rose. The third generation of his success- 
ors is now upon the scene, and the judgment of a 
third generation is apt to have many of the charac- 
teristics of finality* A close observer of the course 
of critical opinion can but be gratified at the way 
in which Shelley has come to be taken more and 
I more seriously as the years have passed, and at 
last assigned to immortality by an almost universal 
consensus. The " inopportune brawler " of whom 
Mr. Lang has spoken still lifts up his voice from 
time to time, and *^ chatter about Harriet " is still 
heard in Philistine circles ; but the one finds few 
listeners to-day, and the other excites but a weaiy 
and contemptuous smile. The great but not un- 
erring critic who found too little " criticism of life " 
in the ** Ode to the AVest AVind," and who, enslaved 
by a narrow formula, sought to exalt the fame of 
Wordsworth, and even of Byron, above that of the 
poet of ** Hellas " and *' Prometheus Unbound," 
only succeeded in making a display of his own limit- 
ations, and reache<l the very nadir of his discern- 
ment in the memorable suggestion that the essays 
and letters of Shelley might " finally come to stand 
higher than his poetry." 

And at the same time that the supremacy of 

Digitized by 

Google - 



[Sept. 1, 

Shelley's song has received the widest recognition, 
the heauty of his life and the value of his ideals 
have won their share in the general tribute of 
praise. That his life, to the penetrating gaze, and 
seen in true perspective, was one of absolute devo- 
tion to the good, the true, and the beautiful, has be- 
come more apparent ; that his ideals were better 
than his contemporaries knew, is revealed to us when 
we compare them with those of Scott, Bryon, and 
Wordsworth, subject in their nature to the out- 
wearing process of time. As Mr. Gosse said, in his 
address at the recent Horsham celebration, " To- 
day, under the auspices of the greatest poet our 
language has produced since Shelley died, encour- 
aged by universal public opinion and by dignitaries 
of all the professions, yes, even by prelates of our 
national church, we are gathered here as a sign 
that the period of prejudice is over, that England 
is in sympathy at last with her beautiful wayward 
child, and is reconciled to his harmonious ministry." 
It is sadly true, indeed, that the world's great age 
has not yet beg^un anew, nor have the golden years 
returned ; but Shelley's prophecy is still the best 
inspiration for those who have not, discouraged, 
abandoned hope, and they think of him as no 
<^ beautiful and ineffectual angel, beating in the 
void his liiminous wings in vadn" for they well 
know that his ideal, in tlie imperishable form of his 
expression, has not lost, nor is likely to lose, any- 
thing of its persuasive power to shape to better ends 
the lives of men. 


I saw a form all robed in dazzling white, 

Floating and waiting o'er a stormy sea ; 

Dark brooded down tbe dreadful arch of Night 

Over a sail that bent tempestuously; 

And through the storm rang out melodiously 

Great Shelley's death-song, — as, no help at baud, 

The wave onbore him to Eternity, 

Dirged by the passion at his own command. 

Then, as his body sank beneath the brine, 

From out the surge his spirit touched the air; 

And, hoveriug low, the form of Keats diviue 

Seized him away from that condign despair, — 

Part of the Universe, — and far on high 

They passed together to the inmost sky. 

w. R. p. 


(To the Editor of The Dial.) 

Apropos of the Shelley Centenary, can anyone sug- 
gest a probable explanation of Emerson *s lack of appre- 
ciation of Shelley? In his essay on " Poetry and Imag- 
ination," Emerson says, " When people tell me they do 
not relish poetry, and bring me Shelley or Aikin's 
Poets, or I know not what volumes of rhymed English, 
to show that it has no charm, I am quite of their mind." 

When one reflects on the similarity of spirit between 
Emerson and Shelley, this disparagement seems all the 

more unaccountable. Both were passionate worshippers 
of nature, both were pantheistic in philosophy, both ar- 
dent disciples of Plato. How could Emerson have 
failed to feel a sense of kinship toward one whose vir- 
tues were originality in convictions, purity in morals, 
generosity of disposition, and high attainments in scholar- 
ship? It is true that Emerson further confesses, *' I 
look in vain for the poet I describe"; but, on general 
principles, one would think that the author of "The 
Skylark " and the " Hymn to Intellectual Beauty " 
would have been recognized as possessing a very larg^ 
number of the qualifications enumerated in this truly 
g^at and generally sound criticism on the art of poetry. 

Certain friends have suggested various theories. One 
says that Emerson lacked the musical ear, and thus 
missed one of Shelley's greatest charms; another, that 
Emerson could not pardon the note of lamentation run- 
ning through Shelley's poetry, since the mission of 
poetry is to invigorate and not depress the soul; M. D. 
Conway hints that it looks like a theological *< survival," 
this failure to recognize the " authentic fire " of Shelley. 

Are any of these theories adequate, or can anyone 
offer a better? Anna B. McMahan. 

Quincy, III,, Augtut ii2, 1892. 

(To the Editor of Thb Dial.) 
As some injudicious articles have lately appeared in 
Chicago newspapers representing that there was an un- 
pleasant competition and rivalry between the various 
universities and societies engaged in plans for Univer^ 
sity Extension work in and aronnd Chicago, the friends 
of this important educational movement will be glad to 
be assured that there is, fortunately, no foundation for 
such statements. There is more work in sight than all 
these agencies can do, and their relations in this mat- 
ter are most cordial and harmonious. The interest de- 
veloped in the preliminary work begun last winter is a 
sure promise of the success which will attend the larger 
preparations now nearly completed for lectures during 
the coming season. The Newberry Library Centre 
during the past season maintained three evening courses 
of six lectures each; and the hall was so crowded it 
was necessary to repeat the lecture to another audience 
the next morning. There were also successful courses 
at five other centres, namely: The Atheuseum, Union 
Park, Workers' Church, Oak Park, and South Evans- 
ton. The Chicago University now appears in the field 
with a comprehensive scheme of work which requires 
for its execution six executive officers and twenty-five 
professors as lecturers. Through the Chicago Society 
for University Extension, the University of Indiana of- 
fers a scheme of subjects, with seventeen lecturers; the 
Northwestern University, with fourteen lecturers; the 
University of Illinois, with nine; and Lake Forest Uni- 
versity, and Wabash College, with two each. Almost 
every subject, in science, art and literature, is repre- 
sented in these schemes. Professor Richard G. Moul- 
ton, one of the pioneers of and perhaps the most suc- 
cessful English lecturer in University Extension work, 
will open the Newberry Library Centre course on Fri- 
day evening, September 30, upon the subject of English 
Literature. As the class will doubtless be large, more 
spacious accomodations will be procured than the au- 
ditorium of the Newberry Library. For Monday even- 
ings, courses upon Science will be arranged; and for 

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Wednesday eveniugs, courses upon History. Tickets 
for a single conrse of six lectures will be. $1.50 and 
for five courses 86.00. The several centres will make 
announcements when their schemes are completed. 

W. F. Poole. 
Chicago, August SO, 1892, 

(To the Editor of The Dial.) 
. I have heard a good deal lately about Chicago as a 
literary centre, and the building up of a Western litera- 
tiure. Now it seems to me that what is needed to make 
a Western literature is not so much Western writers as 
Western readers of Western writings. In some old 
literary centres — Paris, for example — people read al- 
most nothing but home productions. In some new lite- 
rary centres — Chicago, for example — people read 
almost no home productions. Both peoples are narrow 
and provincial; but the Parisian plan is the more favor- 
able to iutellectual progress. 

It is literally true that the average Chicago reader 
steers clear of a Chicago book, unless it chances to be 
written by a friend, or a man who has made his name 
and fame by Easteni success. What do they read? 
Each month, twenty-eight to thirty-one morning papers, 
twenty-eight to thirty-one evening papers, two Eastern 
magazines, and four Paris novels. The result is, a 
muddling of brains, a domestic tint in journalistic 
thought, and an alien tint in literary thought. For- 
eigners meeting us abroad are prone to think we are 
New Yorkers or Bostonians until we touch on daily 
news and reviews, when Westernism comes to the sur- 
face at once. 

Whenever there shall be, among our millions, a few 
thousands, who on seeing any Chicago book announced, 
cry, "Hello I What's this? I must buy it and see," 
there will be a Western literature. Then it will be the 
second book of a worthless writer which is neglected ; 
now it is the first book of a worthy writer — if he happen 
to be "a Westerner." J. K. 

Chicago, August '25, 1892. 


A case recently decided in the English courts is 
of much interest to authors. A firm of publishers hav- 
ing become possessed, by purchase of the copyright of 
Mr. Sidney Lee's edition of Lord Herbert of Cher- 
bury 's " Autobiography," reissued the work in a muti- 
lated form. Mr. Lee thereupon moved for an injunc- 
tion, on the ground that his literary reputation was in- 
jured by the publication. The decision of the court 
was for the defense, on the ground that the plaintiff's 
only means of redress was in an action for libel, and 
that the Court of Chancery, in which the case was 
then up for trial, had no jurisdiction in cases of libel, 
which were essentially jury cases. As Mr. Lee has an- 
nounced his ufttention of dropping the matter at this 
|>oint, the final settlement of the question is postponed, 
and its temporary settlement is certainly unsatisfactory 
from the author's standpoint. This sort of treatment 
of a purchased copyright is quite common in the United 
States; and American authors, no less than English, 
would be glad to know the exact nature of their rights 
in a work with whose copyright they have parted. 

The final disposition that has been made of the 
great Althorp Library is, on the whole, a more satisfac- 
tory one than was reasonably to be hoped for. Mrs. 
Rylands, the widow of a man who was himself no mean 
bibliophile, has purchased the entire collection for a 
sum not mentioned, but which could hardly have been 
less than a million dollars, and has presented it to the 
city of Manchester. In view of the melancholy picture 
presented by the dispersion of a world-famous col- 
lection of books, it is fortunate that Lord Spencer's 
matchless collection should have been spared that fate; 
and, although American pride would have been grati- 
fied had the treasure been secured for our own coun- 
try, yet it will probably prove more useful where it is, — 
that is, for those who really have a use for its contents. 
That it will be accessible to the public is certainly a 
great boon. Our American libraries, even the largest 
of them, have hardly reached the point at which ex- 
penditure for such rarities is judicious, and for many 
years to come will be better occupied in collecting 
books which are the means of scholarship, rather than 
in acquiring Caxtons, block books, and similar curi- 

In the September " Scribner's, " Mr. John Bige- 
low, one of the trustees of the Tilden Library fimd, 
discusses the form that should be given to the pros- 
pective library. It will be remembered that, although 
Mr. Tilden's will, as far as it related to the library be- 
quest, was annulled by the New York courts, the prin- 
cipal heir refused to benefit by a decision so manifestly 
opposed to the will of the testator, and that conse- 
quently a fund amounting to upwards of two millions is 
still available for carrying out Mr. Tilden's beneficent 
purpose. Mr. Bigelow presents plans for a proposed 
building, and suggests Bryant Park, now occupied by a 
reservoir, as the most suitable site. The reservoir, he 
sa^s, is no longer of any use to the city, and much of 
the material of which it is composed might be put to 
use in the new structure. He also suggests that the 
city of New York ought to provide both site and build- 
ing, leaving the endowment intact for the purcliase of 
books and the snpport of the library. 

The Shelley memorial to be erected on the shore 
at Viareggio is the work of Mr. Onslow Ford, and is 
said to be his masterpiece. It is thus described by a 
writer in " Ihe Magazine of Art ": " The poet is rep- 
resented as he was found on the storm-washed shore of 
Viareggio, lifeless, nude, cold, but still beautiful, inex- 
pressibly beautiful, in death. A branch, which is a 
wreath, and yet is not a wreath, of laurels encircles the 
head. Beneath the figure and the slab on which the poet's 
figure rests, a youthful and tenderly abstracted muse 
bends over her broken lyre, while two winged lions and 
some delicate leaf tmcery complete the accessories of 
the monument." 

Omar Khayyam, as the author of a famous 
treatise on " al-jebr " rather than as the poet of the 
immortal "Rubaiyat," is the subject of an interest- 
ing article in a recent "Saturday Review." The good 
old Persian way of winding up a demonstration " with 
a laus Deo instead of some barren Q. E. D." is not 
only more pious than ours, but also a better expression 
of the average school-boy's feelings. The full name 
of the poet-teutmaker-mathematician was, it seems, 
Giyath ed Din Abul Fath Omar ben Ibrahim Alkhay- 
yami of Naishapur, which is altogether too bright and 
good for human nature's daily food. 

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[Sept. 1. 

The True^*To>i»' Paine.* 

Mr. Moncure D. Conway has done ample if 
belated justice to a curiously misjudged char- 
acter. Paine's services to this country have 
generally been ignored or understated by his- 
torians, and we have heretofore had nothing 
trustworthy or even respectable in the way of 
a Life of him, — the sketches of Cheetham and 
" Oldys " being mere libels, and that of Rick- 
man the partial tribute of a personal friend. 
Mr. Conway has given us a work of much 
thoroughness and research, in which the histor- 
ical interest fairly vies with the biographical ; 
and he has evidently been at so much pains to 
secure fulness and accuracy of fact that his de- 
fects of manner are the more to be regretted. 
His tone throughout is that of the advocate ; 
he too evidently holds a brief for Paine, and 
his constant overrating of his client, coupled 
with an unhappy tendency to underrate men 
with whom his client happened at any time 
to be at odds, not only casts iirxmafcmc sus- 
picion upon his general fairness, but defeats 
his prime object by breeding a spirit of com- 
bativeness and contradiction in the reader. 
Thomas Paine has been so generally misunder- 
stood that the mere statement of the facts 
about him is a sufficient vindication ; and this 
necessary result of Mr. Conway's book need 
certainly offend no one in a day when Paine's 
views generally smack more of truism than of 
heresy. We are happily past regarding as 
outside the pale of decent society a man who 
pooh-poohs the " divine right " of royal barna- 
cles and baccarat-dealing Highnesses, or who 
thinks " it would have approached nearer to 
the idea of a miracle if Jonah had swallowed 
the whale." There is something half comic, 
half pathetic, in the disparity between the con- 
ventional " Tom " Paine, the sulphurous her- 
etic whose name is still a stench in the nostrils 
of the pious, the third in the infernal triad of 
*' the world, the flesh, and ' Tom ' Paine," and 
the real Thomas Paine, the God-fearing reform- 
er, the humane, rather impractical schemer 
whom Danton rallied for ''hoping to make 
revolutions with rose-water," of Mr. Conway's 
pages ; and we may note in passing that it 
is to be placed to our author's credit that he 
rarely allows his zeal as a biographer to tempt 
him into acrimony toward his hero's religious 
oppressors. Faith is the parent of perseeu- 

* The Life of Thomas Paine. With a History of his 
Literary, Political , and Religious Career. By Moncure Daniel 
Conway. Also, a Sketch of Paine by William Cobhett. Two 
Tolnmes, with Frontispiece. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

tion, as doubt is the parent of toleration ; 
and in Paine's day the woeful doctrine of ex- 
clusive salvation still largely prevailed. The 
rigidly orthodox must have looked upon the 
author of " The Age of Reason " much as we 
should look upon an opium-crazed Malay run- 
ning amuck through the streets, — a being to 
be pitied for his condition, but to be relentlessly 
made away with in the interests of the com- 
mon safety. " Tom " Paine, in the eyes of the 
'* unco guid " of his time, had not only given 
over his own soul to eternal perdition, but was 
diligently engaged in ensnaring the souls of 
others ; and the rack and the stake being no 
longer available, recourse was had to vitupera- 

The history of Thomas Paine is that of an 
English radical of Quaker training, a devout 
deist, a staymaker, an exciseman, occasional 
preacher, an inventor of iron bridges, a social 
schemer who planned societies much as he 
planned his bridges without due regard to ma- 
terials, a political adventurer caught in the re- 
volutionary cyclones of the last century, a 
pamphleteer whose trenchant pen wrought pow- 
erfully in the cause of American Independence, 
a member of the French National Convention, 
an outlaw in his own country and an alien in 
that which had called him to her councils, a 
guillotine-shadowed prisoner in the Luxem- 
bourg, and finally a pathetic memorial of the 
proverbial ingratitude of republics. In Paine's 
case the term " atheist " — " filthy little athe- 
ist" is the urbane expression of one trebly- 
maccurate writer, Paine having been neither 
'^ filthy " nor " little " nor " atheist," — is ab- 
surdly misapplied. The epithet, which has 
unfortunately stuck\, was merely a term of 
abuse, the most effective in the orthodox bil- 
lingsgate, and had no foundation in fact. 
'^ The Age of Reason " is virtually an effort to 
acquit the Creator of what Paine held to be 
the crimes and frailties imputed to him in the 
Scriptures, — certainly a very different thing 
from arguing for the self-existence of the Uni- 
verse. Paine himself, alluding to the aim of 
his book, wrote to Samuel Adams : 

"The people of France were running headlong into 
Atheism, and I had the work translated in their own lan- 
guage to stop them in tliat career and fix them to the 
fii-st article of every man's creed, who has any creed at 
all, - - / believe in God. " 

The Bishop of Llandaff, an oi-thodox oppo- 
nent, once w^rote to Paine : " There is a philo- 
sophical sublimity in some of your ideas when 
I speaking of the Creator of the Universe." 

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'*Paine," says Mr. Conway, and he amply backs 
his assertion, ^^ was a profoundly religious man 
— one of the few in our revolutionary era of 
whom it can be said that his delight was in 
the law of the Lord, and in that law he did 
meditate day and night/' In short, Paiue's 
*' atheism " consisted in the fact that his con- 
ception of God did not conform to the prevail- 
ing one of his day ; and it is perhaps not too 
much to say that — thanks to the process which 
Prosessor Fiske formidably terms the *' dean- 
thropomorphization " of religion — the prevail- 
ing conception of intelligent religious people 
of our day agrees more closely with Paine's 
idea than with that of his tormentors. In a 
broad sense, Paine was a Christian ; for while 
rejecting metaphysical subtleties that have 
grown into the Christian system, he devoutly 
honored the Jesus of whom Dekker wrote : 

**Thebe8t of men 
That e'er wore earth about him, was a sufferer ; 
A soft, meek, patient, humble, tranquil spirit, 
The first true gentleman that ever breathed/' 

In his '^ Age of Reason," Paine says : 

** Xothing that is here said can apply, even with the 
most distant disrespect, to the real character of Jesus 
Christ. lie was a virtuous and amiable man. The 
morality that he preached and practised was of the 
most beneYolent kind; and though similar systems of 
morality had been preached by Confucius, and by some 
of the Greek philosophers, many years before, and by 
the Quakers since, and by good men in all ages, it has 
not been exceeded by any. ... He was the son of 
God in like manner that every other person is — for 
the Creator is the Father of All. . . . Jesus Christ 
founded no new system. He called men to the prac- 
tise of moral virtues, and the belief in one God. The 
great trait in his character is philanthropy." 

Touching the main trend of Paine's religious 
writings, the vindication of Deity from what he 
considered the aspersions of the current theol- 
ogy, we may now without offense agree with 
Mr. Spencer, — though the words quoted might 
have been Paine's, — that " the visiting on Ad- 
am's descendants through hundreds of genera- 
tions dreadful penalties for a small transgi*ess- 
ion which they did not commit ; the damning of 
all men who do not avail themselves of an al- 
leged mode of obtaining forgiveness which most 
men have never heard of ; and the effecting 
reconciliation by sacrificing a son who was per- 
fectly innocent, to satisfy the assumed necessity 
for a propitiatory victim," is hardly consonant 
with human ideas of justice. But Paine, like 
other free-thinkers of his day, in arguing that 
such alleged attributes are inconsistent, not 
only with human justice, but also with Divine 
character as revealed to us in a beneficently- 

ordered nature, made the fatal logical mistake 
of looking at Nature only on one side — the 
Ormuzd side. He was like the man who, after 
supping comfortably on stewed eels, piously 
apostrophized Nature's goodness toward her 
creatures, without considering the fate of the 
eels that had been skinned alive for his enjoy> 
ment. A theological opponent might reason- 
ably urge, as Bishop Butler did in effect, 
against Paine, that for every natural appliance 
for man's enjoyment and preservation, one can 
be pointed out for his torment and destruction ; 
while an opponent versed in modern science 
would doubtless argue that the world being a 
sort of shambles filled with victims awaiting 
the stroke of the mallet, an amphitheatre of 
universal strife where no upturned thumb ever 
answered the prayer of those vanquished in 
" the struggle for existence," is fair evidence 
in favor of that implacable Deity of the West- 
minster Catechism whom Paine denied. The 
idea is expressed by Tennyson, when he sings 
of "Man"— 

*^Who trusted God was love indeed, 
And love Creation's final law, — 
Tho' Nature^ red in tooth and claw 
With ravine, shrieked as^ainst his creed." 

Mr. Conway's account of Paine's career in 
America, though marred by a too-constant strain 
of panegyric, is interesting and circumstantial, 
and furnishes material which future histori- 
ans of the period will do well to examine. 
Paine came to America November 30, 1774, 
bearing a letter from Franklin, in which he is 
described as "an ingenious, worthy young 
man." Later, he became editor of the " Penn- 
sylvania Magazine " — "a seedbag," says Mr. 
Conway, " from which this sower scattered the 
seeds of great reforms ripening with the pro- 
gress of civilization." Through his writings in 
this and in other journals, he was (again quot- 
ing Mr. Conway), 

"ITie fii-st to nrge extension of the principles of in- 
dependence to the enslaved negro; the first to arraign 
monarchy, and to point out the danger of its survival in 
the presidency ; the first to propose articles of a more 
thorough nationality to the new-born State; the first to 
advocate international arbitration; the first to expose 
the absurdity and eriniinality of duelling; the first to 
suggest more rational ideas of marriage and divorce; 
the first to advocate national and international copy- 
right; the first to plead for the animals; the first to de- 
mand justice for women." 

On April 19, 1775, came the fight at Lex- 
ington, and in the autumn of the same year 
Paine was writing his famous '^Common Sense" 
— a pamphlet of which Joel Barlow (a sen- 
sible man, despite his '^ Columbiad "), wrote : 

Digitized by 




[Sept. 1, 

** It gaye spirit and resolntiou to the Americans, who 
were then wavering and undetermined, to assert their 
rights, and inspired a decisive energy into tlieir coun- 
sels ; we may tlieref ore venture to say, without fear of 
contradiction, that the great American cause owed as 
much to the pen of Paine as to the sword of Washing- 

Even the malignant Cheetham is oonstrained 
to say of " Common Sense " : 

** Speaking a language which the colonists had felt, 
but not thought, its popularity, terrible in its consequences 
to the parent country, was unexampled in the history of 
the press." 

The pamphlet reached Washington soon after 
the tidings of the burning of Norfolk ; and he 
thereupon wrote to Joseph Reed : 

" A few more such flaming arguments as were exhib- 
ited at Falmouth and Norfolk, added to the sound doc- 
trine and unanswerable reasoning contained in the pam- 
phlet * Common Sense,' will not leave numbers at a loss 
to decide upon the propriety of separation." 

Of the effectiveness of this production there 
can be no question. Tersely eloquent, incisive, 
based upon accurate knowledge, sound prin- 
ciples, and intense conviction, it gave at once 
expression to the thoughts and definiteness to 
the aims of the colonists. The divergent rills 
and rivulets of public opinion were turned 
with the force of the torrent into a common 
channel; and it is not, perhaps, overstating 
the case to say that chief among the direct in- 
tellectual forces that led to the declaration of 
American Independence was Paine's " Com- 
mon Sense." Cobbett declared that " Whoever 
may have written the Declaration, Paine was 
its author,^^ 

Scarcely less effective than "Common Sense" 
was the eloquent first " Crisis " (containing 
the much quoted " These are the times that 
try men's souls "), written by the light of 
camp-fires at Newark, and read, by Washing- 
ton's order, to the disheartened troops on the 
eve of the battle of Trenton. Paine's pen, 
throughout the war, continued to serve the 
cause of Independence ; and as he had, with 
a rather Quixotic generosity, turned over to 
the States the valuable copyrights of his writ- 
ings, the arrival of peace found him imjwver- 
ished. Mr. Conway makes it painfully evident 
that Paine — even allowing him to have been 
a quasi-adventurer who fought largely '' for 
his own hand " — was shabbily treated by the 
nation he had helped to found. liven Wash- 
ington, at first zealous for his intimate friend 
and supporter, cooled unaccountably ; and the 
most ardent Washington worshipper must con- 
fess a show of reason for the bitterly-pathetic 
epigram found among Paine's papers 

^* Advice to the ttatuary who is to execute the etatue qf Wash- 
ington : 

^*Take from the mine the coldest, hardest stone, 
It needs no fa8hi<» ; tt is Washington. 
But if you chisel, let the stroke be rude. 
And on his heart enerare—Ingrratitude." 

Paine's career in the French National Con- 
vention^ to which he was chosen in 1792 as 
Deputy for Calais, was always creditable and 
once heroic. He tried, much at his own perils 
to save the life of Louis, standing out firmly 
against Marat, and adroitly urging : *' It is 
little to overthrow the idol ; it is the pedestal 
which must especially be beaten down. It is 
the kingly office^ rather than the officer, that is 
destructive." He was the associate of the 
Girondists, the friend of Condorcet, Brissot^ 
Vergniaud, Gensonne ; and these connections, 
coupled with his relative political conservatism 
and his humane efforts in behalf of Louis, 
brought him under the ban of the Mountain. 
On December 28, 1793, he was committed to 
the Luxembourg Prison, under a law against 
foreigners belonging to countries at war with 
France ; and on his way to prison he handed 
to Joel Barlow the manuscript of his " Age of 
Reason." Mr. Conway charges Paine's im- 
prisonment directly to the machinations of the 
American Minister, Gouverneur Morris, who 
was jealous of him, and saw in him an obstacle 
to his pet scheme of detaching Washington 
from the French alliance. It is at least evi- 
dent that, even if Morris did not put Paine in 
prison (and we think Mr. Conway is a little 
over-ingenious as to this point), he kept him 
there for ten months by refusing to claim him 
as an American citizen, and by concealing the 
facts from the government at Washington. 
Morris's successor, Moni'oe, was certainly sur- 
prised, on his arrival in Paris, to find Paine 
a prisoner ; and on his first positive assertion 
of Paine's American citizenship, the doors of 
the Luxembourg flew open. That Paine 
escaped the guillotine by a hair's breath is evi- 
dent from the following extract from his rem- 
iniscences : 

" One hundred and sixty-eight persons were taken out 
of the Luxembourg in one night, and a hundred and 
sixty of them guillotined next day, of which I knew I 
^'as to be one; and the manner I escaped that fate i» 
curious, and has all the appearance of accident. l*he 
room in which I lodged was on the ground floor, and one 
of a long range of rooms under a gallery, and the door 
of it opened outward and flat against the wall; so that 
when it was opened the inside of the door appeared out- 
ward, and the contrary when it was shut. . . . When 
persons by scores and hundreds were to be taken out 
of the prison for the guillotine, it was always done in 
the night, and those who performed that office had 

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a private mark or signal by which they knew what 
rooms to go to and what number to take. We, as I 
said, were four, and the door of our room was marked, 
unobserved by us, with that number in chalk; but it 
happened, if happening is the proper word, that the 
mark was put on when the door was open and flat 
against the wall, and thereby came on the inside 
when we shut it at night; and the destroying angel 
passed by it." 

Paine's experiences after his return to Amer- 
ica in 1802 illustrated unpleasantly the old dis- 
parity between the ideal and the real. Free 
America, the " land of promise" to which he 
had looked so eagerly as a final haven, was 
not " all his fancy painted her." Political 
parties had formed, and on Paine's arrival he 
was furiously assailed, as the friend of Jeffer- 
son, by the defeated Federalists. Naturally, 
his religious views formed the point of attack, 
and the country soon rang with scurrilous abuse 
of the " atheist." Press and pulpit set up a 
chorus of vituperation, and Bordentown, his 
old home, was promptly placarded with pictures 
of ''the devil flying off with Tom Paine." 
Wishing one day to drive over to Trenton, he 
was refused a seat in the stage ; and on finally 
arriving at Trenton, " insults were heaped on 
the man who by camp-fires had written the 
' Crisis ' which animated the conquerors of the 
Hessians at that place." When Paine and his 
friend Kirkbride, after dining at Trenton, 
" applied for a seat in the New York stage for 
Paine, the pious owner, Voorhis, cursed Paine 
as ' a deist,' and said, ' I'll be danmed if he 
shall go in my stage.' " What were Mr. 
Voorhis' personal views as to the problem of 
the Universe, does not appear. Another stage- 
man also refused to take Paine, urging, *' My 
stage and horses were once struck by light- 
ning, and I don't want them to suffer again." 
When Paine and Kirkbride had entered their 
ean'iage, a mob surroimded them, drumming 
the " Rogue's March." 

In 1806 a blow still more cruel was inflicted 
on our unfortunate Quixote — certainly in 
these his declining years a " Knight of the 
Sorrowful Figure." His vote was refused at 
New Rochelle, on the ground that he was not 
a citizen ; the Supervisor declaring that the 
former American Minister, Morris, had re- 
fused to reclaim him from a French prison be- 
cause he was not an American. 

«*The Supervisor who disfranchised the author of 
< Common Sense' had been a Tory in the Revolution; 
the man he disfranchised was one to whom the Presi- 
dent of the United States had written, five years be- 
fore, * I am in hopes you will find us returned gener- 
ally to sentiments worthy of former times. In these it 

will be your glory to have steadily labored, and with 
as much effect as any man living.' " 

Whatever Paine may have sowed in America, 
he certainly seems to have reaped the whirl- 

Mr. Conway is at special pains to vindicate 
Paine's personal character. From the mass of 
testimony adduced, we select the following from 
Walt Whitman : 

<< In my childhood a great deal was said of Paine in 
our neighborhood, in Long Island. ... It was a time 
when in religion, there was as yet no philosophical mid- 
dle ground; people were very strong on one side or the 
other; there was a g^eat deal of lying; and the liars 
were often well paid\for their work. Paine and his 
principles made the g^eat issue. Paine was double- 
damnably lied about. Colonel Fellows was a man of 
perfect truth and exactness, and he assured me that 
the stories disparaging to Paine personally were quite 
false. Paine was neither drunken nor filthy; he drank 
as other people did, and was a high-minded gentle- 
man. . . . Paine was among the best and truest of 

Doubtless the older reader will have read 
in his youth certain lurid tales of the death- 
bed of " Tom " Paine, of his frantic remorse 
and tardy recantation ; perhaps, too, of his sorry 
funeral cortege^ — two negroes, a carriage, with 
six Irishmen drunk and blaspheming, a riding 
chair with two men in it, one asleep, and an 
Irish Quaker (a union dimly suggestive of a 
merman or a centaur) on horseback, whose final 
tribute to Paine was that he " was glad he was 
gone, for he had tired his friends out by his in- 
temperance and frailties." Such were the piti- 
ful " arguments " of the orthodoxy of the time. 
Of Paine's death and funeral, the following 
is the undoubtedly true account of Madame 
Bonneville, a French lady who with her chil- 
dren had followed him to America and was 
supported during his lifetime from his scanty 
purse : 

" When he was near his end, two American clergy- 
men came to see him and to talk with him on religious 
matters. * Let me alone,' said he ; < good morning.' He 
desired they should be admitted no more. One of his 
friends came to New York, a person for whom he had 
a great esteem, and whom he had not seen for a long 
while. He was overjoyed at seeing him ; but this per- 
son began to speak upon religion, and Paine turned his 
head on the other side, and remained silent, even to 
the adieu of the person. . . . Seeing his end fast ap- 
proaching, I asked him, in presence of a friend, if he 
felt satisfied with the treatment he had received at our 
house ; upon which he could only exclaim. Oh, yes/ 
He spent the night in tranquillity, and expired in the 
morning at eight o'clock. . . . Before his coffin was 
placed in the carriage, I went to see him; and having 
a rose in my bosom, I took it out, and placed it on his 
breast. . . . The interment was a scene to affect and 
to wound any sensible heart. Contemplating who it 
was, what man it was, that we were committing to an 

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[Sept. 1, 

obscure grave on an open and disregarded bit of land, 
I could not help feeling most acutely. Before the 
earth was thrown down upon the coffin, I, placing my- 
self at the east end of the grave, said to my son Ben- 
jamin, < Stand you there at the other end, as a witness 
for grateful America.' Looking round me, and be- 
holding the small group of spectators, I exclaimed, as 
the earth was tumbled into the grave, *0h, Mr. 
Paine ! my sou stands here as a testimony of the grati- 
tude of America, and I, for France ! ' " 

Whether this simple rite was more honorable 
to Thomas Paine than a statelier funeral bought 
by the sacrifice of principle, may be left to the 
judgment of the reader. 

Recent Architecture in America.* 

Among the Anglo Saxon race, during the 
greater part of the nineteenth century archi- 
tecture was almost a lost art. At about the be- 
ginning of the last decade, the popular taste in 
this direction had sunk to perhaps the lowest 
point ever reached. There had been ages of dul- 
ness before, but no other had produced so many 
large and costly buildings that were absolutely 
vicious in design. This is more especially true 
of the United States, where every state, every 
county and every town has a state house, a 
court house, or a " city hall," pretentious and 
costly in proportion to its means. These pub- 
lic buildings must be taken as an expression of 
the average taste ; and, with a few exceptions, 
they are the worst examples of architecture 
that the world has ever seen. They almost 
make one despair of representative govern- 
ment, and the only consolation about them is 
that they are not fire-proof. 

The first signs of the dawn of a brighter 
day were an effort to revive the Gothic and to 
give it a practical modern character. But the 
attempt to create a Victorian Gothic only em- 
phasized the depth of ignorance and bad taste 
that had been reached; and this Nineteenth 
Century revival died in giving birth to the so- 
called " Queen Anne " style. This was the 
weakest child of all the ages, and, fortunately, 
it died young. Since the style of Queen Anne 
became as dead as the Queen herself, a move- 
ment has begun which seems to give promise 
of a popular awakening to good architecture. 
There are some hopeful signs about it, but 
it is too early to predict any great or perma- 
nent results. There are still too many indica- 
tions that in our country architecture is a crea- 
ture of fashion, whose style may be changed 

* Amebican Abchitbctitbe. Studies by Montgromery 
Schnyler. With Illustrations. New York : Harper & Brothers. 

as capriciously as the cut of our clothes or the 
shape of our hats. 

The people are not altogether to blame for 
this. The architects are largely responsible 
for it, as they have flitted from one style to 
another like butterflies among flowers. Many 
of the successful architects have been, and 
some of them are still, willing to design a 
building in any desired style, — Grecian, Ro- 
manesque, Gothic, Renaissance, Byzantine, 
Neo-grec, or Moorish. No good ardiitecture 
has ever come, or ever will come, from such a 
process of selection. No man can speak a half- 
dozen languages equally well, and no architect 
can master all the styles. The best work of our 
age has been done by a man of genius, Mr. 
Richardson, who had also the good sense to 
recognize the limitations of human life, and 
devoted all his time and energies to making 
one style his own. It matters not so much 
what the style, as that it be followed persist- 
ently until it is fully mastered. 

It is evident, however, that we cannot hope 
for universally good architecture until the peo- 
ple are taught to distinguish the good from 
the bad. There are now many young archi- 
tects who are earnestly striving to do good 
work, and there are intelligent and scholarly 
critics who are enthusiastically conducting a 
crusade in behalf of a nobler and truer art ; 
for in this work of education the critic is as 
necessary as the architect. Among these work- 
ers for good is Mr. Montgomery Schuyler, 
whose studies in American architecture, orig- 
inally published in a magazine, have recently 
appeared in book form. The work as a whole 
has some defects which are inseparable from a 
compilation of disconnected articles ; but the 
articles are all admirable in tone and spirit, 
and the book should be welcomed as a valuable 
contribution to popular education on a very 
important subject. Mr. Schuyler writes about 
our more recent architecture in a scholarly and 
judicial manner, giving generous praise where 
it is due, and, where occasion requires it, in- 
dulging in such scathing criticism that one^s 
heart warms to him. 

The first chapter, called " The Point of 
View," is a report of an address by the author 
before the National Association of Builders, 
and serves as an introduction. It contains a 
quotation from an architect, whose name is not 
given, which is witty, and too true, even yet : 
" American architecture is the art of covering 
one thing with another thing to imitate a third 
thing, which, if genuine, would not be desir- 

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able." In this address the author pays a well- 
deserved tribute to the memory of John Wel- 
bom Boot, which is at the same time a good 
text for a discourse on architecture : 

"Mr. Root's buildings exhibit true sincerity — the 
knowledge of the material with which he had to do, 
the fulfilment of the purpose which he had to perform. 
... I don't know any greater loss that could have 
happened to the architecture of this country and to the 
architecture of the future than that man dying before 
his prime." 

The second chapter, " Concerning Queen 
Anne," was written while that style was strug- 
gling for existence, and shows a vigor of de- 
nunciation which justifies the belief that the 
author may have contributed to its early de- 
mise. After describing some particularly bad 
dwellings in New York, he says : 

'< These are not subjects for architectural criticism, 
they call for the intervention of an architectural police. 
They are cases of disorderly conduct done in brick and 
brownstone. ... It is enough to indicate these things, 
and to point out that they are all produced by the 
strain in minds of incompetent designers after original- 
ity and aboriginality, — a purpose essentially vulgar, 
which would vitiate the work even of a competent de- 
signer, wherever it could be detected. For although 
the pursuit of excellence is sure to result in novelty, the 
pursuit of novelty is sure not to result in excellence." 

He mentions a tendency of the younger gen- 
eration of architects ^^ to take themselves too 
seriously and their art not seriously enough." 
It is only fair to say that this was written 
nine years ago. 

To the readers of The Dial perhaps the 
most interesting and suggestive chapters are 
those entitled " Glimpses of Western Archi- 
tecture," which form nearly one half of the 
book. The first one relates to Chicago. Mr. 
Schuyler is naturally amused by that comedy 
of errors, the City Hall and County Building, 
which violate the first principle of architecture 
— that a building shall be designed with re- 
ference to the uses for which it is intended. 
He says, however : 

<*Its formulas may seem quite empty, but they 
gather dignity when contrasted with the work of an 
arid * swallower of formulas ' like the architect of the 
fio«&rd of Trade. There are not many other structures 
in the United States of equal cost and pretension, 
which equally with this combine the dignity of a com- 
mercial traveller with the bland repose of St. Vitus. 
It is difficult to contemplate its bustling and uueasy 
fa^de without feeling a certain sympathy with the 
mob of anarchists that ' demonstrated ' under its win- 
dows on the night of its opening. If they were really 
anarchists, it was very ungrateful of them, for one 
would go far to find a more perfect expression of an- 
archy in architecture. 

" In striking contrast with these buildings is the Art 
Institute, of only three stories and a roof ; but no 

neighbor could make it other than a vigorous and 
effective work, as dignified as the Board of Trade is 
une^isy, and as quiet as that is noisy. ... It may 
be significant, with reference to the tendency of West- 
em architecture, that this admirable building, admira- 
ble in its sobriety and moderation that are facilitated 
by its moderate size, is precisely what one would not ex- 
pect to find in Chicago, so little is there evident in it of 
an intention to collar the eye or to challenge the atten- 
tion it so very well repays." 

In commenting on domestic architecture in 
Chicago, Mr. Schuyler says : 

'< There are exceptions, and some of them are con- 
spicuous and painful exceptions ; but the rule is that 
the architect attempts to make the house even of a rich 
man look like a house rather than a palace, and that 
there is very little of the mere ostentation of riches. 
The commercial palace against which we have been in- 
veighing is by no means as offensive as the domestic 
sham palace, and from this latter offense Chicago is 
much freer than most older American cities." 

The nineteenth century has been chiefly re- 
markable for the development of things mater- 
ial, and perhaps more especially for the im- 
provement of means of transportation. The 
latest achievement in this direction is the ele- 
vator, which is now really a vertical elevated 
railway, swift, smooth in motion, and perfectly 
safe. It has created a revolution in architec- 
ture. The inventor of the first perfected hy- 
draulic elevator once remarked to the writer, 
that he had ^^ made it possible to build two 
cities where one had stood before." The ele- 
vator has made it possible and profitable to 
build mercantile structures of a height never 
before attempted. It is therefore perfectly 
natural that in this material and practical land 
these " elevator buildings " should represent 
what is best in the recent growth and develop- 
ment of architecture. They are built under 
many new conditions of construction and of 
proportion, thus giving the architect a certain 
freedom from tradition in his design ; and they 
are usually erected for profit, and to enter into 
competition with other structures of similar 
nature, and the architect is compelled to re- 
gard the uses of the building as of paramount 
importance, and to obtain architectural effects 
without sacrificing material advantages. These 
are conditions favorable to the development of 
good, sincere, vigorous architecture. 

There is one other condition, to which Mr. 
Schuyler makes no reference, possibly because 
it has come to perfection since the greater part 
of his book was written, — for it is really " some- 
thing new under the sun " ; this is steel con- 
struction. The use of steel for the structural 
parts of a building was unknown to the world 
when the architectural styles were formed • 

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[Sept. 1, 

and it is only within a few years that buildings 
have been erected in which all the supports, 
from foundation to roof, are columns and 
beams of steel. This is the lightest, strong- 
est, most compact and homogeneous of all build- 
ing materials, and out of this new construction 
we may reasonably anticipate, for the first 
time in three hundred years, the development 
of a new style of architecture, or a modifica- 
tion of the older styles as radical as the Re- 
naissance. In all countries, the first stone 
buildings have followed the forms of the earlier 
wooden structures ; and the first buildings of 
steel construction have been designed after the 
manner of stone or brick. Massive walls are 
suspended from slender steel columns, to give 
the fagade the appearance of solidity which in 
the older structures was essential ; or the same 
effect has been sought by using sham walls of 
terra cotta, which is lighter and equally de- 
ceptive. In time all this will be changed. 
The public will learn the strength of the light 
steel shafts, and architects will venture more 
and more to express in their designs the light- 
ness of the construction. Gradually a new style 
will be evolved, and buildings will be designed 
as radically different from any now in exist- 
ence as a suspension bridge differs from one 
built of stone piers and arches. What is now 
most needed is a fire-proof material for the ex- 
terior covering of the steel, to protect it from 
the atmosphere and from fire, which shall take 
the place of bricks and terra cotta, and present 
an unbroken surface, without visible joints. 
There is no limit to the beauty of effects 
which the art of man can produce in decorat- 
ing this surface. When such a material shall 
have been found, we can imagine buildings con- 
structed of steel as light as a cobweb, as strong 
as the pyramids, and as beautiful as the Taj 


Bryan Lathrop. 

Joshua R. Giddixgs.* 

The history of the United States seems full 
of miracles. Virginia and Massachusetts are 
planted as if one should toss handfuls of 
wheat not unmixed with chaff into thickets of 
thistles ; and lo ! the wheat uproots the this- 
tles, but the chaff persists with the wheat. 
The colonists blundered and stumbled, but suc- 
ceeded. When, in 1745, Massachusetts un- 

* Thb Life of Joshua R. Gzddikgs. By the Hon. George 
W. Julian, author of "Political Recollections.** With two 
portraits and an index. Chicagfo : A. C. McClnrg <& Co. 

dertook to capture Louisburg with such trum- 
pery plans, such insufficient means, she ought 
to have failed; but she took the fortress. 
Bunker Hill was at once a blunder, a defeat 
in fact, a victory in effect. 

In the Revolutionary Wai', how often failure 
seems inevitable, and safety comes as an acci- 
dent ' As we read Fiske's " Critical Period," 
which has the representative vigor of a drama, 
the Ship of State, without a pilot, goes amid 
shoals and rocks in a crooked channel, with 
checks of adverse winds and currents, till we 
are amazed to see her enter the deep blue 
water and spread her sails for the voyage. 

But our greatest miracle was the overthrow 
of Slavery. It was the Babylon the Great of 
the Apocalypse, sitting upon many waters, 
grand and powerful, bending the statesmen 
and ordering the politicians to do its will, win- 
ning in all skirmishes and battles from the 
day it became a leading political power. To 
lose the Northwest Territory seemed a trifle 
when it gained the Southwest. It was little 
to grant the Missouri restriction when it 
pushed its frontier to the edge of Iowa and 
gained Florida. Texas was clear gain. Con- 
trolling presidents, cabinets, congresses, legis- 
lation, diplomacy, commerce, how should Slav- 
ery fear ? And yet — " Fallen, fallen, is Baby- 
lon the Great ! " 

The history of the rise of the powers that 
overthrew it is not yet all written. When a 
century has passed, men may survey them in 
full perspective. Then shall be seen the 
cumulative power of many strokes. Colonel 
Buford, at West Point, — as Emerson tells 
us, — caused the trunnions of a cannon to be 
pounded with a hammer until they broke off ; 
and he fired a cannon some hundreds of times 
until it burst. " Now, which stroke broke the 
trunnion ? Every stroke. Which blast burst 
the piece ? Every blast." So not Adams, nor 
Garrison, nor Bimey, nor Leavitt, nor Smith, 
nor Phillips, nor John Brown, nor Giddings, 
nor Hale, nor Seward, nor Lincoln, destroyed 
Slavery ; but all the men and (dl the events 
that fought against it. Yea, let us not forget 
among the destroyers of Slavery, Calhoun, 
Mason, Slidell, Davis, Toombs, and Yancey ; 
Brooks and Pryor, as well as Sumner and 
Greeley ; for their madness availed much, and 
forced the crisis that might have been long 
postponed, fifty or a hundred years, s Only of 
the leaders in this warfare can we write lives, 
and so give the contest dramatic form and 

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Prominent among these will always be 
counted Joshua Reed Giddings, whose life has 
just been portrayed for us by the Hon. George 
W. Julian, Mr. Giddings's son-in-law. Mr. 
Julian himself took part in the great contest, 
and has already given us a volume of ^^ Polit- 
ical Recollections." One who shared in the heat 
and stress of the battle can write with an in- 
terest and insight greater than those can have 
who look on affairs only as a history ; and our 
author, though writing with the calmness of a 
historian and the coolness of his seventy years, 
never lacks earnestness or vigor. Some phrase 
not needed for the story will betray the parti- 
san, as when he generally calls the representa- 
tives from the South " slaveholders " ; or when 
he says, " The last hopes of Mr. Clay had per- 
ished forever in the nomination of the hero of 
the Mexican war and the owner of two hun- 
dred slaves " : the owning of slaves had noth- 
ing to do with the matter, but is a little dig at 
General Taylor, — an abolitionist slash. The 
reader must make allowance for the personal 
equation, as in all histories. Mr. Julian tries 
to be just ; yet it is hard for an abolitionist 
to obey the tolerant maxim, " Put yourself in 
his place." 

Naturally, and appropriately too, this biog- 
raphy of Mr. Giddings is almost entirely occu- 
pied with his political career. Two chapters 
tell us of his birth in 1795, on the Western 
Reserve, that New England of the West, and 
of his career until he entered Congress. Had 
he been bom ten or fifteen years later, he 
might have had an education at Yale ; but he 
had such education only as he could work out 
for himself in an intelligent community, with 
few books well studied. A raid of the In- 
dians in the War of 1812 made him a soldier 
for a short time at the age of seventeen. His 
neighbors called on him to teach school when 
he was nineteen, wisely thinking that his qual- 
ities of mind would make up for lack of book 
lore. To the surprise of his friends, he told 
them, when he was twenty-three, that he was 
going to be a lawyer ; and a lawyer he became. 
When he went to begin his studies, he had to 
walk forty miles, his baggage ^^ consisting of 
three shirts, two pairs of stockings, four white 
neck-cloths, and two pocket handkerchiefs. He 
had also seventeen dollars in cash." It is the 
old story of Energy and Character starting at 
the bottom of the hill and forcing a way to the 
top. While still a student, he married the 
wtfe who helped him all his days and survived 
him but a few months. As a lawyer, he was 

eminent especially for defending persons 
charged with crime, often saving innocent men 
who were unable to employ counsel. Some- 
times he risked reputation and popularity in 
so doing. Serving one term in the State Leg- 
islature, he refused to go again. 

In the great financial crash of 1886-7, he 
lost his property, and, at the same time, his 
health. He had not long resumed his practice 
when, in 1888, he was elected to Congress, 
and thus entered upon what proved to be the 
great work of his life, his battle with Slavery 
in the House of Representatives. 

The first administration of General Jackson 
had developed from the political indifference 
of Monroe's time two distinct parties, one of 
which took the name of National Republican 
or Whig ; the other retained the older name, 
Democratic. Mr. Giddings, an ardent admirer 
of Henry Clay and a believer in his distinc- 
tive doctrines of finance and tariff, entered 
Congress as a Whig, and remained such un- 
til, in 1848, he threw himself with all his 
force into the Free-Soil paiiy, which was the 
intermediate between the Liberty party of 
1840-48 and the Republican party of 1854. 
There was no Anti-slavery partf until 1840 ; 
but in both parties there were a few men who 
were opposed to slavery too strongly to keep 
silence in Congress. There was, when Giddings 
entered the House, but one representative who 
was an avowed abolitionist, — William Slade of 
Vermont, who made the first speech in favor 
of the abolition of slavery that was delivered 
in Congress. But the principal figure in the 
fight which was already going on was the 
able, versatile, and vigorous ex-president, John 
Quincy Adams, venerable in age, station, ex- 
perience, knowledge, and character. 

It is a remarkable fact that the first and the 
last lines of contest with " the slave power " 
were mere side issues which stirred up those 
who cared little for the main question of slav- 
ery. To raise either of these issues was a po- 
litical blunder. The first side issue was the 
right of petition ; the second was our national- 
ity. Mr. Adams was leader in maintaining the 
first right, and he was the first to say that the 
war-powers of the nation might be called upon 
to extinguish slavery ; and Lincoln seized the 
flaming sword of Emancipation to which Adams 
had pointed, and with it cut down the foe of 
our nationality. When Mr. Giddings entered 
Congress, petitions on the subject of slavery 
were coming into the hands of Mr. Adams, be- 
cause he alone had the boldness and skill to 

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[Sept. 1, 

present them. In February, 1836, a commit- 
tee offered a new rule, that all petitions relat- 
ing to slavery should be laid upon the table 
without being printed or referred. This rule 
was continued in various forms, one of which 
was known as the "Atherton gag." Against 
this Mr. Giddings voted, eight days after he 
entered Congress, but without speaking upon 
it. But Mr. Adams constantly presented pe- 
titions and moved references of them. He man- 
aged to make this proceeding a thorn in the 
side of the pro-slavery men. Upon one occa- 
sion, not narrated by Mr. Julian, he asked the 
Speaker whether it would be in order under 
the rule to present a petition from some slaves. 
When the tempest of fury over this "' impu- 
dence " was at its height, and propositions to 
censure or expel him were made, Mr. Adams 
let it leak out that this petition from slaves 
asked that he be expelled. Mr. Julian gives 
an account of the Haverhill petition for a dis- 
solution of the Union, for presenting which Mr. 
Adams was put on trial, though it was an ex- 
act copy of one presented from South Carolina 
some years before. After Mr. Adams had de- 
fended himself most vigorously, carrying the 
war into Africa, and showing what the South 
had done to provoke such a petition, the pro- 
ceedings were dropped on the fourteenth day, 
the old warrior having intimated that it would 
require about ninety days for him to get 
through with his defense. When Mr. Giddings 
tried to get a meeting of Northern members 
who would stand by Mr. Adams, only eight 
came in, though seventy-five had voted against 
the introduction of resolutions of censure. 

While Mr. Adams led the battle on this 
line, Mr. Giddings devised another assault 
upon the "peculiar institution," one which 
would be always in order, so that no parlia- 
mentary trick or rule could ward it off, and 
which was indeed suggested by the very plea 
of the slaveholders themselves that slavery was 
a peculiar or local institution. If local, then 
it is not national ; hence the Free States and 
the Nation as a whole have the right and duty to 
be free from all support of it, from all aid to 
it. Mr. Giddings was the first to see the spe- 
cial advantage of this line of attack, and to use 
it consistently, constantly, and untiringly. He 
thus furnished the platforms of the Free-Soil 
and Republican parties. It was not necessary 
to present the enormities which were incidental 
to slavery : he could start from the first public 
Declaration of Independence, which, in its doc- 
trine of natural freedom and equality of men. 

put upon slavery the condemnation of the con- 
siderate judgment of mankind. He might 
make any reasonable allowance for the diffi- 
cult position of the slaveholder, and still press 
his points that slavery was sectional, freedom 
national : he might claim that he was only de- 
fending the national interests and welfare 
against the encroachments of an oligarchy 
whose very existence was a menace to the ad- 
vancement of civilization and a defiance to the 
moral judgment of mankind. He did but hold 
the South to the logic of its position, of its 
confessed isolation. 

Is it said that this was no new doctrine? 
True ; but it was political genius that saw how 
to use the old principle in a new way : high 
principle and unflinching courage were needed 
to turn it to practical advantage ; and unvary- 
ing persistence was necessary to make the 
North adopt it in political action. This was 
the work which Giddings began and continued 
with wonderful steadfastness, working in an 
eminent field to which the eyes of all were 
turned. Outside of Congress others were urg- 
ing the evils and wickedness of the slave sys- 
tem; and the Liberty party was enforcing 
the political duties of the nation. And then 
were true Emerson's words : " The fury with 
which the slave-trader defends every inch of his 
bloody deck and his howling auction-platform 
is a trumpet to alarm the ear of mankind, to 
warn all neutrals to take sides, and to sum- 
mon all to listen to the verdict which justice 
shall pronounce." 

Mr. Julian's Life of Giddings is a history 
of the work of this leader of the army of the 
Lord of Hosts, and is full of dramatic inter- 
est. It would be pleasant to quote many in- 
stances of his play of sword and shield in 
these gladiatorial contests, two or three men 
against the whole field ; but we must forbear. 
On two subjects Mr. Giddings made himself 
specially well-informed : individual claims upon 
the treasury, and the relations of slavery to 
the general government. These were enough 
to give him abundant opportunity for his spe- 
cial warfare. His first Anti-slavery speech was 
on a bill to appropriate $80,000 to build a 
bridge across the east branch of the Potomac ; 
and at the time of its introduction a memorial 
came from citizens of the District asking that 
no notice be taken of anti-slavery petitions. 
Mr. Giddings opposed the expenditure of pub- 
lic money for further improvements, because 
of slavery and the slave-trade in the District ; 
and he boldly alleged that the North would ere 

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long remove the capital from Washington, so 
as to be rid of connection with that disgrace. 

When an appropriation of $100,000 was 
asked for to remove the Seminoles, Mr. Gid- 
dings exposed, the causes of the Seminole War, 
which were rooted in slavery and in the aid 
given to it by the general government. Mr. 
Adams's Diary speaks of this speech, with its 
documentary proofs, as an ^^ exquisite torture 
of the Southern duelists and slave-mongers," 
who, at its close, insulted Giddings as much as 
possible by abusive language. Black of Georgia 
and Waddy Thompson of South Carolina tak- 
ing the lead. Giddings retorted with spirit. 
The speech was circulated extensively at the 
North, with great effect. 

The next attempt to crush the outspoken 
Northerner was connected with the Creole Case. 
A coasting ship, the Creole, with 180 slaves, 
was going (Nov. 1841) from Virginia to New 
Orleans, when the slaves rose upon the whites, 
killed one man, and took the vessel to Nassau 
where they were free by British laws. Mr. 
Webster, Secretary of State, demanded that 
the negroes be delivered to the United States. 
Senators and others declared that if England 
should fail to restore them, the United States 
would have reason to declare war. Webster 
carried 'his servility so far as to say to En- 
gland, what he knew to be false, that the slaves 
were property under the Constitution of the 
United States. Mr. Giddings was indignant 
at this attempt to nationalize slavery. He pre- 
pared resolutions which affirmed the local rights 
of the Slave States, but declared that slave- 
laws could not by state law be extended to the 
high seas, and hence did not cover the Creole 
on her voyage. But the glove was thrown in 
the face of the Southern representatives by the 
seventh and eighth resolutions. 

(7) *< That the persons on board said ship, in resum- 
ing their natural rights to liberty, violated no law of the 
United States, incurred no legal penalties, and are 
jnstly liable to no punishment/' 

(8) « That all attempts to regain possession of or to 
re-enslave said persons are unauthorized by the constitu- 
tion or laws of the United States, and are incompatible 
with our national honor." 

The resolutions were presented March 21, 
1842, and twice read, the second time amidst 
the closest attention. Their audacity was as- 
tounding. Everett of Vermont moved to lay 
them on the table, and expressed his ^^ utter 
abhorrence of the fire-brand course of the gen- 
tleman from Ohio." Fessenden of Maine, Mil- 
lard FUlmore, and others, wished to avoid an 
immediate debate and vote upon them, and in- 

duced Giddings to withdraw them. But he 
must be punished for his daring. John Minor 
Botts of Virginia at once drew up a series of 
resolutions of censure, which Weller, of Gid- 
dings's own state, offered, moving the previous 
question, the adoption of which would cut off 
any defense on the part of Mr. Giddings. No 
opportunity was given him, and under the pre- 
vious question the vote of censure was passed 
by 126 to 69. Mr. Giddings promptly re- 
signed, appealed to the people of his district, 
and was reelected. But the ordinary course 
of business was altered for one year to keep 
him from offering his resolutions again. 

One thing more could be done. One North- 
em member, Cilley of Maine, had been mur- 
dered in a duel by Graves of Kentucky and 
Wise of Virginia, having been shot after both 
seconds had urged that the duel should cease. 
As Mr. Giddings would not accept a challenge, 
a collision must be had in which he could be 
murdered. Only a few were in this scheme, 
for only a few of the Southerners were bullies. 
After Giddings had spoken on the coastwise 
slave-trade, Dawson of Louisiana passing him 
gave him a violent push, which he recognized 
with the exclamation, " Dawson ! " 

« That member tunied around and seized the handle 
of a bowie-knife which partially protruded from his 
bosom, and immediately advanced toward Giddingfs un- 
til within striking distance, when Giddings said, look- 
ing him in the eye, * Did you push me in that rude 
manner? ' He answered, * Yes.* * For the purpose of 
insulting me? * < Yes,' said Dawson, as he partially re- 
moved the knife from the scabbard. Giddings rejoined, 
< No gentleman will wantonly insult another. I have 
no more to say to you, but turn you over to public con- 
tempt, as incapable of insulting an honorable man.' By 
this time Mr. Moore of Louisiana and other members 
seized Dawson and took him from the hall. ... It 
was generally believed that Dawson intended to pro- 
voke a blow from Giddings which would have served as 
an excuse for assassination." 

This was on February 14, 1848. Two years 
later, Dawson reappears in the same charac- 
ter. Giddings had spoken on an appropria- 
tion bill and exposed some Georgians who 
had obtained enormous sums for indefinable 
constructive losses. Black of Georgia replied 
with vile personalities, saying, among other 
things, that Giddings would be in the peniten- 
tiary, as he deserved, if the House could send 
him there ; and he added two false charges, 
which involved the honor of Mr. Giddings. 
Giddings replied, and referred to the fact that 
Black had been discarded by his constituents, 
as unworthy, after one election. Black ad- 
vanced on Giddings with a cane raised to 

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[Sept. 1, 

strike, and cried, ^' If you repeat those words 
I will knock you down I " Giddings imme- 
diately repeated the words. But Black's 
friends caught him in their arms and carried 
him off. 

*< Giddings continued his remarksi when Mr. Dawson 
of Louisiana, who had assaulted him on a previous oc- 
casion, came across the hall within a few yards of him, 
and placing his hands in his pocket, said ** I'll shoot 
him, by G-d! I'll shoot him! * at the same time taking 
care to cock his pistol so as to have the click heard by 
those around him. Mr. Causin, a Whig from Maryland, 
instantly took his position in front of Giddings and be- 
tween him and Dawson, folding his arms across his 
breast with his right hand apparently resting upon the 
handle of his weapon; while Mr. Sliddell of Louisiana 
and Mr. Stiles of Georgia, with two other Democratic 
members, at the same moment took their position near 
Dawson. ... At the same time, Kenneth Raynor, a 
North Carolina Whig, fully armed, took his place on the 
left of Giddings, while Mr. Hudson of Massachusetts 
placed himself on his right, and Mr. Foot of Vermont 
at the entrance of the aisle through which Black had 
made his exit. With armed foes in front and friends 
on either hand, Giddings continued his remarks ; but the 
slave-holders in front began to realize the awkwardness 
of their position, and quietly returned to their seats, ex- 
cept Dawson, who remained until Giddings closed his 
speech, Causin facing him. . . . Giddings . . . says 
that this was the last effort made to silence a member 
of the House by violence during his service in Congress." 

We have cited these incidents to show what 
need there was of the highest moral and phys- 
ical courage on the part of Anti-slavery repre- 
sentatives. They needed to be men who 
^^ looked rather to the day of judgment than 
to the day of election." Only two of them, 
Adams and Giddings, were returned term 
after term by appreciative constituencies. As 
we read their lives, we cannot wonder that 
they tired of their burdens, fell into hopeless- 
ness, and wished to retire from political life. 
This mood of mind came upon Giddings in 
1842, after the censure liad been passed upon 
him and before his first encounter with Daw- 
son. Accordingly he wrote to the editor of 
the ^^ Ashtabula Sentinel," requesting him to 
announce his withdrawal. Instead of doing 
that, Mr. Fassett summoned friends of Mr. 
Giddings and of the cause, who persuaded him 
to continue in the service of the people. In 
this they were aided by the congratulatory let- 
ters and addresses which came to him from 
various sources, and which showed that his 
work was not only appreciated, but effective 
in advancing the cause of freedom. However 
much like a warrior he has seemed in scenes 
we have sketched, he loved peace ; only love of 
justice drove him into conflict. In a letter of 
this time to his wife, he speaks with longing 

of " the time when I may lay aside the cares 
and responsibilities of public life, and making 
my bow to the people, I may be allowed to re- 
tire from the arena of strife and danger to the 
bosom of my family." 

Mr. Adams was in a similar tired and hope- 
less condition. As chairman of a special com- 
mittee on rules of the House, he had prepared 
a code without the famous twenty-first or 
u g^g " rule, when this incident occurred : 

"Giddings relates that during the progress of this 
debate, on entering the hall one morning he found Mr. 
Adams greatly burdened in mind. His appearance 
indicated the loss of sleep. He declared that our 
government had become the most perfect despotism 
of the Christian world ; that he was physically disquali- 
fied to contend longer for the floor; and that he must 
leave the vindication of his report to Giddings, as duty 
to himself forbade further attempt on his part. He 
said he had indulged the hope of living to see the gag- 
rule abrogated; but he now considered this doubtful." 

Giddings soon fulfilled the old man's wish ; 
and in the following December (1844) Mr. 
Adams's customary motion to strike out that 
rule prevailed by a vote of 108 to 80. ^ 

The relation of these two mighty men to 
each other was at first that of friendship and 
cooperation ; but it grew to be a love like that 
of Jonathan and David — or, perhaps it is bet- 
ter to say, like that of father and son. It 
found frequent expression in words and deeds. 
Comrades in what seemed like a desperate, al- 
most hopeless battle, they had soon in public 
life the same friends, the same foes, the same 
hopes and fears for their country, and the 
same plans for its future welfare and security. 
No sadder mourner than Giddings followed 
the body of the old man eloquent to its grave 
in Quincy. 

But when Adams departed, the prospect 
was already brighter. The group of defend- 
ers of liberty in Senate and House was grow- 
ing, and soon included Chase, Hale, Sumner, 
Wilmot, Preston King, Allen, Durkee, Julian, 
Howe, Root, and Tuck, all able and brave 
men. And though there came the dark time 
of the compromises of 1850, the Fugitive-Slave 
Law and the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, it was 
plain that the tide^ of love of Freedom was 
rising to an irresistible flood. Giddings's hope- 
fulness and his faith in humanity found in- 
creasing reasons for their existence. He did 
not live to see the end of the war, though it 
was plainly approaching when he died, May 
27, 1864, while he was consul at Montreal ; 
his heart failed suddenly, and in eight minutes 
he was dead. 

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In this review of Mr. Julian's excellent bio- 
graphy of this hero of the great struggle, it 
has been impossible to give even a sketch of 
the large amount of work done by Mr. Gid- 
dings with tongue and pen, or to show how 
his reputation grew and honors were heaped 
upon him : for these things we refer to the book. 
It has seemed better to show something of the 
dangers and difficulties that beset the political 
opponents of slavery from 1888 to 1848, and 
to present the hero since we could not show 
the full man. The younger and the middle- 
aged men of to-day know of the Civil War and 
its great men ; but only by reading lives of Gid- 
dings and his co-workers can they see where 
the greater battles of freedom were fought. The 
greatest task was to stir the nation to see the 
dangers that threatened our liberties of thought, 
speech, and political action. No American 
should be ignorant of our critical periods, among 
which we must include those shameful days. 

A few words on the book itself. It is ad- 
mirable as to paper and type, so that it is easy 
to read and pleasant to the eye. We have 
found no misprint. The publishers are to be 
congratulated on their share of the work, and 
Mr. Julian on his successful authorship. 

Samuel Willard. 

Thb of Modern Medie- 

In a leading Roman Catholic journal. Dr. 
St. George Mivart explained, some years ago, 
that he had not assumed ^^ the position of Cath- 
olic apologist in the arena of biological sci- 
ence" on his own responsibility, but ^4n a 
spirit of obedience." He is thus a man with a 
message ; and in whatever estimation this may 
be held, it is impossible not to admire the pa- 
tient persistency with which, led by conviction, 
he continues to explore the same ground and 
arrive at the same conclusions, — hoping, evi- 
dently, by many metaphysical droppings to 
wear away even the stony hearts of the agnos- 
tic school. His two somewhat ponderous vol- 
umes of *^ Essays and Criticisms" deal, in a 
more or less popular way, with a wide range 
of subjects, which may be classified, for the 
purpose of review, as scientific, philosophical, 
ethical and religious, and political. Of so ex- 
tensive a survey, of course only the briefest and 
most fragmentary criticism can be attempted. 

*£flSAT8 AHD Cbiticisiis. By St. George Miyart, F.R.S. 
Ik two Tolimies. Boston : Little, Brown Sc Co. 

Since Dr. Mivart's philosophy is avowedly 
based on science, the first step in an examina- 
tion of his thought is naturally to consider his 
scientific views. His attitude toward modem 
theories is well known, and the teaching of this 
book is the same as that of his ^^ Genesis of 
Species." He defines " evolution " as " the un- 
folding from potential into real existence of con- 
stantly new forms of animals and plants " : a 
formula which recalls Aristotle's theory that 
matter exists only potentially, attaining actual 
being solely through form. In harmony with 
such conceptions, Dr. Mivart holds that spe- 
cies originate by the operation of " innate law, 
modified by the subordinate action of Natural 
Selection." His disbelief in the adequacy of 
natural selection to explain the differentiation 
of species is connected with his conception of 
human reason as an isolated fact, not to be re- 
ferred to any antecedents in sensation, however 
remote. His denial of reason and the moral 
sense in animals practically begs the question, 
since the point is not, of course, whether these 
faculties are actually developed in animals, but 
whether they do not possess such rudiments of 
them as may be safely considered an adequate 
basis for their higher development in man. 
The distinction between " degree " and " kind " 
of intelligence seems merely assumed. 

Yet even on his own ground, Dr. Mivart's 
logic is open to criticism. Thus, he makes self- 
consciousness the basis of true rationality, de- 
claring that no animal has this. But elsewhere 
he says that ^^no true memory can exist in a crea- 
ture devoid of true self -consciousness," defin- 
ing two kinds of "true memory," "one in which 
the will intervenes, and which may be spoken 
of as recollection^ and the other in which it 
does not, and which may be termed reminis- 
cence.^^ All unconscious psychical accompani- 
ments of automatically repeated actions, or of 
organic habits, are expressly excluded from the 
definition. But nothing is more certain about 
animals psychologically than that they do con- 
sciously remember, in the second, at least, of 
these two ways ; so that, according to Dr. 
Mivart's statement, they must possess true self- 
consciousness. Again, in denying reasoning 
powers in animals, he observes, apropos of 
ideas of number : 

"The real gulf lies between the animal able to 
count two [the savage] and the animal not able to 
oount at all. The difference between being able to 
count two and having the integral calculus at one's 
fingers' ends is but a difference of degree." 

That this is a dangerous admission is proved 

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Google _ 



[Sept. 1, 

by the anecdote cited from Galton by Sir John 

<<Onoe while I watched a Dammara floundering 
hopelessly in a calculation on one side of me, I ob- 
served Dinah, my spaniel, equally embarrassed on the 
other. She was overlooking half a dozen of her new- 
bom puppies [to see if any were missing]. . . . She 
kept puzzling and running her eyes over them, back- 
wards or forwards, but could not satisfy herself. She 
evidently had a vague notion of counting, but the figure 
was too large for her. Taking the two as they stood, 
dog and Dammara, the comparision reflected no great 
honor on the man." 

The arguments with regard to the lack of 
language among animals are equally unsatis- 
factory, especially since Mr. Garner has suc- 
ceeded in identifying definite words of the 
monkey tongue. Another criticism that may 
be made of Dr. Mivart's treatment of the sub- 
ject of brute intelligence is that he considered 
only the two departments of sensation and rea- 
son, leaving that of emotion quite unnoticed. 
But certainly the emotions of afFection and 
gratitude, so common among the higher ani- 
mals, are a true link between them and hu- 
manity. As for the moral sense, the appendix 
on " Judyism" to Spencer's "Justice" ought 
to convince any unprejudiced mind that some 
animals possess at least a rudimentary moral- 
ity. How many persons have known some 
creature like Matthew Arnold's dog Geist, into 
whose short years were crowded " all that life 
and all that love," a " loving heart " and " pa- 
tient soul "; a being so distinct in personality 
that not all the infinite resource of nature 
" Can eyer quite repeat the past, 
Or just thy little self restore.*' 

Dr. Mivart's system of evolution is certain- 
ly well adapted to spare cei*tain theological 
prejudices. The value of the theory may be 
questioned, however, after the controlling idea 
of constant unbroken development has been 
changed for that of a mere physical continuity 
existing throughout a series of predetermined 
stages, isolated by unfathomable gaps between 
inorganic beings, the " vegetative," the " ani- 
mal," and the "rational" souls. As Mr. 
Leslie Stephen has observed, " ' Creation ' is 
reaUy nothing but a name for leaving off think- 
ing, and giving to cessation of thought a pos- 
itive name." Dr. Mivart's well-known conten- 
tion that the theory of evolution not only is in 
perfect harmony with the teachings of the 
Catholic Church, but was actually anticipated, 
in a way, by some of her early theologians, is 
certainly well calculated to exasperate his ra- 
tionalistic opponents. Dispassionate observers 
will be likely to consider his process of thought 

analogous to the misleading habit of much 
modem liberalism in another field, so acutely 
described by Sir Frederick Pollock in his 
^^ Jurisprudence and Ethics " : 

<*Just as the law which is enounced in deciding a 
new case is by an inevitable fiction conceived as having 
always been the law, so the moral rules proceeding 
from the invisible and informal judgment-seat of 
righteous men, which yet is more powerful than any 
prince or legislator, are referred to doctrines originally 
based on a far narrower foundation." 

The papers on Spencer and Lotze are chief- 
ly vehicles for the conveyance of Dr. Mivart's 
own philosophical creed. An important point 
of this is his denial of the ^' relativity of knowl- 
edge " doctrine. He argues that if all our 
knowledge is relative and phenomenal, the 
proposition which asserts the fact must share 
the same limitations. ^'It has no absolute 
value, does not correspond with objective real- 
itj/y and is therefore false." The italicised 
words are rather astonishing. They show a 
confusion of two very distinct ideas : the de- 
nial that we can know objective reality, and 
the denial that objective reality is what it ap- 
pears to be. The former proposition alone 
could accurately be called agnosticism. But 
Dr. Mivart speaks, later, of Spencer's sys- 
tem as one ^' which asserts that neither exten- 
sion, nor figure, nor number, is in reality 
what it appears, or that the objective connec- 
tions [amongst these properties are what they 
seem to us to be." Yet he goes on in the same 
sentence to quote Spencer's words : "What we 
are conscious of as properties of matter . • . 
are but subjective affections produced by ob- 
jective agencies which are unknown and un- 
knowable." " What we are conscious of " is 
by no means to be identified with objective 
" extension, figure, and number." 

Dr. Mivart objects also to the doctrine of 
the conservation of energy, on the ground that 
it savors of realism (in the ancient sense, as 
opposed to nominalism), energy being appar- 
ently conceived as a real enti^ apart from 
its special manifestations. He observes in an- 
other place that even these are " in themselves 
nothing but abstractions of the mind. There 
is no such thing as ^ heat ' or as ^ motion ' ; 
though of course there are numberless warm 
bodies," etc. Yet in the essay called " Why 
Tastes Differ," he seeks to establish the idea of 
absolute *' goodness," " truth," and " beauty," 
as actual entities, regardless of the fact that 
in consistency he should find these qualities 
only in particulars. But the way of the be- 
liever in innate ideas is hard. Dr. Mivart's 

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favorite theory of ^* prototypal ideu " isinoBt 
suspiciously realistic. Like St. Thomas Aqui- 
nas, he would maintain that '^the ideas or 
thoughts of things in the divine mind, antece- 
dent to creation, were univeraalia ante rem,^^ 
^^ The teaching of what we believe to be true 
philosophy," he says, "is that the types 
shadowed forth to our intellects by material 
existences are copies of divine originals, which 
respond to prototypal ideas in God." 

Pr. Mivart, of course, asserts the freedom 
of the will ; and this point leads to the consider- 
ation of his ethical and religious views. " Fully 
maintaining that atheists generally are not only 
in error but culpable," he is horrified at Pro- 
fessor Huxley's saying that ^^ the necessity of a 
belief in a personal God, in order to a religion 
worthy of the name, is a matter of personal 
opinion." He himself once defines God as "the 
concrete infinity," — a quite overwhelming 
term. He seeks to show an anthropomorphic 
deity legislating in behalf of an anthropocen- 
tric universe. God has willed that the lower 
animals should minister to man, to whose care 
he has entrusted them. The " highest motive 
for the cultivation of art and science" is 
" their cultivation for God's sake." The utility 
of a reestablished Benedictine abbey is set 
forth thus: 

** No thoughtful man, while admiring the beauties of 
creation, or enjoying the multifold benefits which 
spring from the harmonious coordination of its parts 
and powers, can but feel impressed with the insuffi- 
ciency of his own acts of grateful recognition and rev- 
erent homage. To one so impressed, the knowledge 
cannot be unwelcome that there is a new community 
of men in the land, whose whole lives are set apart to 
atone for and supply the neglects of others." 

Happy England ! since, while the numbers of 
her criminals and slums are still undiminished, 
a company of men can be found willing to de- 
vote their lives to the sufficient object of 
making up the arrears of national thanksgiv- 
ing ! Worse than these crudities is the ques- 
tion, in a paper on '^ National Education," 
" What harm can be done by reinforcing mor- 
ality by religious sanctions?" Dr. Mivart, 
however, does not really believe that morality 
is reinforced by sanctions, and proves in an- 
other essay ("Why Tastes Differ") that the 
remark quoted is but a passing inconsistency. 

«Some religious persons will probably say that the 
* goodness ' of anything depends on the will of God. 
. . . But in our perception of duty and moral obliga- 
tion we recognize that it addresses conscience with an 
essentially absolute and unconditional imperativeness. 
. . . But if 'goodness' cannot be dependent even on 
the will of God, if the commands of conscience are ab- 

aahite and- m pge me , if it is impossible even to oon- 
oeive an TfTsniBn of its uaiirBcsal and ■■"****« ^ tiffhnftl 

authority, then the ethical principle mnst be rooted, as 
it were, within the inmost heart, in the very founda- 
tion, so to speak, of the great whole of existence which 
it pervades. The principles of the moral law must be 
at least as extensive and enduring as are those starry 
heavens which shared with it the profound reverence of 

The supremacy of ethics could not be asserted 
in a nobler spirit ; and the same lofty concep- 
tion pervades the paper on " The Meaning of 

There is. a saying related of a certain Amer- 
ican political scholar : " The State is an organ- 
ism — but keep it dark ! " Dr. Mivart's reti- 
cence is not so great, as he devotes several 
pages to the exposition of the familiar physio- 
logical parallel. One is more grateful for his 
protest against the metaphysical conception of 
the State as an actual Ding an nch, and not 
merely as a name for ^^ the nation in its col- 
lective and corporate character," to use one of 
Matthew Arnold's aptly-chosen phrases. His 
own theory of the State, however, is not clearly 
defined, and there seems to be some inconsist- 
ency in the different views of social organization 
which he puts forth. For instance, adopting the 
idea of the subdivision of labor, he observes that 
^^ class distinctions must, if we are not to re- 
trograde, hereafter increase in number, and our 
social condition become, in a certain sense, an 
increasingly divided one." It is not quite 
easy to see how an increase of class distinc- 
tions is to be harmonized with even the quali- 
fied "liberty, equality, and fraternity" which 
he elsewhere advocates. He even glows over 
the social contract theory, very justly rea- 
soning : 

" But, because the theory is false historically f is it 
necessarily devoid of all value ? Have on this account 
its many eloquent and philanthropic advocates written 
or declaimed altogether in vain ? ... By no means. 
False as an historical fact, it is a pregnant truth as an 
ideal far the future. What else, indeed, is all constitu- 
tional government but an approximation towards such 
an ideal?" 

An ideal, it may be added, after which our own 
government was, to a considerable extent, con- 
sciously framed. Dr. Mivart, however, does 
not admire our methods. He opposes govern- 
ment by the masses, and demands the repre- 
sentation of interests, not of numbers. Per- 
haps an increased familiarity with the work- 
ings of Tammany and its compeers would 
lead him to regard us as rapidly approaching 
this political summum bonum. For the pres- 
ent we must be grateful for the mildness of 

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[Sept. 1, 

this criticism on our " popular " government : 

"The example of the United States, hy the occa- 
sional ostracism of estimable citizens and the corrup- 
tion of many of its professional politicians, abundantly 
shows what bad results may ensue even when the mass 
of a community merits our esteem." 

Another result of democratic rule in America 
is truly surprising : 

« In the United States wealth [as an interest] tends 
to be absolutely crushed by the incidence of taxation." 

As regards the functions of the State, Dr. 
Mivart makes no definite contribution to this 
important question. Modemly speaking, he 
partakes of the character of both the indi- 
vidualist and the collectivist ; but more accur- 
ately considered, he seems to belong historic- 
ally to the palmy days of the Holy Roman Em- 
pire. He offers the general ethical conception 
of the State as making the goods of life possi- 
ble to all individuals ; but how far this is to be 
done' by the direct action of government, is left 
largely to the imagination of the reader. Free 
compulsory education he regards as opposed to 
a sound political economy ; but asserts, what to 
many would seem a far more unsound principle, 
that " The individual as a member of the State 
is not bound to tolerate, rather is he absolutely 
bound to repress, expressions and actions on 
the part of individuals, which actions or ex- 
pressions he has good grounds for certainly 
knowing are the manifestations of bad voli- 
tion and not of conscientious convictions," etc. 
He also declares that the State, for its own pres- 
ervation, as a means to moral, not merely ma- 
terial good, may even, "with extreme reluct- 
ance and as the last resort, justly exercise pres- 
sure on consciences." It is impossible to do 
more than mention several other very ques- 
tionable doctrines — namely, that the waste of 
noble intellects in uncongenial and exhaust- 
ing labor is not a moral loss to society ; that 
limitation of births is not to be approved be- 
cause of the beneficial effects on character to 
members of large families (one thinks of the 
conditions of existence among the classes which 
most habitually have unlimited families), and 
that armed rebellion against the State is never 
justifiable. But there is one saying of Dr. 
Mivart's in this connection which is a true 
word of wisdom, containing the largest promise 
of good for the future : " Each day advances 
the movement which transforms the process of 
civilization from an unconscious evolution to 
a fully self-conscious and deliberate develop- 

Little space is left in which to notice two 

especially interesting historical papers, on *^ Ja- 
cobinism" and Sorel's "Europe and the French 
Revolution." The latter is an excellent con- 
densation of a remarkable book, on which it 
would be pleasant to dwell. The essay on Ja- 
cobinism is a review of several books, but 
chiefly of Taine's brilliant but misleading 
" French Revolution." Dr. Mivart's prejudices 
lead him to be uncritical of its accuracy, so 
that he repeats Taine's error, pointed out by 
Dr. Charles K. Adams, of attributing all the 
misery of the Reign of Terror " chiefly to the 
Revolutionary leaders : whereas, it was rooted 
in those relations of the different classes which 
the nobility and clergy had persistently refused 
to change." 

It is not quite fair, perhaps, to look for 
much literary merit in a work devoted to ab- 
stract thought : though the writings of Scho- 
penhauer and Professor Fiske occur at once as 
proof that philosophy and excellence of form 
are by no means incompatible. But it might 
certainly be justly required of Dr. Mivart that 
he should pay a little more attention to the 
architectonics of the sentence. 

Marian Mead. 

Briefs ox New Books. 

Caird^s Ettayi 
on Philosophy 
and LUeraturt. 

The two volumes of ^'Essays on 
Philosophy and Literature** (Mac- 
miUan), by Professor Edward Caird, 
of Glasgow, invite the attention of thoughtful 
readers. Volume I. contains papers, mostly maga- 
zine reprints, on Dante, Rousseau, Wordsworth, 
Goethe, Carlyle, and <^ The Problem of Philosophy 
at the Present Time"; Volume II. contains re- 
prints of the author's excellent articles in the £n- 
cyclopiedia Britannica on ^* Cartesianism " and 
<< Metaphysic." The trend of these essays is what 
one would expect, or rather what one would ask, 
from a distinguished Professor of Moral Philosophy, 
— something quite different, in a word, from the 
desultory though delightful chat of the Lamb and 
Hazlitt order. The threshed-out straw of personal 
gossip is left untouched, and there is little disca»- 
sion of matters of pure literary form. On the 
other hand, philosophical bearings and affiliations 
are clearly brought out; and in the thoughtful 
papers on Goethe and Wordsworth the author en- 
deavors to indicate the sources of, and, so far as 
possible, to give direct expression to, those deeper 
intimations in then* verse, that ^< breath and finer 
spirit of all knowledge,'* wherein great poetry 
often forestalls and always transcends science, and 
by virtue of which, as Matthew Arnold said, its 
future is immense. We do not, of coarse, mean 

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to imply that Professor Caird approaches Goethe 
in the spirit of Mr. Donnelly, or that he mistakes 
*^ The Excursion " for a rebus or a quadratic equa- 
tion. To the lover of poetry as poetry, whose ears 
may perhaps still tingle with Professor Huxley's 
vigorous epithet *^ sensual caterwauling," it is a 
cheering thing to find a '< severe thinker*' like 
Professor Caird holding that '< in poetry the form 
is the first thing. Its function is pure expression 
for its own sake, and the consideration of what is 
expressed must be secondary. The Muses would 
undoubtedly prefer a good bacchanalian song to 
Zachary Boyd's metrical version of the Bible." 
Still (the author observes, touching the " old quarrel 
of poets and philosophers " of which Plato speaks), 
while " it is far from desirable that poetry should 
ever become 'a criticism of life,' except in the 
sense in which beauty is always a criticism upon 
ugliness," "there is undoubtedly a point — and 
that, indeed, the highest point in both — in which 
they [poets and philosophers] come into close rela- 
tions with each other. Hence, at least in the case 
of the gpreatest poets, we are driven by a kind of 
necessity to ask what was their philosophy." Pro- 
fessor Caird rates Wordsworth high: "There is 
no poet who is more distinctly unique and of his 
own kind, no poet the annihilation of whose works 
would more obviously deprive us of a definite and 
original vein of sentiment. . . . When Words- 
worth is at his best he stands quite on a level with 
the very highest." In the paper on Carlyle the 
author notes, what we do not remember to have 
seen emphasized before, the masterful influence 
upon the " clothes philosopher " of Fichte's ideal- 
ism. His debt to the fantastic Richter, upon whom 
he founded himself and from whose strange literary 
conglomerate he made no scruple of carrying off 
bodily various tempting crotchets and verbal turns, 
is barely noted. Professor Caird is one of the 
leaders in the movement tending to rehabilitate, 
or perhaps we may say, to naturalize, philosophy 
proper, as distinguished from orthodox British em- 
piricism, in England; and, even in the literary 
essays, his metaphysical habit of thinking makes 
him at times a little hard for unmetaphysical 
readers to follow. The exertion required is, how- 
ever, weU repaid. The articles on " Cartesianism " 
(covering the systems of Des Cartes, Spinoza, and 
Malebranche) and " Metaphysic " display the same 
rare turn for exposition that makes the author's 
admirable book on Kant the best in the English 

„, ^. ,„ In Miss Agnes M. Clerke's " Famil- 

Siudtes of Homer . ^i. j* • tt m /r \ 

at a poet lar Studies m Homer (Longmans) 

muiapnMem. ^^ j^^^^ certain aspects of HeUenic 
life in the Homeric period well brought before us in 
the light of the higher criticism and of recent archseo- 
logicaJ research. The writer is a loving student of 
her author ; his least peculiarities are precious to 
her. The flower which he has named blooms for 
her henceforth a sacred thing. She teUs us of the 

Homeric stars and the Homeric animals, the Ho- 
meric trees and flowers and magic herbs, the 
metals, the amber, the ivory and the ultramarine 
which furnish the weapons of Homer's heroes and 
the decorations of his heroines, and gives us Ho- 
meric bills of fare without leaving " so much as a 
dish of beans to the imagination." In a prefatory 
chapter she discusses "Homer as a poet and a 
problem." She knows what the critics have said 
of him and how the translators have ravaged him. 
She gives her illustrative quotations now in Chap- 
man's vigorous version, now in Tennyson's, now in 
Lord Derby's, now in Mr. Way's, now in her own 
not unequal English. As to the personality of 
Homer, she seems not quite sure whether the author 
of the Iliad and the Odyssey be one man or two, or 
a guild of wandering bards, or the author, as Grote 
thought, of a central Achilleid about which like 
legends had been encrusted, or a critical editor who 
had worked prehistoric ballads into a semi-consist- 
ent whole. 

Aju^i^ivi^ The "Colonial Era," by Profes- 
o/the American SOT Fisher, of Yale University, is 

Colonial Era. ^y^^ ^^^ ^^j^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 

ican History Series, published by Scribner's Sons. 
The other volumes of the series are to be written 
by Prof. Sloane of Princeton, President Walker 
of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and 
Professor Burgess of Columbia University (two 
volumes). Professor Fisher has given us a very 
compact and readable account of the period ending 
with the year 1756. He divides the era into the 
period ending with 1688 and the period from then 
to 1756, and within each of these divisions he treats 
each colony by itself, with the exception that New 
England is considered more as a whole. Doubtless 
the reason for this plan is the difficulty of finding 
any unity in the colonies at the time of which he 
writes ; but the result is to leave the reader with a 
somewhat disconnected impression of the subject, 
and with a knowledge of ^e names and deeds of 
the various colonial governors rather than of the 
deeper elements of colonial life. Perhaps the fun- 
damental fact of the early history of our country 
is the differentiation of the three sections, New 
England, the Middle Region, and the South. The 
unity of the subject lies rather in England than 
on this continent, and by more attention to the 
English basis of the period, and to the fundamental 
economic and social factors in the history of these 
various sections, a newer view of the subject might 
have been presented. By following the time-honored 
mode of procedure, however. Professor Fisher has 
contented himself with a more or less annalistic 
method of treatment. The distinctly valuable fea- 
tures of the book lie in its judicious presentation of 
the religious history of the period. As was to be 
expected from the Professor of Ecclesiastical His- 
tory at Yale, the author deals with the Puritans in 
a sympathetic manner, and is disposed to extenuate 
some of the actions for which they have been criti- 

Digitized by 




[Sept. 1, 

cised ; at the same time it cannot be said that he is 
at all extreme in his conclusions. It is in this field, 
particularly, that he seems to liave made use of origi- 
nal material. The least valuable portions of the work 
are the early ones. He writes somewhat indefinitely 
of the relation of the mound-builders to the other 
Indians, but leaves the impression that he considers 
them to have been a distinct people — a view not in 
accord with opinions of the best authorities. The 
settlements of the Norsemen were not on the eastern 
shore of Greenland, as the author says, but on the 
western. He is wrong again in saying that the 
<* erroneous representation that the mainland was 
discovered by Americus Yespuccius in 1497, resulted 
in the attaching of his name to the New World." 
This error is the less to be excused, since, even if 
Professor Fisher were not a student of the mono- 
graphs upon this subject, the recent works of Win- 
sor and Fiske should have set him right. It is at 
least doubtful whether he is correct in the assertion 
that " as long as Henry VIII. acknowledged the 
papacy, he had felt bound to respect the Pope's 
grant to Spain.'' The degree of respect paid to the 
papal division of the new discoveries, even by Catho- 
lic countries, was very moderate. In spite of these 
and similar slips, the work is on the whole accurate. 

A father and ^^' ^' ^' Symonds and his daughter 

daughter in the Margaret have put into a volume 
SwM Highland*, g^^g uncommonly piquant sketches 
of their ^* Life in the Swiss Highlands " ( Macmil- 
lan & Co.) Perhaps the most noticeable peculiarity 
revealed by the authors — one a consumptive, the 
other a young girl — is an entire and delightful dis- 
regard for prudence or common-sense, when on ad- 
venture bound. And adventures with them are de- 
cidedly frequent, assuming such wild forms as to- 
bogganing on glaciers in the High Alps ; starting 
small avalanches, to ride them down-hill ; coasting 
down sheer precipices on bundles of hay ; or sleigh- 
ing (quite needlessly) at the dead of night over 
passes where the snow lay thirty feet, the path was 
a mere thread bordered by abysses, and the postil- 
lion, trusting solely to the surer instinct of his horse, 
whispered (for fear of avalanches), ^'One false 
step — es ist mit um um ! " ** Well, it was all a splen- 
did experience," writes Miss Symonds ; proceeding 
calmly to relate that "the next day we crossed 
eleven real big avalanches after Silvaplana, and 
had two upsets of the luggage-cart, — otherwise 
quiet." The fresh and unconventional personality 
of this young woman is one of the most pleasing 
features of the book. The animal spirits and love 
of outdoor life common among highly-bred English 
girls of the day are mingled in her with a rarer 
poetic feeling for Nature. She recalls Words- 
worth's Lucy, " moulded by silent sympathy" with 
the spirit of the mountains, and finding in Nature 
" both law and impulse." It is, however, a Lucy 
rendered refreshingly human by a vigorous appetite, 
and a truly feminine predilection for '* fig-jam sand- 
wiches " as sequel to a stiff mountain-climb. Her 

sketches, beyond their charm of girlish sprightli- 
ness, have an undeniable literary quality, evincing 
an admirable power of developing narrative. That 
called <* Summer in the Pr^ttigau " is as simple and 
lovely as the sweet mountain-girt orchard it de- 
scribes. It is interesting to trace the marked 
intellectual family likeness between the father and 
daughter, and to compare the grace and freedom 
of the younger mind with the manly breadth of 
the mature thinker. " I have never been able," says 
Mr. Symonds (and here lies the secret of much of his 
power as a writer), "to take literature very seri- 
ously. Life seems so much graver, more import- 
ant, more permanently interesting, than books." 
And it is a deep thought of life, a rich humanity 
indeed, which breathes in certain pages of the ar- 
ticle on " Swiss Athletic Sports," and in the really 
wonderful description of a bell-ringing in that en- 
titled "Winter Nights at Davos." Other interest- 
ing points in the book are some accounts of the 
natural history of avalanches and Swiss hotel-porters; 
as well as an historical sketch of Davos, formerly 
an elaborately-developed community, whose records 
ought certainly to be worked up as a social and poli- 
tical study by some enterprising university student. 

A ccmponton to 
the "Beveries 
0/ a Bachelor." 

The average married man, who re- 
flects upon the details of his happi- 
ness, does it very much in the man- 
ner of Mr. Robert Grant's amusing " Reflections 
of a Married Man " (Scribner). The result is not, 
certainly, an important book, although it is that 
almost rarer thing, a pleasant one. It is altogether 
kindly, and playful and wholesome. If one would 
class it, he would put it on the shelf with " Prue and 
I " and the " Reveries of a Bachelor." Its humor 
is less imaginative than the Howadji's, less senti- 
mental than Ik Marvel's. It is a little more of 
this present world than either. Yet it is a painting, 
not a photograph. The ideal element prevades it ; 
one hardly thinks, he dreams a little over its pages. 
They do not incite laughter, but coax a frequent 
meditative smile. The reader will like his own 
wife better, noting the foibles of Mr. Grant's hero- 
ine. It is a book for a honeymoon, or for a ham- 
mock by a brookside. It might be read aloud by 
a camp-fire without unduly hastening bedtime. 

A ierviceable 
volume about 
Julitu Ccuar. 

Mr. W. Wabde Fowleb, M.A., of 
Lincoln College, Oxford, has pre- 
pared for the "Heroes of the Na- 
tions Series" (Putnam) a serviceable volume to 
explain "to those who are comparatively unfa- 
miliar with classical antiquity the place which Cae- 
sar occupies in the history of the world." Mr. 
Fowler writes from a full knowledge of his subject, 
and in a simple, impressive, and popular manner, 
well suited to the readers addressed. His views 
of Csesar's career are commended to the attention 
of all by the straightforward and impartial manner 
in which they are set forth. The author relies 
chiefly upon contemporary evidence (above all, 

Digitized by 





upon C»8ar and Cicero), to the exdasion of much 
that is said by later writers. He does not intro- 
dace the discussions of obscure points and the cita- 
tions of authorities which might be admissible in a 
more extended and more critical biography. He 
states emphatically that Csesar was neither the 
founder nor the organizer of the Roman Empire, 
nor were his conquests his greatest title to fame, 
neither was the fact that he tempered strong gov- 
ernment with justice and humanity. Conquests 
had been made and administered with justice and 
humanity before his day. It was his distinction 
that he was the first Roman to apply what we should 
call scientific intelligence to the problems of gov- 
ernment. The book is supplied by the publishers 
with a series of likenesses of Julius Csesar and some 
of his great contemporaries, and also with maps and 
other Ulustrative material. 

The life 0/ an Thomas Rambaut, whose biogra- 
Ameriean Col- phy has been Written by the Rev. 
lege PreeidenL j^^rman Fox and published by Fords, 
Howard and Hulbert, was a hard-working Baptist 
preacher and college president. Although born in 
Dublin, he was, as his biographer is very careful to 
inform us at some length in the chapter on ''An- 
cestry," of noble French Huguenot extraction. Dr. 
Rambaut's first pastorate, of which we are given a 
charming picture, was at Robertville, South Caro- 
lina. It was in that golden age << befo' de wah," 
when the whites worshipped in the body of the 
church and their negroes filled the galleries. After 
a second pastorate at Savannah, Dr. Rambaut went 
into educational work, and was president first of 
Cherokee College, Georgia, and later of William 
Jewell CoUege, Missouri. No matter to what re- 
ligious denomination they may belong, these small 
and struggling Western coUeges may all fitly be 
denominated president-killers ; and it was not more 
than five years before Dr. Rambaut*s health broke 
down under the strain of carrying forward work 
enough for three men. It was only after years of 
rest that he was able to resume work, and to enter 
upon successive pastorates at Brooklyn, Newark, 
and other places in the East. The story of his life, 
though told in a somewhat effusive and superficial 
manner, is that of an active and self-sacrificing de- 
votion to the great causes of religion and education. 

A plea/or the 
Orffonie UnUy 
of Ckrittendom, 

Is these days when men are doubt- 
ing whether " a church termagant " 
has not, cuckoo-like, thrust itself 
into the nest of the church militant, any honest 
effort toward the organic unity of Christendom is 
not without interest. It may prove a failure, and 
then we see what road is no thoroughfare. It may 
prove a partial success, and so suggest in what 
direction to turn for the future. It may not be very 
definable as either success or failure, and then it 
serves to keep a1;tention awake and set investigators 
off, each on his own track, toward the desired goal. 
The Church Club of New York City has made its 

contributory venture in three little volumes, pub- 
lished by Messrs. E. & J. B. Young & Co., of lectures 
by bishops and presbyters of the Protestant Episco- 
pal Church. These volumes are entitled, respect- 
ively, "History and Teachings of the Early 
Church," " The Church in the British Isles, from 
the Earliest Times to the Restoration," "The 
Church in the British Isles, Post-Restoration Pe- 
riod." Their connecting thread is "the Historic 
Episcopate." There are those who will fancy that 
the weight of the argument will most impress those 
already convinced of the conclusion, but the discus- 
sion will have its interest for others. Dr. Allen's 
paper on the Norman Church is noticeably fresh 
and striking. 

„ ,. - In Professor Shackford's posthum- 

icecrecuiont of , « . i ■• <n 

ctnoid-fathimed ous volume of essays entitled "So- 
^''*'^- cial and Literary Papers" (Scribner) 

we have a pleasant suggestion of how an old-fash- 
ioned scholar amused himself reading and thinking 
for half a century. The modern scholar is for the 
most part over-absorbed in the technical part of his 
studies, and very likely the professor's pupils at 
Cornell may have thought his attention too alert in 
the matter of Greek particles. But here he drops 
his scholastic methods and indulges himself in broad 
human interests. He reads his Greek as less learned 
men read their English, not as a study of gram- 
mar, but from a delight in literature. His insight 
into the difficulties of ^schylus has only quick- 
ened his sensitive enjoyment of Shakespeare and 
Browning ; he finds Pope Innocent XII. and King 
Lear as well worth studying as Prometheus. Hu- 
man life is yet nearer to him than classical or ro- 
mantic literature, and as he turns the pages of his 
Aristotle or his Plato he is ever glancing off to note 
the everyday wants and woes of his contemporaries 
and ever seeking to apply to modern social pro- 
gress some of the old-time wisdom not yet obsolete. 
Culture does not always refine away the heart even 
of dons in the universities. 

elements of 
modem cuUure. 

Thebe are three paths along which 
curious minds are travelling back to 
the reconstruction of the prehistoric 
ages. Two of them, archseolog^ and philology, 
though recently opened, are already well-worn. 
The third, folklore, is now for the first time at^ 
tempted. In a little volume in Appletons' " Modern 
Science Series," entitled " Ethnology in Folklore," 
Mr. George Lawrence Gomme, the president of 
the Folklore Society, undertakes to set forth the 
principles by which "the peasant and local ele- 
ments in modern culture " may be classified, and 
to trace the ethnological results. He reaches the 
conclusion that side by side with modern industrial 
and scientific and literary England lies a prehis- 
toric England visible in the obscure usages and 
superstitions of the peasant class ; and the further 
conclusion that these are a survival not from 
our Aryan ancestors, but from unknown pre- Aryan 

Digitized by 




[Sept. 1, 

races whom they conquered and displaced. Mr. 
Gomme has " blazed " a path. Later investigators 
will decide whether it letids into a swamp or a far- 
viewing mountain top. Meanwhile, there are in- 
teresting glimpses to be had all along the road. 

The publishers of the excellent 
i^'itu^enu. »nd indispensable 'Bohn's Libra. 

nes (Macmulan & Company ) 
have rendered a real service to students of Ger- 
man literature by issuing in a single volume the 
original text of Goethe's " Faust " ( Part I. ), and the 
literal prose rendering of Abraham Hay ward — pro- 
nounced by Matthew Arnold ''the best "because 
" the most straightforward," — together with Hay- 
ward's useful Appendices and Prefaces, '^ A Gen- 
eral Survey of the Faust Legend " by C. H. Buc- 
heim, and '^ A List of Books for the Study of 
Faust." The editor, Dr. Bucheim of King's Col- 
lege, London, has carefully revised Hayward's not 
altogether trustworthy work, simplifying his rather 
pedantic prose, pruning away irrelevant notes and 
adding new ones where needed. For the conven- 
ience of the student, the original text and the trans- 
lation are set opposite each other on alternate pages, 
and the reference numbers to the notes are inserted 
in the translation. The editing is thorough and the 
arrangement practical ; and we commend Dr. Buc- 
heim's work to students wishing to enter upon a con- 
scientious study of one of the greatest poems of all 

Charles Sumner ^HE Life of Charles Sumner, by Anna 
at a maker Laurens Dawes, m the *' Makers of 

0/ America. America" series (Dodd, Mead & 

Co.), is an especially thorough and thoughtful piece 
of work. The style is condensed and " meaty," but 
not always careful or correct. The book contains 
in moderate space a reasonably satisfactory account 
of the stirring times in which Sumner lived and of 
the great struggles in which he was engaged ; and 
yet it never abandons the narrative form nor 
ceases to make him the principal figure. He is 
portrayed fully in his weaknesses as well as in his 
strength. It is evident that the author considers 
Sumner a man great enough to be judged on his 
merits. Though, perhaps, she may be able to 
justify her allusion to the Virginia (sic ) mud in the 
streets of Washington, it would be more difficult to 
justify her implied statement that Milton left his 
autograph in an Italian guest-book in 1600 A.D., — 
that is, eight years before his birth. But notwith- 
standing numerous little slips, many readers will be 
grateful to author and publishers for this cheap, 
succinct, and readable biography of Charles Sumner. 

An injndiciou* 
and onesided 
Kantas History. 

It is a disappointment to find that 
one who knows so much of the early 
history of Kansas as Gov. Charles 
Robinson cannot impart his knowledge better than 
he does in his '< Kansas Conflict" (Harper). The 
book is little better than a series of denunciations 

of all others who took part in the anti-slavery 
movement, in order to exalt himself and Mr. Eli 
Thayer. John Brown, Jim Lane, and President 
Lincoln share alike the vials of Bobinson's wrath ; 
James Redpath, F. B. Sanborn, and other histori- 
ans of the movement, likewise come in for their por- 
tion. The newspapers of the day are largely drawn 
upon for material to pad out the book to double its 
proper dimensions. The future historian of the 
movement will have to search long in this bushel of 
chaff before he finds the kernels of sound and un- 
prejudiced information it unquestionably contains ; 
for the book is not only garrulous but one-sided. 


Cathcart's « Literary Reader " has been for a long 
time one of the best reading books for advanced pupils. 
It has now been still further improved by a new intro- 
duction, several new chapters, and by more extended 
notices of the writers from whom the selections are 
taken. The book is thus adapted more than ever to 
serve as an introduction to English literature. (Amer^ 
lean Book Co.) 

"Browning's Criticism of Life," by William F. 
Revell, and " Walt Whitman," by William Clarke, are 
tw volumes of the " Dilettante Library " (Macmillan). 
The former consists of chapters upon Browning's re- 
ligious thought and philosophy of conduct, rather vague- 
ly put, and leading to nothing very definite. The latter 
is one of the most careful and appreciative studies of 
its subject yet made, both quotations and comments 
being in good taste and suggestive. Americans will 
wince at Mr. Clarke's handling of our civilization, and 
it is not in all respects quite just, but it makes whole- 
some reading. 

Each one of Mr. Howells's inimitable farces seems 
more delightful than its predecessors, and " A Letter 
of Introduction " (Harpers) is simply irresistible in its 
mirth-provoking qualities. The central figure is that 
of the travelling Englishman who waxes enthusiastic 
about everything that seems to him peculiarly Ameri- 
can, and invariably sees a joke within five minutes or 
so of its enunciation. 

GoLDWiN Smith's "A Trip to England" (Mac- 
millan) has been reissued in a neat volume of hardly 
more than vest pocket dimensions. This sketch is at 
times so weighty in its suggest iveness that it has a con- 
siderable element of permanent value. It well illus- 
trates the difference between what the cultivated ob- 
server and the ordinary traveller see in their surround- 

Under the title, " An Edinburgh Eleven" (Lovell, 
Coryell & Co.), J. M. Barrie has drawn an amusing 
series of "pencil portraits from college life." His 
student experiences at Edinburgh gave him a distin- 
guished series of subjects to draw upon, for his gallery 
includes Robert Louis Stevenson, Lord Rosebery, and 
Professors Blackie, Sellar, and Tait. 

Chambers's Encyclopsedia, in its rewritten form, is 
approaching completion, the ninth volume, extending 
well through the letter S, being just published (Lip- 
pincott). Maps of Russia, Scotland, and Spain are in- 
cluded, and a great variety of specially prepared arti- 

Digitized by 





cies by the best authorities. Russia and Siberia are 
treated by Prince Kropotkine, George Sand by George 
Saintsbnry, Seott by Andrew Lang, Shakespeare and 
Shelley by Edward Dowdeu, and the Sonnet by Theo- 
dore Watts. For popular reference use upon all sorts 
of subjects, « Chambers's " leads all the other works of 
its class. 

The volumes of the new Cambridge Shakespeare 
(Macmillan) are appearing in stately succession under 
the editorship of William Aldis Wright, and two more 
(the seventh being now at hand) will complete the 
edition. It is a pleasure merely to look at the beauti- 
ful pages of this work, to say nothing of that afforded 
by reading them. 

The Clarendon Press has issued, in the dignified 
form characteristic of all its publications, a second edi- 
tion of the late Mark Pattison's *< Isaac Casaubon" 
(Macmillan), the work having been for some years 
out of print. There are a few corrections, left in 
manuscript by the author, and some additional notes. 
The editorial supervision of the new edition has been 
undertaken by Professor Nettleship. This biographical 
and critical study was probably the most important 
work of the Rector of Lincoln, and certainly deserved 
to be kept before the public. 

In a royal octavo volume of great beauty, illustrated 
by wood cuts and colored plates, Mr. W. Carew Hazlitt 
has written a history of " The Livery Companies of the 
City of London " (Macniillau). The whole subject is 
discussed in a lengthy preface and general introduc- 
tion, and then the guilds are taken up and described 
one by one. Although the advancing tide of democ- 
racy threatens these companies with destruction, Mr. 
Mazlitt does not regard the menace as at present a 
serious one, but rather looks upon them *<as having 
taken a fresh lease of their existence " owing to their 
recent return '* to that benevolent and religious mission 
which first procured them toleration and power." 

•^Sunshine" is the first of a series of "Nature's 
Story- Books," and is the work of Miss Amy Johnson. 
It is a book of popular science for the young, and is 
mainly devoted to the phenomena of light. In sim- 
plicity of treatment, in variety of experimental illus- 
tration, and in beauty of mechanical production, it is 
the best work of the sort that we have seen. It makes 
one think of the " Boys' Own Books " of a past genera- 
tion, and so realize what one misses through having been 
bom too long ago. (Macmillan.) 


Mr. Theodore Watts makes his contribution to 
the Shelley Centeuary in the form of one of his match- 
less sonnets, published in the September " Magazine of 

The great newspaper distributing and book-selling 
business of W. H. Smith & Son, in its growth and 
present status, is described by a writer in the August 
number of " The English Illustrated Magazine." 

G. P. Putnam's Sons offer to send to any purchaser 
of their edition of the "Talleyrand Memoirs," who 
may apply, a four-page leaflet uf important matter ac- 
cidentally omitted from the work as first published. 

"ScRiBNER*s Magazine "has fallen into line, and 
announces a series of articles on the Columbian Expo- 
sition. The first three will be written by Mr. H. C. 

Bunner, Mr. Franklin MacVeagh, and Mr. Frank D. 
Millet, and their publication will begin with October. 

" Lippincott's " for September is noteworthy as be- 
ing a California number ; that is, all the articles are 
either by Califomians or about their State. Since Cal- 
ifornia has two good magazines of its own, it seems 
hardly fair for an Eastern interloper thus to step in. 

Dr. Hale's interesting account of " A New England 
Boyhood," which began in the August number of the 
" Atlantic Monthly," will continue through the rest of 
the year. It is full of delightful reminiscences of Bos- 
ton people and events, related in the characteristically 
rambling mauner of the author. 

The large amount of manuscript left by Professor 
Freeman is said to include important materials for his- 
tories of Greece and Rome, a work on King Pippin, 
enough matter for a new volume on the Norman Con- 
quest, and, what is still more interesting, matter for 
one or more volumes of the " History of Sicily." 

The announcement of a new Marie Bashkirtseff vol- 
unie, to be made up of diverse sorts of literary and ar- 
tistic remains, seems to evoke other than joyful an- 
ticipations on the part of the critics. "There may 
be people," says the New York " Tribune," dubiously, 
'* who feel an interest in this morbid, hysterical, posing, 
and utterly selfish Russian." The worm will turn. 

The Shakespeare Society of New York announces a 
new four-text <* Hamlet " in an edition limited to 750 
copies, 500 of which are limited to subscribers to the 
« Bankside Shakespeare." The texts of 1603, 1604, and 
1623, will be pnnted parallel with <<a modem eclectic 
text." There will also be a translation of the German 
version of " Hamlet," performed in Dresden in 1826, 
and supposed to have been brought into Germany from 
London by English actors in 1003. This important 
work will be uniform with the " Bankside " volumes. 

Dr. O. W. Holmes's eighty-third birthday was cele- 
brated at his home in Boston, August 29. The poet was 
in good health, and able to give a genial welcome to the 
niiany friends who called on him. Letters and telegrams 
were received from all parts of the world, and also many 
beautiful presents, among the latter being a nautilus 
shell set in silver, and having engraved upon it the first 
stanza of Dr. Holmes's poem <<The Chambered Nau- 
tilus," — the tasteful gift of a Chicago lady. Mr. Whit- 
tier contributed to the occasion a tender and beautiful 
poem addressed to his old friend and fellow-poet, which 
is printed in " The Atlantic " for September. 

The " i^iterary World " translates from the " Revue 
Bleue" the following gem of international literary 
criticism : " The United States of America possesses 
now but two poets, and they belong as much to France 
as to America. I refer to Mr. Stuart Merrill and Mr. 
Francis Viele Griffin. Among the living authors who 
write verses, neither Mr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, not- 
withstanding his physical resemblance to M. Renan, 
nor the old Quaker, Jean Feuille-Verte Whittier, not- 
withstanding his age and the purity of his intentions, 
nor Mmes. Emily Dietz, Emma Lazarus, Ada Isaacs, and 
Zadel Gustafsou, in spite of the gi*eat number of their 
poems — not one of them is a real poet. Nor was 
James Russell Lowell a poet. But, on the contrary, 
Walt Whitman, the magnificent and noble old man who 
has just died, was every inch a poet." The author of 
these sapient remarks is one M. de Wyzega, who is as 
unknown to us as are most of the American ptx'ts 
whom he mentions. 

Digitized by 




[Sept. 1, 

Announcements of Fall, Publications. 

In accordance with its custom at this season of the 
year, The Dial presents below a classified list of the 
books announced for fall and winter publication in the 
United States. In the preparation of this list, great 
care has been taken to make it accurate and compre- 
hensive, but the indefiniteness of the information re- 
ceived in some cases has made classification difficult, 
and it is possible that a few titles may not be found 
under the heading first consulted. The list of juven- 
iles, which is a long one, will not be printed until the 
next issue. Including that list, nearly five hundred 
titles will be given, representing about fifty publishers. 
From this list new editions which are to be mere re- 
productions of earlier volumes have been excluded, but 
all reprints that are to appear in new form — as to 
typography, illustration, notes, or editing — are in- 
cluded, and, in case the text of a work has been rewrit- 
ten or extensively revised, it is placed in its appropriate 
category as a new book. Experience has shown us that 
this list is appreciated by our readers genei*ally, and 
that it has been found especially useful by librarians 
and others who need to know what books are in pros- 
pect in order to know what to buy. In view of these 
facts, we feel justified in giving the list the extended 
space that it requires. Embracing, as it does, the bulk 
of the important publications of the year, it is of course 
full of interest for the student of our current literature 
and its tendencies. Some more extended analyses and 
summaries of the list, with comments on features of 
especial interest, would be desirable, but lack of space 
compels us to leave this task to the reader, who will find 
here abundant material for his generalizations and re- 
fiections. The list as a whole is a good one, — creditable 
alike to American publishers and to the public from 
which their support and encouragement is derived. 


Three Episodes in Massachusetts History, by Charles Francis 
Adams, in two volumes, with maps, $4.00.— CsBsar, a his- 
tory of the art of war among the Romans, by Theodore 
A. Dodffe, U. S. A., illus., $ri.OO.— Pa^pm and Christian 
Rome, Rodolpho Lanciani, illns.— Essays, Historical and 
Political, by Henry Cabot Lodgre.— The Eve of the French 
Revolution, by Edward J. Lowell, $2.00.— France Under 
the Regency, and the Administration of Louis XIV., by 
James B. Perkins, $2.00. ( Houghton, Mi£ain & Co. i 

The French War and the Revolution, by Wm. M. Sloane, 
with maps, *' American History Series," $1.2.5.— Bernard 
of Clairvaux, the Times, the Man, and His Work, a his- 
torical stndy, by R. S. Storrs, D. D.— The Refounding of 
the German Empire, by Col. G. B. Malleson, with portraits 
on copper, $1 .75. ( Charles Scribner's Sons. ; 

The Empire of the Tsars and the Russians, translated from 
the French of Anatole Leroy-Beaulieu, by Z. A. Ragozin, 
with annotations; in 3 vols., with maps.— The Story of 
Sicily, by E. A. Freeman ; The Story of the Tuscan Re- 
puJbHcs, by Isabella Duffy ; The Story of Poland, by W. R. 
MorfiU ; Story of Nations Series, each, 1 vol., $1.50.— Out- 
lines of Roman History, by Prof. Henry F. Pelhara, $1.2.'>.' 
—A French Ambassador at the Court of Charles II., Le 
Comte de Cominges, edited by J. J. Jusserand, from Com- 
inge's unpublished correspondence, illus., $3.50. — The 
Coming ot the Friars, and other mediaeval sketches, new 
edition, $1.2.'.. (G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 

Tlie Story of Columbus, first volume in the Delights of His- 
tory series. —El Dorado, or Pictures of the Spanish Occu- 
pancy in America, by Prof. A. F. Bandelier.— The War- 
riors of the Crescent, by W. Davenport Adams.— Pictures 
from Roman Life and Story, by Prof. A. I. Church. 
(D. Appleton & Co.) 

America, its Geographical History, 141)2 to the present, by 
Dr. Walter B. Scaife, illus., $1 .50. i Johns Hopkins Press. I 

London, a portrayal of the city and its people, fzona age to 
age, by Walter Beeant, iJloB. { Harper & Bros. ) 

Persia and the Persian Queetion, by the Hon. George N. Cur- 
zon, in 2 vols., with many illnstrations. — Twenty-five Yean 
of St. Andrews, Vol. II., I'm^ to 1890, by A. K. H. B.— 
Fifty Years in the Making of Australian History, by Sir 
Henry Parkes, late Premier of New South Wales. — A 
School History of India, by G. U. Pope, i Longmans, Green 
& Co. I 

The Influence of Sea Power upon the French Revolution, by 
Capt. A. T. Mahan, U. S. N., in 2 vols., $6.-A Half Cen- 
tury of Conflict, bv Francis Parkman, in 2 vols., with 
maps, $5. (Little, Brown <& Co. ) 

The Makers of Venice: Doges, Conquerors, Painters, and 
Men of Letters, by Mrs. Oliphant, limited edition, pro- 
fusely iU us.- Life in Ancient Egypt, tr. from the German 
of Prof. Erman, by Mrs. Tirard, profusely illus. (Maemil- 
lan & Co. ) 

Fronoe in the Nineteenth Century, 18.10 tx) 18<)0, by Elizabeth 
Worftiely Latimer, with portnuts, $2.50. (A. C. McClnrg 

The Queens of England, bv Agnes Strickland, new edition 
from newplates, in 8 vols., fully illus., $16.— Itinerary of 
General Washington, from June 15, 1775, to Dec. 23, 17K:^, 
compiled by William S. Baker, with portrait, $2.50. (J. B. 
Lippincott Co.) 

Ridpath's History of the United States, new ''Columbian 
edition," revised and enlarged, illus., $3.75. (Charles E. 
Brown <& Co.) 

400 Years of American History, 141)2 to 1802, by Prof. Jacob 
Harris Patton, in 2 vols., $5. (Fords, Howard <& Hulbert.) 

Writings of Christopher Columbus, edited, with introduction, 
by Paul Leicester Ford, with portrait, 75 cents. ( C. L. 
Webster & Co. ) 

History of Brazil, by John C. Redman and William Eleroy 
Curtis, $2.60. — History of Argentina, by Mary Aplin 
Sprague, $2.50. -History of Bolivia, by T. H. Anderson. 
$2.50. ''Latin-American Republics.'' ( C. H. Sergei <& Co.) 

Biography and Memoirs. 

The Life and Writings of Jared Sparks, by Herbert B. 
Adams, Ph.D., in 2 vols., with portraits, $5.00. ( Hough- 
ton, Mifflin &. Co. i 

The Life and Letters of Washington Allston, by Jared B. 
Flagg, illus.- Three volumes on the Duchess of Berry in 
the " Famous Women of the French Court Series,'' eacn, 1 
vol., with portrait, $1.25.— Dean Swift, some account of 
his life, with extracts from his writings, by G. P. Moriarty, 
with portraits on copper, $2.50. ( Charles ocribner's Sons. .) 

John Wyclif , Last of the Schoolmen and First of the English 
Reformers, by Lewis Sergeant; Napoleon, Warrior and 
Ruler, by W. O'Connor Morris ; each 1 vol. in the " Heroes 
of the Nations " series, illus., $1.50.— The Life and Works 
of Louis Agassiz, b^ Charles F. Holder, in the " Leaders 
of Science" series, illus., $1.50. (G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 

Abraham Lincoln, by William H. Hemdon and Jesse W. 
Weik, in 2 vols., illus.— The Great Commanders Series, 
edited by James Grant Wilson, a series of popular bio^ 
raphies, of which the first volumes will be lives of Admi- 
ral Farragut by Capt. A. T. Mahan, General Taylor bv 
Gen. O. O. Howard, Gen. Jackson by James Parton L®f^^ 
vol. with steel portrait. — The Story of Columbus, by Eliza- 
beth Eggleston Seelye, edited by Dr. Edward Eggleston, 
illus., " Delights of History Series." (D. Appleton & Co. » 

Memoirs of the Life of Henry Van Schaack, embracing selec- 
tions from his correspondence, by his nephew, Henry C. 
Van Schaack, $2.00. (A. C. McClurg A Co.) 

Abraham Lincoln, by C. C. Coffin, illus., $^{.00. ( Harper 

Nicholas Ferrar, with preface by the Rev. T. T. Carter, with 
portrait. (Longmans, Green & Co.) 

The Diary^ and Letters of Madame D' Arblay (Frances Bur- 
ney), with introduction by W. C. Ward, and prefaced by 
Lord Macaulay's Essay ; with portraits, in 3 vols., " Chan- 
dos Classics." $2.25. (F. Wame & Co.) 

Lord Wolseley, and the Earl of Shaftesbury, new volume in 
" Men with a Mission " Series. (Thomas Whittaker.) 

Life of Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, by Robert 
Browning, with introduction by C. H. Frith and other 
material from new documents ; limited American edition, 
$2.00. — Mary, Queen of Scots, b^ Rosalie Kaufmann, illus., 
$2.00. — Life on the Circuit with Lincoln, by Henrv C. 
Whitney, illus., $3.00. (Estes & Lauriat.) 

Digitized by 





Aatobiocrraphia, by Walt Whitman, edited by Arthur Sted- 

man, 75 ota. (C. L. Webster <& Co. I 
Life of Christian Daniel Ranch, Sculptor, of Berlin, Germany, 

by Ednah D. Cheney, illus., i^i,00. (Lee & 8hepard.) 
Ignatius Donnelly, a biography, by Everett W. Fish. (F. J. 

Schulte & Co. I 
The Youth of Frederick the Great, translated from the 

French of Ernest Sorbonne, by Mary Bushnell Coleman. 

(S. C. Griggs & Co.) 
^leoTge Eliot and her Early Home, by Miss Swinnerton, illus., 

$3.50. (R. Tuck & Sons Co.) 

Literary Miscellany. 

The Writings and Correspondence of Thomas Jefferson, ed- 
ited by Faul Leicester Ford, Vol. I. (to be complete in 10 
vols.), $5.00. — The Writings and Correspondence of John 
Jay, edited by Henry P. Johnston, fourth and last vol., 
?f5.00. — The Writings of George Washington, edited by 
Worthington C. Ford, fourteenth and last vol., $5.00— The 
Wit and Wisdom of Charles Lamb, compiled by Ernest 
Dressell North, with portrait, $1.00.- Induin Fairy Tales, 
collected and edited by Joseph Jacobs, illus., $1.75. — 
Deutsche Volkslieder, German folk-songs, in the original 
text, compiled by H. S. White, $1.50.— The Writings of 
Thomas Paine, edited by M. D. Conway, in 2 vols. (G. P. 
Putnam^s Sons.) 

Prose Idylls, by John Albee.— Natural History of Intellect, 
and other papers, a new volume by Ralph Waldo 
Emerson, with general index to Emerson^s works, $1.75. 
—The Nature and Elements of Poetry, by Edmund Clar- 
ence Stedman, with topic analysis and index, $1.50. — Au- 
tumn, a new volume from the Journals of Thoreau, edited 
by H. G. O. BUke, $1.50. ( Houghton, Mifflin <& Co. I 

Tales from Ten Poets, done into prose by EUurison S. Morris, 
in 3 vob., illus., a vols., $.'i. 00.— Tales from the Dramat- 
tiats,^ by Charles Morris, in 4 vols., illus., $4.(X). (J. B. 
Lippincott Co.) 

The Library, by Andrew Lang, with a chapter on Modem 
English Illustrated Books, by Austin Dobson, limited edi- 
tion. (Macmillan & Co. ) 

A Selection from the Letters of Geraldine Jeweburrv to Jane 
Welsh Carlyle, edited by Mrs. Alexander Ireland. — After 
Twenty Years, a collection of reprinted pieces, by Julian 
Stuigis, $1 .00.— Essays and Lectures, by the late Canon 
Lidoon. (Longmans, Gre^n & Co.) 

Americanisms and Briticisms, with other essays on other 
** isms," by Brander Matthews, $1.00. ( Charles Scribner^s 

Essavs of Education and Culture, by W. H. Venable, $1.50. 
( Lee & Shepard. ) 

Heferences for Literary Workers, by Prof. Henry Watson. — 
The Best Letters of Percy Bysshe Shelley, edited, with 
an introduction, by Shirley C. Hughson, '* Laurel- 
Crowned Letters," $1.00.— The Best Letters of William 
Cowper, edited, with an introduction, by Anna Benneson 
McMahan, ''Laurel-Crowned Letters," $1.00. (A. C. 
McClurg & Co.) 

Blarly Bibles of America, a chapter in Bibliography, by John 
Wright, D. D. (Thomas Whittaker. \ 

Essays in Miniature, by Agnes Repplier, 75 cts. (C. L. 
Webster <& Co.) 

Selected Speeches of Daniel Webster, edited by A. J. George. 
(D. C. Heath & Co. I 

'Chesterfield^s Wit and Wisdom, maxims from his letters, 
with portrait, $1.25. (Worthington Co.) 

Literature and Language. 

The Old English Dramatists, six .lectures by James Russell 
Lowell. < Houghton, Mifflin <& Co. I 

Outlines of English Literature, by William Ren ton, *^ Uni- 
versity Extension Manuals," $1.00. (Charles Scribner^s 
Sons. I 

Representative English Literature, selected by Henry S. 
Pancoast.- English Literature, by the late Bemhard Ten 
Brink, second volume. — German Literature in its Chief 
Epochs, by Prof. Kuno Francke. — Elements of German 
Svntax, by Prof. H. C. G. von Jagemann.— A Minimum 
French Grammar, by Prof. E. S. Joynes. (Henry 
Holt & Co.) 

Familiar Talks on English Literature, by Abby Sage Rich- 
ardson, new thoroughly revised edition, $1.50. — How Do 
You Spell It? or. Words as They Look, by W. C. T. 
Hyde. (A. C. McClurg & Co.) 

A History of Early English Literature, by Stopford A. 
Brooke. (Macmillan <& Co. ) 

The Art of Poetry, the treatises of Horace, Vida, and Boi- 
leau, edited by Prof. Albert S. Cook. — Addison's Criti- 
cisms on Paradise Lost^ edited by Prof. Albert S. Cook. — 
The Classic Myths in English Literature, by Prof. Charles 
Mills Gayle^.— Analytics of English Prose and Poetry, 
by Prof. L. A. Sherman. (Ginn <& Co.) 

Essays on the Teachins: of Modem Langiuiges, by well- 
known American Professors.— An English Grammar, with 
continuous selections for practice, by Harriet Matthews. 
(D. C. Heath & Co.) 

The Best Reading, fourth series, including the publications 
of the years 1887—1891, ss^l.OO. (G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 


At the Beautiful Gate, with songs and aspirations, by Lucy 
Larcom, $1.00.— The song of the Ancient People, by 
Edna Dean Proctor, illus. in color. — Songs of Sunrise 
Lands, by Clinton ScoUard, $1.00.— At Sundown, a new 
volume of poems by J. G. Whittier, illus. by Garrett, 
$1.50. ( Houghton, Mifflin <& Co. i 

South Sea Idylls, by Charles Warren Stoddard, *l .50.— Un- 
der the Evenin^^ Lamp, by Richard Henry Stoddard. — 
Sones about Life, Love, and Death, by Anne Reeve Al- 
drich, $1 .25. ( Charles Scribner's Sons. ) 

Lyrics and Ballads of Heine, Goethe, and Other German 
Poets, translated by Frances Hellman. — The Dream of 
Art, and Other Poems, by Espy Williams, $1.00. (G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. I 

Three^ Centuries of English Love Songs, edited by Ralph 
Caine. (D. Appleton ife Co.) 

Lyric I-ioye, an Anthology, edited by William Watson, with 
steel vignette after Stothard. ( Macmillan & Co. ) 

Poems by Helen Jackson (H. H.), new complete edition, 
illus., $3.00.— Jean Ingelow's Complete Poetical Works, 
in two vols., illus., $.*i.()0.— Philip Bourke Marston's Com- 
plete Poems, edited, with a memoir, by Mrs. Louise C. 
Moulton, with portrait, ^2.(X). (Roberts Bros.) 

By the Atlantic, later poems, by I. 1). Van Duzee, $2.00. 
(Lee & Shepard.) 

Athelwold, a tragedy in five acts, by Am^lie Rives Chanler, 
illus. I Harper <& Bros, i 

King Poppy, by Owen Meredith (the late Lord Lytton), a 
new volume of poems. (Longmans, Green & Co.; 

Echoes from the Sabine Farm, being certain Horatian Lpnrics 
done into English by Eugene and Roswell M. Field, illus. 
by Garrett. — Valeria, and Other Poems, by Harriet Mon- 
roe.— Eleusis, and Lesser Poems, by William Rufus Per- 
kins, $1.00.— Poetry of the Gathered Years, compiled by M. 
H., $1.00.— Some Rhymes of Ironquill of Kansas, $1.(X).— 
Songs and Sonnets, and Other Pieces, by Maurice Francis 
Egan, $1.00. ( A. C. McClurg & Co.) 

Poems Antique and Modern. A Book of Day Dreams, and 
The Banauet of Palacios, three volumes of verse bv Charles 
Leonard Moore, Dr. Weir Mitchell's '* new poet.'' (Henrj* 
Holt & Co.) 


David Alden's Daughter, and Other Stories of Colonial 
Times, by Jane G. Austen, $1.25. — Jachary Phips, a novel, 
by Edwin Lasseter Bynner, $1.25.— The Story of a Child, 
by Margaret Deland, $1.25. — The Chosen Valley, a novel, 
by Mary Hallock Foote.— Uncle Remus and His Friends, 
by Joel Chandler Harris. — Winterborough, by Eliza Ome 
White, $1.25. i Houghton, Mifflin & Co. i 

Marse Chan, by T. N. Page, illus. by Smedley, $1.50.— The 
Beach of Palest, and the Bottle Imp, by Robert Louis 
Stevenson. ( Charles Scribner's Sons. ) 

The Ivory Gate, a novel, by Walter Besant, $1.25. ( Harper 
& Bros. I 

From Dusk to Dawn, by Katharine P. Woods.- A new volume 
of Stories by Rudyard Kioliner. -God's Fool, by Maarten 
Maartens.— A Stumble on the Threshold, by James Payn. — 
Mrs. Bligh, by Rhoda Broughton.- Passing the Love of 
Women, by Mrs. J. H. Needell. (D. Appleton &. Co.) 

The Initials, by Baroness Tautphoens, in 2 vols.. S2..")0.— An 
Artist in Crime, by R. Ottolengui, $1.00. (G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons.) 

Crow's Nest and Belhaven Tails, stories by Mrs. Burton Har- 
rison, illus.. $1.25.— Old Ways and New, stories by Viola 
Roseboro, illus., $1.25. —Characteristics, bv Dr. Weir 
Mitchell, $1.25.— The ChateUine of LaTrinit'^, by Henry 
B. Fuller, illus., $1.2.->. (Century Co.) 

Digitized by 

Google _ 



[Sept. 1, 

Maid Mariftn and Robin Hood, by J. £. Mnrdock, illiis.« $1.50. 

— The Dra^fon of Wantley, a romance, by Owen Wister, 

illiu., $2.00. (J. B. Lippincott Co.) 
Don Orsino, by Marion Crawford. — Children of the Kine, by 

Marion Crawford.— Under Pressure, by Marchess Theo- 

doli. — Helen Treveryan, by John Hoy. (Maomillan &Co.) 
The New Adam and Eve, a story, by C. J. Hyne, $1.00. 

(Longmans, Green & Co.) 
The Admirars Last Voyages, by Charles Paul MacKie, $1 .75. 

—Other Things being Equal, by Emma Wolf, $1.00.— 

Marianela, a story of Spanish love, translated from Spanish 

of B. Perez Galdos, by Helen W. Lester, $1.00. (A. C. 

McClurg & Co.) 
An Erring Woman's Love, by Ella Wheeler Wilcox, $2.50.— 

Woman Thro' a Man's £ye Glass, by Malcolm C. Salo- 

man, illus., $1.25. — The Other House, by Kate Jordan, 

illus., $1.25.— Army Tales, by John Strange Winter, 

$1.00.— The White Feather, by Tasma, $1.00. (Lovell, 

Coryell & Co. i 
John Paget, by Miss S. B. Eliott, author of " Jerrv.'' — ^Jack 

o' Doon, a story of the Carolina coast, by Mrs. Maria 

Beales. ( Henry Holt & Co.) 
The American Claimant, a romance by Mark Twain, illns., 

$1.50.— Georgia Stories, by Richard Malcolm Johnston, 

75 cts. (C. L. Webster & Co.) 
East and West, a stoiy of New-bom Ohio, by Edward Ever- 
ett Hale, $1.00. — List, ye Landsmen 1 a romance, by W. 

Clark Russell, $1.00.— 'Tween Snow and Fire, a Kaffir 

Border Tale, by Bertrand Milford, $1.00.— A new paper 

series to be called Cassell's Pocket Library, per number, 

15 cts. (Cassell Publishing Co.) 
A Woman's Philosophy of Love, by Caroline F. Corbin, $1 .50. 

(Lee & Shepard.) 
Prairie People, a collection of short stories by Hamlin Gar- 

knd, $1.25.— American Push, by Edgar Fawcett, $1.25. 

—A Lodi Girl, by Forest Crissey, $1.25. (F. J. Schulte 

The Hungarian Girl, translated from the German, by S. £. 

Baggs, illus., $1.00.— A new novel by Harold Frederic. 

(Robert Bonner's Sons. ) 
Roland Graeme, Knight, by Agnes M. Machar, $1 .00. (Fords, 

Howard <& Hulbert.) 
East and West, a novel, by Mrs. Homer Reed. (C. H. Sergei 

& Co.) 

Theology and Religion. 

The Swiss Reformation, Vol. VH. in the History of the 
Christian Church, by Philip Schaff, D.D., illus. — Chris- 
tian Ethics, by Newman Smith, D.D., $2.50.— The 
Teachings of Jesiui, by Hans Heinrich Wendt, D. D., 
translated by Rev. John Wilson, Vol. XL, $2.50. ( Charles 
Scribner's Sons. I 

Scenes from the Life of Christ, pictured in Holy Word and 
Sacred Art, edited by Jessica Cone. — What Is the Bible ? 
by Rev. J. T. Sunderland, new revised edition.— The 
Chureh in the Roman Empire, A. D. (>*-170, by Prof. W. H. 
Ramsay. (G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 

The Love of the World, a Book of Religions Meditation, by 
Mary Emily Case, $1.00. (Century Co.) 

Guide to the Knowledge of God, translated from the French 
of Prof. A. Gatry, by Abby Langdon Alger, $3.00. (Rob- 
erts Bros.) 

St. Peter and the First Years of Christianity, translated from 
the French of the Abb4 Fouard, bv G. F. X. Griffith.- 
Sermons, by the Rt. Rev. Ashton^ Ozenden, D.D., with a 
memoir and portrait. — The Origin and Development of 
Religious Belief, by Rev. S. Baring-pould, new edition in 
2 parts. ( Longmans, Green & Co. 

The Indwelling Christ, and Other Sermons, by Henry Allen, 
D.D., $1.75.— Christianity Between Sundays, by Rev. 
George Hod^. — Aids to the Devout Study of Criticism, 
by Rev. T. K. Cheyne, $2.5<).— Sermons, by Charles Had- 
don Spurgeon, $1.00. (Thomas Whittaker.) 

The Historical Prayer Book, edited by Rev. J. Cornford, 
$2.00.— History of the Chureh in Eastern Canada, 5^1 .(K).— 
Round the Konnd World on a Church Mission, illns. — The 
Bible and the Monuments, by Rev. A. H. Sayce. (£. & 
J. B. Young & Co.) 

History of the Chureh in Spain, by F. Meyrick, M.A., with 
index and maps, $2.00.— History of the Chureh in Ireland, 
by Thomas Ogden, M. A., with index and maps, $2.<M>. 
— How God Inspired the Bible, a book for, the times, by 
J. Patterson Smythe.— Elements of Moral Theology, by 
the Rev. J. J. EIraendorf, $2.50. (James Pott & Co.) 

ery Day of 
Crowell & Co. J 

No ** Beginning," or the Fundamental Fallacy, by William H. 
Maple. (C.H. Kerr&Co.j 

Bible Studies, readings in the Old Testament, with charac- 
teristic comment by Henry Ward Beecher, edited by John 
R. Howard, $1.50. (Fords, Howard & Hulbert.) 

Daily Pravers for the Household for a Month, by Rev. J. 
Oswald Dykes, $1.50. (Thos. Nebon A Sons.) 

Faith-Healing, Christian Science, and Kindred Phenomena, 
by Rev. J. M. Buckley, $1.25. ( Century Co.) 

Travel, Description, and Adventure. 

An American Missionary in Japan^ by M. L. GJordon, M. D. — 
Japan, lU History, Folklore, and Art, by W. E. Griffis, 
D.D.^ 75 cents.— In the Levant, by Charles Dudley 
Warner, illus. in photogravure, in 2 vols., $5.00. i Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co. J 

The Great Streets of the World, articles by Richard Hard- 
ing Davis, Andrew Lang, and others, profusely illus., 
$4.00.— The Armies of the World, illus., by De Thul- 
strup. — Afloat and Ashore on the Mediterranean, by Lee 
Merriwether. illus.— Spanish Cities, by Charles Augnstua 
Stodddrd, illus., $1.50.— Blackfoot Lodge Tales, by 
George B. Grinnell, illus. I Charles Scribner's Sons. ) 

The Danube, from the Black Forest to the Black Sea, bvF. 
D. Millet, illus. by author and Alfred Parsons. — The- 
Praise of Paris, by Theodore Child, illus. (Harper A 

Notes by a Naturalist, observations during a voyage round 
the world in the year 1872-G, by H. N. Moseley, M.A., 
new revised edition, illus., $2.5(V— Notes for the Nile, with 
a metrical rendering of the Hymns of Ancient Egypt, by 
Hardwicke D. Rawnsley, $1.50. — Studies of Trav^ in 
Greece and Italy, by the late E. A. Freeman.— Short 
Stalks, hunting trips North, South, East, and West, by 
Edward North Buxton, illus. (G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 

Play in Provence, by Joseph and Elizabeth Robins Pennell, 
illns., $1.50.— Some Strange Corners of Our Country, by 
Charles F. Lummis, illus., $1.50. (Century Co.) 

The Oregon Trail, sketches of prairie and Rocky Mountain 
life, by Francis Parkman, with new introduction by au- 
thor, illus. by Remington, $4.00. (Little, Brown & Co. I 

Deer^Stalking in the Highlands of Scotland, by the late Lt- 
Gen. H. H. Crealock, edited by his brother. Maj.-Gen. J. 
J. N. Crealock, profusely illus.— The Ruined Cities of 
Mashonaland, a record of exploration, 1891-2, by J. Theo- 
dore Bent, illus. (Longmans, Green & Co.) 

To England and Back, a Winter Vacation, by Canon Knowles, 
with portrait, $1.00.— Our Cycling Tour in England, by 
Reuben G. Thwaites, illus., $1.50. (A. C. McClurg <fe Co.) 

The Heart of Europe, from the Rhine to tlie Danube, by Leo 
De Colanange, illus. $2.00.— Rome of To-day and Yester- 
day, by John Denuie, illus., $2.50. — Genoa the Superb, tiie 
City of Columbus, by Virginia W. Johnson, illus., $3.00. 
(Estes & Lauriat.) 

Paddles and Politics down the Danube, by Poultney Bigelow, 
illus., 75 cts.— Under Sumnier Skies, a ramble through 
Egypt, Palestine, Italy, and the Alps, by Clinton Scollard, 
illus., $1.00. (C. L. Webster & Co.) 

Science and Nature. 

Man and the Glacial Period, by G. Frederick Wright, illus., 
'* International Scientific Series." ( D. Appleton & Co.) 

Favorite Flies and their Histories, by Mary E. Orvis Mar- 
bury, profusely illus., 5^5.00.- The Foot-Path Way, by 
Bradford Torrey, $1.25.— Religious and Scientific Har- 
monies, by Professor N. S. Sh^er. ( Houghton, Mifflin 
& Co. ) 

Hygienic Measures in Relation to Infectious Diseases, by 
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Topics ix IjEAding Perioi>ic'Als. 

September, 1892, 

Accidents, Incalculable. W. A. Eddy. Popular Science. 
American Architecture, Recent. Bryan Lathrop. Dial, 
American Home in Europe, An. W. H. Bishop. Atlantic, 
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Bibliolatry, Decline of. T. H. Huxley. Popular Science. 
Blind^s Education, The. IUus. Mrs. F. R. Jones. Scribner. 
Brifpht, John. Charles McLaren. North American, 
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California Eras. H. H. Bancroft. Lippincott, 
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Chapman. James Russell Lowell. Harper. 
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Chicago^s Convention. Illus. M. Halstead. Cosmopolitan. 
Chicago University, The. Dial. 

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Education, Southern. Illus. C. W. Dabney, Jr. Cosmopol, 
Electioneering, English. H. W. Lucy. North American. 
Farallones Islands, San Francisco. Illus. Overland, 
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Fox Hunting. Illus. E. S. Martin. Harper. 
French Art. Illus. W. C. Brownell. Scribner. 
Garza Raid, The. M. Romero, North American. 
Geography and Science. A. D. White. Popular Science. 
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Giddings, Joshua R. Samuel Willard. Dial. 
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Printed in two colors at the DeVinne Press. Title- 
page designed by Roush. Sub-titles, initial let- 
ters, and bordei*s printed in red. The Service 
and Certificate in red and black. Blank pages 
for signature of Bridal Party and friends, with 
rules to pages. Beautifully bound in white 
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cate blue. The Service said from this book 
a makes a most complete and beautiful souvenir 
of the Wedding. 

There are two editions: "A," one with certifi- 
cate for Protestant Episcopal Church, " B," suita- 
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White Uatheretiey bevelled y silver and gold ^ f .75 
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Based on the Summa Theologiae of St. Thomas 
Aquinas. By the Rev. John J. Elmendobf, 
S.T.D., lecturer in Moral Theology at the West- 
ern Theological Seminary, Chicago, and late Pro- 
fessor of Mental Philosophy in Racine College. 
"The Literature of the Chnroh in flngland and America 
has never been supplied bj a work of this kind. The moral 
teaching of this great writer is of a different character than 
that of the prevailing teaching of the Jesuits. The Ute 
Bishop Hopkins is quoted as saying he never consulted the 
works of the * Angelic Doctor ' without being satisfied on the 
point which he was investigating. This work will deal with 
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Lmrge 12mo, 650 pages, with copious index, etc., bound in 
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A Manual for Candidates for Confirmation and 
Holy Communion. By the Rev. Walker 
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trine," etc. {In press.) 

An Essay on the Life of the Soul Between 
Death and Resurrection. By the Rev. Walker 
GwYXNE. ( In press. ) 

Being an Abridgement of Presbyterian Minister 
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By R. L. garner. 

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** The Speech of Monkeys " embodies his researches up to 
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Binninghun . 
MobUe. . . 

. T. 8. Bidgood & Co. 

Montgomery . 

. Joel White. 


Phoenix . . 

. St. Claire & Pratt. 

Tucaon . . . 

. L. Zeckendorf & Co. 


Fort Smith . 

. J. D. Van Winkle & Co. 

Helena. . . 

Little Rock . 

. E. A. Doughw. 

. Wilson & Webb Co. 

Pine Bluflr . 

. W. L. Dewoody. 


Berkeley . . 

. A. B.Merrm. 

Eureka . . 

. J. K Matthews. 

Los Angeles . 
Oakland . . 

. StoU& Thayer. 
. W. B. Hardy. 

Pasadena . . 

. H. H. Sueseerott. 

Riyerdde . . 

. J. W. Stanton St Son. 

Sacramento . 

. Winstock,Lubm&Co. 

SanlMego . 

. M. A. Wertheimer & Co. 

San Francisco 

. Payot, Upham & Co. 

San Jose . . 

. E.B. Lewis. 

Santa Barbara 

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Stockton . . 

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Boulder . . 

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. A. G. Ilarle. 

Colo. Springs 

Denver . . 

. Stone & Locke Book Co. 

Leadville . . 

. John NowUnd & Co. 

Hauitou . . 

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Pueblo. . . 

. J. J. Stanchfield A Bro. 

Trinidad . . 

. N. W. Fisher. 


s^r : 

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Middletown . 

. L. R. Hazen. 

NewHaren . 

. T. H. Pease & Sou. 

New London . 

. Daniel R. Loosley. 

Norwich . . 

. NoyesJ^DavU. 

Waterbury . 

. George N.EUs. 


Dover . . . 

. Clark & McDaniel. 

NewCasUe . 

. L. M. Chase & Son. 

Wilmington . 

. E. S. R. Butler & Son. 


Washington . 

. Wm BaUantyne & Son. 


Jackaonville . 

. H. Drew A Brother. 

Key West. . 

. Horatio Grain. 


. Dow&Coe. 

St. AugusUne 

. Charles E. Mackey. 

Tallahassee . 

. E. W.Clark. 


AtlauU . . 

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Augusta . . 

. Richards* Shaver. 


. J. W. Pease A Son. 

Macon . . . 

. J. W. Burke A Co. 

Savannah . . 

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Boise City . 

. J. A. Plnney & Co. 

Hailey . . . 

. Steward Bros. 

Lewiston . . 

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Alton . . . 

. Charles Holdeu. 

.\inboy . . . 

. W. C. Mellon. 

Aurora . . . 

. W.H.Watson. 

Belleville . . 

. A. T. Primm. 


. R. C. Rogers & Co. 

Cairo . . . 

. James Coleman. 

Canton . . . 

. W. H. Corwm. 

Centralia . . 

. Joseph Hefter. 

Champaign . 

. A. C. McClurg & Co. 

Chicago . . 

. W. R. Hill. . 

« .' .' 

. Charles McDonald A Co. 

** . . 

. Brentano's. 

Danville . . 

. James H. Madden. 

Decatur . . 

. W.E. Hubbard. 

Dixon . . . 

. Truman & Co. 

East St. Jiouis 

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Elgin . . . 

. Charles A. Stone. 

Evanston . . 

. George W. Muir. 

I'Yeeport . . 

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ILLINOIS— Coimnuso. 

Galena . . 
Homer . . 
JoUet . . 
Knoxville . 
LaSaUe . 
Litchfield . 
Macomb . 
Moline . . 
Olney . 
Pekin . 
Peoria . 
Quincy . 
Rock Island 
Sterling . 
Streator . 
Virginia . 

Anderson . 

, Columbus 
I Crawfordsville 
I Elkhart 


Fort Wayne 




I Indianapolis 

I Kokomo . 
I Lafayette . 

La Porte . 


Madison . 

Marion . . 


New Albany 

Peru . . 

, Rushville . 
I South Bend 
I Terre Haute 
I Union City 


I Wabash . 

AlbU . . 
Atlantic . 
Boone . . 
Cedar Rapids 
I Charles City 
Council BlufTs 
Decorah . 
Dea Moines 
Dubuque . 
Fairfield . 
Fort Dodge 
Fort Madison 

Iowa City . 

C. E. HaUe & Co. 
Francis Carey. 
E. T. Mudge. 
Catlin & Co. 

E. M. Bray. 

F. E. Bellamy. 

F. D. Huggins. 
James E. Mal(me. 
Charles G. Reed. 
Hood & Son. 

E H. Black. 

Richards & Sohrbeck. 

McQuiston & Son. 

Coe & Shaw. 

WilUam Bower. 

Hapeman & Graham. 

Wm. Blenkiron. 

Brown, Page & Hillman Co. 

J. L. Spear. 

J. S. Murphy & Co. 

C. F. Anderson. 

Dayton Book Co. 

A. W. Hartong. 

H. H. Waldo. 

Crampton & Co. 

Joel B. Brown. 

Bates & Conant. 

Frank C. Minor. 

W. R. Wood. 

G. S. Wheeler. 
C. K. Charlton. 
L. T. Hoy. 

Buck, Brickley & Co. 
J. H. Dowden. 
George E. Ellis. 
Robinson & Wallace. 

A. E. Babb. 

Smith & Butterfleld. 
Geo. De Wald & Co. 
Coulter, Given &. Co. 
Dwight H. Hawks. 
C. W. Landis & Co. 
H. H. Drover. 
Bowen, Merrill Co. 
Charles A. SchimpflT. 
Harbster & Cole. 
John Kimmel. 
La Porte Book Co. 
W. T. Giffe. 

B. F. & W. W. CaUoway. 
G. C. Brown. 

Stewart & Stewart. 
E. R, Day. 
John S. Crume. 

C. T. Moorman. 
W. J. Wait & Co. 
Liebelt Brothers. 
J. Q. Button & Co. 
Swain & NorveU. 
B. F. Perrine. 

M. A. Salishury. 
W. Davidson. 
Lynn & Leedy. 
J. N. Jones. 

H. D. Knox. 
Palmer & Findlay. 
G. H. Welch. 
M%uro & Wilson. 
Wise & Bryant. 
E. R. Derby. 
Duffleld Brothers. 
Miles Brothers. 
H. O. Jones. 
Joseph C. De Haven. 
Fred Alleu. 
E. M. White. 
E. I. WeLser. 
Redhead, Norton & Co. 
G. B. Grosvenor. 
Bradshaw & Thoma. 
R. W. Crawford & Co. 
R. W. Albright & Son. 
J. G. Johnson & Co. 
Snider & Co. 
L. D. Lane. 
B. W. Tabor. 
Lee & Ries. 
Lee, Welch & Co. 

Lvons . . . 
Mason City 
Mt Pleasant 
Ottumwa . 
RedOak . 
Sioux City 
Vinton . . 
Waterloo . 

IOWA— CoiminJBD. 

Arkansas City 
Atchison . 
Clay Centre 
El Dorado 
Emporia . 
Fort Scott 
Fredonia . 
Hiawatha . 
lohi . 

Junction City 
Kansas City 
Lawrence . 
Olathe . 
SaUna . 
Seneca . 

Bowling Green 


, Lexington 
I Louisville. 

I Newport . 
Paducah . 

Baton Rouge 
New Orleans 

.\ugiuta . 

Eastjport . 

Lewiston . 

Portland . 

Amherst . 
Andover . 
Boston . . 

Fall River 
Haverhill . 
Lawrence . 
Lowell . . 
Lyrm . . 
New Bedford 
Pittsfleld . 
Quincy . . 
Salem . . 
Taunton . 

. D. G. Lowry. 

. Sartori A Pf eilTer. 

. W. W. BueU&Co. 

. G. P. Powers & Co. 

. W. H. Lyman. 

. SarventA lines. 

. Neidig & Leysen. 

. Beechler Brothers. 

. Taylor & Co. 

. A. C. Hiuchman. 

. J. C. Webster A Co. 

. Pinckney Book Co. 

Harmon Wilcox. 

. Foster, Ott & Co. 

. G. O. Snowden. 

. Tonis A Rockafellow. 

Lannon A Wilson. 
. Newman W. Arthur. 
. Stanley Gane. 
. T. Gowenlock. 
. Braain & Slease. 
. J. A. Wiedemann. 
. Rowlands & Jones. 
. J. F. Cottrell. 
. J. W. Paulen. 
. Miner & Stevens. 
. G. W. Woodard & Son. 
. J. H. Pugh. 
. W. J. Evans. 
. C. H. Trott & Brother. 
. E. Homnth. 
. J. S. Crew A Co. 
. E. L. Hunting. 
. 8. M. Fox. 
. Hagar & Wherry. 
. J. H Murphy A Brother. 
. Henry V. Chaae. 
. Clark Brothers. 
. J. J. Pieraon. 
. Thomaa Elliott. 

Baier A Schumann. 

Kennard A Nickers. 
. Kellam Book Co. 
. Wellington Book Co. 
. 8. G. Winch. 

Henry Goldsmith. 


. T.J. Smith* Co. 

. Thomson Co. 

. R. K. McClure. 

. J. B. Morton A Co. 

. Maxwell A Co. 

. J. P. Morton A Co. 

. C. A. Smith. 

. W. E. A L N. Parish. 

. Van Culiu Bros. 


. Michael Chambers. 

. F. F. HanseU A Bro. 

. 8. Hiriart. 

. H. P. H}7uns. 

. J. F. Pierce. 
. D. Bugbee A Co. 
. E. E. Shead A Co. 
. Douglass A Cook. 
. BaUey&Noys. 

Edwin Nelson. 
J. H. Chandler. 
Boston Book Co. 
Jordan, Marsh A Co. 
C. W. Sever. 
Robert Adama. 
J. A. Hale. 
G. W. Colbum A Co. 
J. Merrill A Son. 
G. C. Herbert. 
H. 8. Hutchinson. 
M. H. Sargent. 
8. E. Bridgman A Co. 
Talbot Brothers. 
E. B. Souther. 
H. P. Ivea. 
Springfield News Co. 
H. A. Dickerman A Sou. 
Putnam, Davis A Ca 

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Adrian . . 
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Battle Creek 
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Berrien Springs 
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East Saginaw 
Kaeanaba . 
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A. S. Hobart&Co. 

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Eaton, Lyon &, Co. 
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G. L. Wilton & Co. 

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Columbia . 

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Sedalia. . 

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Nebraska City 


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NEBRASKA— CoMmrun). 
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Olympia . . . M. O'Connor. 

Seattle .... Lowmon & Hanford Co. 

Spokane Falls . J. W. Graham & Co. 

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Vancouver . . James Waggener, Jr. 

WaUa Walla. . Sthie Brothers. 


Charleston . . Richardson Brothers. 

Parkersburg . . Moss & Bentley. 

Wheeling . . . Stanton & Davenport. 


Appleton . . . C. F. Rose & Co. 

Ashland . . . J. W. Clarke. 

Beloit .... Joseph B. Foster. 

Eau Claire . . W. A. Klnnear. 

Fond du Lac . Huber Brothen. 

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JanesriUe. . . Khig <& SkeUey. 

Kenosha . . . George M. Melville. 

La Crosse . . . E. C. DaUey. 

Madison . . . James E. Mosely. 

Marinette . . . A. M. Fairehild. 

Merrill .... Corwith Brothers. 

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. . T. S. Gray Co. 

Neenah . . . Kimberly & Elwers. 

Oconto .... 8. W. Ford. 

Oshkosh . . . G. F. Eastman. 

Portage . . . Purdy & MerriU. 

Racine .... Botsford & Wooster. 

Sheboygan . . E. F. W. Zimmerman. 

SparU . . . . C. Fobea. 

Stevens Point . H. D. McCulloch Co. 

Sturgeon Bay . Louis Reichel. 

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Wausau . . . Alderaon & Co. 

West Superior . F. H. Fleetham & Co. 


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comprise four volumes. 12mo, clotli, $1.50 each ; or in half calf, $3.00 each. 

1. TYPEE: A Real Romance of the Southeni Seas. I HI. MOBY DICK ; or, The White Whale. 

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_ I 

No, 150, SEPTEMBER 16, 1892. Vol, XIIL 



WHITTIER (Poem). James Vila Blake 173 

TERS: Whittibb, Pabsons, Curtis (With Bi- 
og^phy and Bibliography) 173 

WHITTIER AND SLAVERY. Samuel Willard . . 176 


Poenw to Whitiier from Lowell, Bayard Taylor, E. C. 
Stedman, Holmes, Longffellow, and Paul H. Hayne. ! 


IJ»N ni, E,G, J, 178 I 




Fayne 185 j 

Swinburne's The Sisters. — Hosken's Phaon and 
Sappho.— Kipling's Ballads and Barraok-Room Bal- ' 

lads.— Henley's The Song of the Sword, and Other 
Verses.— Sharp's Flower o' the Vine, Romantic Bal- I 

lads, and Soepiri di-Roma.— Neebit's Lays and Ijo- 
gends (Second Series). — Pollock's Leading Cases i 

done into English, and Other Diyeruons. — Lang's ^ 

Helen of Troy, her Life and Translation. — Mackay's | 

Love Letters of a Violinist, and Other Poems.— 
Saintsbury's Seventeenth Century Lyrics.— Horton's 
Songs of the Lowly, and Other Poems.— Bates's Told 
in the Gate .— Iiathrop's Dreams and Dajrs.— Mrs. Monl- 
ton's Swallow-FlightB.— Susan Spalding's The Wings I 

of leams.— Norton's Translation of Dante's Paradise. 


A good-tempered Englishman's views of America. — | 

Professor Huxley's hard crabtree and old-iron con- 
troTersies. — A completed section of Herbert Spen- 
cer's Principles of Ethics. — An unsatisfactory biog- ' 
raphy of Thomas Carlyle. — Lessons from the Sermons I 
of Theodore Parker. — ^Timely and charming chapters 
in Popular Astroncmiy. — Life and Manners in the , 
Blue-Graas Region of Kentucky.— A chatty and gos- 
sipy book about Stage-plays. | 




The Vacant " Easy Chair."— Has America a Laure- { 

ate?— Who Reads a Chicago Book?— The Shelley | 

Memorial Subscription. i 



If God reach down, whom should he take but thee ? 
Poet of Justice, Freedom's bard and friend, 
Go thoa up high. To Freedom's self ascend, 
Where throng the just in holy liberty. 
Poet of Prayers, singer of Piety, 
Fly thou where holy precincts have no end. 
Where praise resounds, and thankfulness doth send 
Psalms up for aye and aye. Love calleth thee 
Her poet, and Man's, and God's. Now go thy way 
To courts where perfect love is perfect light, 
And tenderness pervades with precious ray. 
Nor needeth beam of sun, nor knoweth night. 
First to his own comes God, with them to stay. 
And then to God his own up-taketh flight. 

James Vila Blake. 


Death has heen husy daring the past fortnight, 
and among his victims are three of those whose 
names are the most honored in American letters: 
John Greenleaf Whittier, lyrist of freedom and in- 
terpreter of New England's inmost spirit ; Thomas 
WUIiam Parsons, bearer of the message of Italy 
and of art ; George William Curtis, satirist whose 
hand was none the less heavy for being gloved, and 
steadfast upholder of the civic ideals that have 
made our nation great. Rarely has so heavy a 
loss been sustained by us, or so genuine an expres- 
sion of sorrow been evoked. 

Of the three men wlio have just beevi taken 
from us, John Greenleaf Whittier doubtless filled 
the largest place, and had the strongest hold upon 
the affections of his countrymen. He was one of 
the group of half a dozen poets whom most of us 
have grown up to regard as constituting a class by 
themselves, to think of as the giants of our youn^^ 
literature. Emerson and Bryant, Longfellow and 
Lowell, have gone ; Whittier has now joined their 
company, and Holmes alone remains. Those whom 
we have been wont to look upon as our younger 
poets have really, by the insensible operation of 
time, already become our older ones, and still an- 
other generation crowds upon their heels. But it 
is doubtful if any other g^up of writers will ever 
occupy quite so high a place in popular esteem as is 
occupied by the group of which Holmes is now the 
sole living representative. Their work was done 
at a time when the nation seemed to have for poetry 
a craving that it no longer possesses, and when the 
influence of poetry was heightened by an exalta^ 
tion of the national spirit bom of the stress of 

Digitized by 




[Sept. 16, 

growth and culminating in a great political crisis. 
Of the group of poets with which he will ever be 
associated, Whittier surely was, if not quite the 
truest of artists, the best-belored of men. With 
the sacred cause of human freedom his name, like 
those of his fellow singers, is indissolubly linked, and 
more closely than any other with the life of New 
England. For his life was so shaped that he never 
lost touch with the New England spirit, and the 
landscape, the legend, and the pastoral life of that 
region found in him an interpreter of the most 
intimate knowledge and unfailing sympathy. 
" Snow Bound " is the poem par excellence of New 
England, and the familiar judgment that assigns 
to it a place in our literature similar to that occu- 
pied in English literature by " The Deserted Vil- 
lage '* is as just as it is trite. But this is by no 
means the only likeness that claims the attention. 
Whittier 's ballads make of him the New England 
Burns as truly as do his idyls the New England 
Goldsmith. And he may surely be called the New 
England Herbert whose simple faith found ad- 
equate and perfect expression in the lines : 

'* I^now not where Hib isUuids lift 
Their f ronded palnu in air ; 
I only know I cannot drift 
Beyond Hib love and care.** 

In such lines as these (and they are not as infre- 
quent in Whittier's work as many suppose), he at- 
tains the faultless and absolute simplicity of style 
that we recognize as the highest art, and that makes 
us prefer Lord Tennyson's " Crossing the Bar," for 
example, to many a subtler and more complex piece 
of workmanship. But still other suggestions of 
other poets recall to us the fact that Whittier's was 
not altogether the narrow range commonly recog- 
nized. " The Cities of the Plain " is Byronic, if a 
little imitative, and the poems inspired by the 
Italian struggle for freedom have an almost Swin- 
bumian fire in their passionate denunciation of 
priestly and kingly tyranny. In " The Voices " and 
'' The Chapel of the Hermits " there is at least a 
suggestion of so modern a poet as Arnold, and 
'< Ichabod " is a more impressive lament over a 
^* lost leader " than the one left us by Browning. 
Many other suggestions of this sort may be found 
if one will search a little for them, and Whittier's 
sincerity was such that he will hardly be charged 
with being merely imitative. 

And yet, — for we cannot quite disengage from 
their works the personality of our American sing- 
ers, — it is the man no less than the poet who has so 
long had tribute of our affection and now has trib- 
ute of our tears. How earnestly and with what 
effect he threw himself into the struggle against 
slavery, is a matter of familiar history. And 
afterward, when the struggle was over, and the 
great work done, he wrote these memorable words : 
'* I am not insensible to literary reputation ; I love, 
perhaps too well, the praise and good-will of my 
fellow-men ; but I set a higher value on my name 

as appended to the Anti-Slavery Declaration of 
1833 than on the title-page of any book." 

"It is indeed 
Forever weU oor singers ahonld 
Utter good words and know them good 
Not through song only ; with close heed 
Lest, baying spent for the work*s sake 
Six days, the man be left to make." 

Full of days and honors, the poet of New En- 
gland has left a world made richer by his life. For- 
tune has dealt gently with him ; how kind she has 
been was beautifully expressed by a writer in The 
Dial nearly four years ago, from whose article we 
reproduce the following passage: ''To be, if not 
the acknowledged leader, at least the chief inspirer 
of one of the most unselfish of historic movements ; 
to wed no bride but Freedom, and to bend her 
mighty bow to such flame-tipped shafts of song as 
other poets dedicate to some half-ideal Laura or 
Beatrice ; to be like his Master despised and re- 
jected of men, and in His spirit to rebuke the 
hypocrites and Pharisees of his time ; to find all 
men as stocks and stones, and to realize the fable 
of Orpheus by drawing them all after him through 
the might of •«eng; then, his Utopia no longer a 
dream, to live many years of peaceful activity and 
growth amid the benedictions of emancipated 
millions; — such has been the happy lot of our 
heroic singer." 

Thomas William Parsons was one of those poets 
who, like Landor, appeal to but a limited audi- 
ence ; who find their reward in the steadfast affec- 
tion of the few rather than in the applause of the 
many. Judged by the world^s crude test of popu- 
larity, his place in our literature is insignificant; 
measured by the exacting standards of art, few of 
our poets have so high a place as his. His work 
exhibits a fine spiritual endowment, and a mind 
responsive to the subtlest appeals of nature or of 
art. It will bear very close examination ; indeed, 
its excellence fully appears only upon close exam- 
ination. A certain old-fashioned manner in the 
work constantly reminds us that its author is one 
of our elder poets (he was born in the same year 
as Lowell). Italy afforded him his best inspira- 
tion, and it is as the translator of Dante that he is 
most widely known. His poem ''On a Bust of 
Dante '' is one of the finest things of the sort in our 
language. How well he could work in a lighter 
vein, when he chose, is best illustrated by the lyric 
in praise of " Saint Peray." His translation of 
the " Cinque Maggio " poem of Manzoni was an 
achievement as successful as it was difficult As 
for his translation of Dante into rhymed quatrains, 
it is certainly the equal of any other ; many regard 
it as the best ever made. It is, unfortunately, in- 
complete, and what there is of it was given to the 
world in so furtive a way that many are unaware 
of its existence. The *' Inferno," published in 
1867, and the " Antepurgatorio," published in 1875, 
are both very rare volumes. A few more cantos of 
the " Purgatorio " may be found in the files of the 

Digitized by 





*< Catholic World." These translations and a thin 
Tolnme of *< Poems " (1854), are the author's chief 
claim to remembrance, — and yet no light one, for 
the qnality of the work is exquisite, and it is quality 
that tells in the long run. 

George William Curtis has left little or nothing 
of permanent literary value, and yet few of the 
men of letters of our time have exerted so wide an 
inflaence or occupied so marked a position. He 
belongs to the class of writers of whom Voltaire 
is the most illustrious example : men who do a very 
effective sort of literary work, but do not embody 
it in any shape likely to be enduring. They have 
their compensation in the consciousness of good 
work done, and in the wielding of an influence that 
they can at once measure and enjoy ; but they know 
that for the future they will be only a memory. 
The gentle satirist of the << Easy Chair," the earn- 
est editor of *' Harper's Weekly," and the eloquent 
public speaker, now laid to rest, was a potent fac- 
tor in the forces that made for whatever sweetness 
and light our civilization has attained to ; all that 
he touched he adorned, and he dignified both the 
literary calling and the walks of public life. In 
the forefront of the anti-slavery agitation, of the 
movement for civil service reform, of the protest 
against the political attitude that forgets honor for 
the sake of partisanship, he followed his high civic 
ideals, regardless, on the one hand, of the *' practi- 
cal "man's contempt for so visionary a course, 
and, on the other, of the imputation of unworthy 
motives by the base. No <* liegeman of the crowd," 
he well knew 

** What all ezperienoe serves to show, 
No mud can soil us but the mud we throw/' 

and he, if any man, might proudly echo Lowell's 

" I loved my country so as only they 
Who love a mother fit to die for may ; 
I loved her old renown, her stainless fame, — 
What better proof than that I loathediher shame? " 


John Greenleaf Whittier was bom December 17, 
1807, near the city of Haverhill, Massachusetts. His 
early years were spent mainly on his father's farm, and 
he had a good commou school education. His first 
published poem was printed in the Newburyport 
"Free Press," William Lloyd Garrison's paper, in 
1826. The winter of 1828-9 he spent in Boston, and 
edited a trade journal. He edited several other unim- 
portant papers during the few years following. His 
first volume, «* Legends of New England," (in prose 
and verse) was published in 1831. In 1833, he took 
part in the organization of the American Anti-Slavery 
Society at Philadelphia, and from that time onward 
devoted himself to the cause of freedom. In 1835 
and 1836 he represented Haverhill in the State Legis- 
lature. In 1840 he removed to Amesbury, where he 
spent the remainder of his life. He never married, 
bat lived with his sister Elizabeth until her death in 
1864. The titles of his more important volumes, with 
their dates, are as follows : " The Voices of Free- 
dom" (1849), « Songs of Labor and Other Poems" 

(1850), << The Chapel of the Hermits" (1853), «The 
Panorama and Other Poems " (1856), << Home BalUds 
and Other Poems" (1860), «In War Time and 
Other Poems" (1863), "Snow Bound" (1866), "The 
Tent on the Beach and Other Poems " (1867), " Among 
the Hills and Other Poems" (1868), <* Miriam and 
Other Poems" (1870), "The Pennsylvania Pilgrim 
and Other Poems" (1872), "Hazel Blossoms" (1875), 
" The Vision of Echard and other Poems " (1878), and 
« The King's Missive and Other Poems " (1881). His 
complete works, in a definitive edition, were published 
in 1888^. Mr. Samuel T. Pickard, of Portland, Maine, 
is appointed his literary executor. 

Thomas William Parsons was born in Boston, August 
18, 1819. He was educated in the public schools, and, 
after graduation, made a visit to Italy. This gave a 
clearly defined direction to his tastes, and the first 
cantos of his translation of the "Inferno" were pub- 
lished as early as 1843. In 1847 he went to Europe 
a second time. Harvard gave him the degree of M.D. 
in 1853. His "Poems" appeared in 1854, and his 
complete "Inferno" in 1867. In 1872 he published 
"The Shadow of the Obelisk and Other Poems." He 
lived in England for a number of years, returning to 
his native city in 1872. He has since then lived in 
Boston, often spending his summers at Scituate, where 
he died on the third of September. 

George William Curtis was bom February 24, 1824, 
in Providence, R. I. He was educated at private 
schools, but left at the age of fifteen to go into busi- 
ness. After a year of this the boy broke away and 
joined the Brook Farm community, remaining there 
from 1840 to 1844. The next two years were spent in 
Concord, and the four years following (1846-^0) in 
Europe. On his return he wrote for the New York 
newspapers and for "Harper's Monthly." At this 
time he became editor of " Putnam's New Monthly 
Magazine," and the failure of that publication left him 
with an indebtedness which it took him years of hard 
work to wipe out. During these years, besides writing 
for the Harper publications, he gave many lectures, 
devoting himself more and more to the subject of 
slavery. He married in 1856. In 1860 he was a dele- 
gate to the Chicago Republican Convention. In 1871 
he was appointed by Grant chairman of the first Civil 
Service Commission, and in 1881 he organized the 
National Civil Service Reform League. In 1884 he 
led the Independent movement which resulted in the 
election of Mr. Cleveland to the Presidency. For 
nearly forty years he wrote the " Easy Chair "' papers, 
and for nearly thirty acted as political editor of " Har- 
per's Weekly." His principal books were these : 
"Nile Notes" (1851), "The Howadji in Syria" 
(1852), "The Potipliar Papers" (1853), "Prue and 
I " (1856), " Trumps " (1861). In 1889 he edited the 
letters of John Lothrop Motley. 


By the death of Whittier there has passed away not 
only the last of the great American poets that took the 
anti-slavery side in the great contest of our century, 
but also the distinctively anti-slavery poet. Longfellow 
spoke out clearly in 1842; but he was not of the war- 
rior breed : his " tender and impassioned voice " suited 
better other themes. As Christ's discourses hurl no 
thunders at particular sins, but elevate the soul above 

Digitized by 




[Sept. 16, 

the plaoe of evil, it was Longfellow's gift to soften the 
hearts of our people with poems of pathos and heauty. 
Lowell was of too broad culture and was too much of 
an artist to be drawn at once into line and column 
with those Ironsides of Abolition who drew swords and 
smote enemies irefnlly in the name of God. To his 
hand came the flashuig sword of humor, wit, satire, rid- 
icule, — the power to show wrong as an absurdity, and to 
heap shame upon it in the face of Reason. Yet he gave 
us also some of the grandest and most awful lines that 
were evoked in those days of shame. Is there anything 
grander than these lines in ** The Present Crisis ? " 

"Careless seems the great Avenger; history's pages but 

One death-grapple in the darkness *twixt old systems and- 

The Word : 
Truth forever on the scaffold; Wrong forever on the 

throne: — 
Yet that scaffold sways the future ; and, behind the dim 

Standeth God within the shadow, keeping watch above his 


Does one think this was written in the days of John 
Brown? No; it was fourteen years earlier, in the 
early part of the Mexican War, December, 1845. 

Whittier, bom in the same year as Longfellow (1807), 
was twelve years older than Lowell, and dates his anti- 
slavery p9ems from 1833, twelve years earlier than 
Lowell's ''Present Crisis." From that time onward he 
was our Ty^us. Whittier's poems (is it from his lack 
of college training and of the wider culture of other 
languages aud great reading ?) are much more lyrical 
than those of Longfellow and Lowell, and hence better 
fitted to make an impression upon the minds and hearts 
of common people. Non-resistant Quaker as he was, 
he might have written " A Battle Hymn of the Repub- 
lic." What is this, in 1848, but beat of drum and trum- 
pet of battle ? 

*' Sound for the onset ! Blast on blast t 

Till slavery's minions cower and quail ; 
One charge of fire shall drive them fast 

Before our Northern gale ! " 

YHiittier was for a while editor of the ** Pennsylvania 
Freeman," published in Philadelphia, where, a short time 
before his residence in it, a hall devoted to free-speech 
and anti-slavery meetings had been burned by a mob. I 
saw a broad-sheet of advertisements of Philadelphia 
merchants with a cut at the head of it representing this 
burning of the hall, — so issued to attract Southern and 
Western customers. In such a city Whittier was like 
Paul at Athens when he looked upon the idolatry : 
" His spirit was stirred in him." He rose to the occa- 
sion and grew stronger in his advocacy of freedom. 
His greatest anti-slavery poems were written in the six- 
teen years 1833 to 1848, which he has collected un- 
der the title << Voices of Freedom." They were called 
forth by current events, and were noticed even by those 
who detested Abolitionists. George D. Prentice, of 
the << Louisville Journal," said of his << Lines " on the 
Pinckney Gag, that they were equal to the best passages 
of Campbell, who was then at the height of his reputa- 
tion. Prentice specified the six stanzas the first of which 

" Shall our New England stand erect no longer ? " 

To understand these poems one needs now a history of 
the oonflict right at hand, or some guide to their mean- 
ing; for the events are not in the memory of the pres- 
ent generation. Here is <* The Branded Hand," of 1846. 

The story is not told in the poem. A Northern sea cap-- 
tain named Walker was caught in helping slaves to es- 
cape, and in Florida or Georgia was branded in his 
right hand with the letters S S, which the poet inter- 
prets as ** Salvation to the Slave ! " 
. But though AVbittier brought together a series of 
" Voices of Freedom," his other poems are full of the 
same spirit. He was, to parody Schleiermacher's saying 
of Spinoza, a freedom-intoxicated man. If he writes of 
Pius IX., or Silas Wright, or Barclay of Ury, or the 
reformers of England, his topic still is — ^Freedom! 

Before closing this article, let me call attention to 
one other power of our poet. One wonders at Mil- 
ton's handling of proper names, so that his catalogues 
of names of places roll off grandly and smoothly. 
Whittier uses our Indian names with like facility: 
Umbagog and Winnipesaukee run smooth as Vallom- 
brosa. In " The Lumbermen," for instance, in ten suc- 
cessive lines he brings in lyrically Ambijejis, Millnoket, 
Penobscot, and Katahdin. Samuel Willard. 


It has already been said that Whittier was fortunate 
in his friendships. An always conspicuous member of 
the group of authors that has been the chief glory of 
the century in America, he was loved and appreciated 
by his fellow-singers, most of whom have left enduring 
tributes to his worth as poet and as man. Some of 
these tributes are of singular beauty, and all are just 
now of especial interest. 

Lowell, in his << Fable for Critics" (published in 
1848), devotes a characteristic passage to Whittier, 
then less than forty years old, and already known as 
<*a fighter" among poets — one who desired justioe 
more than peace, and, in his sinful day, also « came not 
to bring peace, but a sword." We quote Lowell's 
humorous but earnest lines: 

"There is Whittier, whose swelling and vehement heart 
Strains the strait-breasted drab of the Quaker iqiart. 
And reveals the live Man, still supreme and erect. 
Underneath the bemummying wrappers of sect. 
There was ne'er a man bom who had more of the swing 
Of the true lyric bard, and all that kind of thing. 
Let hiB mind once get head in his favorite direetioB, 
And the torrent of verse bnrrts the dams of reflection ; 
While, borne with the rush of the metre along, 
The poet may chance to go right or go wrong, 
Content with the whirl and delirium of song. 
Our Quaker leads off metaphorical flights 
For reform and whatever they call human rights. 
Both singing and striking in front of the war, 
And hitting his foes with the maUet of Hior : 
Anne hctec, one exclaims on beholding his knocks, 
VestisjUii tui, O leather^lad Fox? 
Can that be thy son, in^ie battle's mid din. 
Preaching brotherly love, and then driving it in 
To the brain of the tough old Goliah of sin 
With the smoothest of pebbles from Castaly's spring, 
Impressed on his hard moral sense with a ding ? 
All honor and praise to the right-hearted bard 
Who was true to The Voice when such service was hard ; 
Who himself was so free he dared sing for the slave 
When to look but a protest in silence was brave ; 
All honor and praise to the women and men 
Who spoke out for the dumb and the down-trodden then ! ^* 

Bayard Taylor wrote a capital poem ("A Friend's 
Greeting ") for Whittier's seventieth birthday, in which 
is traced a fancied transmigration of the poet's soul. 

Digitized by 




from the priest upon Aryan hills to the New England 
twrd. We quote this piece entire: 

"Snew-bound for earth, but suramer-sonled for thee, 
Thy natal morning shines : 
Hail, friend and poet ! Give thy hand to me. 
And let me read its lines ! 

'' For skilled in fancy's palmistry am I, 

When years have set their crown ; 
When life gives light to read its secrets by, 
And deed explains renown. 

*' So, looking backward from thy seventieth year, 
On service grand and free. 
The pictures of thy spirit's past are clear. 
And each interprets thee. 

'' I see thee, first, on hills our Aryan sires 
In time's lost morning knew. 
Kindling as priest the lonely altar-fires 

That from earth's darkness grew. 

" Then wise with secrets of Chaldssan lore, 
In high Akkadian fane ; 
Or pacing slow by Egypt's river shore. 
In Thothmes' glorious reign. 

'* I hear thee, wroth with all iniquities 
That Judah's kings betrayed, 
Preach from Ain-Jidi's rock thy God's decrees. 
Or Mamre's terebinth shade. 

'* And, ah ! most piteous vision of the iKut, 
Drawn by thy being's law, 
I see thee, martyr, in the arma cast. 
Beneath the lion's paw. 

** Tet, afterwards, how rang thy sword upon 
The paynim helm and shield I 
How shone with Godfrey, and at Askalon, 
Thy white plume o'er the field. 

** Strange contradiction ! where the sand waves spread 
The boundless desert sea. 
The Bedouin spearmen found their destined head — 
Their dark-eyed chief — in thee. 

'' And thou wert friar in Cluny's sacred cell, 
. And skald by Norway's foam. 
Ere fate of poet fixed thy soul to dwell 
In this New England home. 

" Here art thou poet,— more than warrior, priest ; 
And here thy quiet years 
Yield more to u« tkan sacrifice or feast, 
Or clash of swords or spears. 

'' The faith that lifts, the courage that sustains, 
These thou wert sent to teach : 
Hot blood of battle, beating in thy veins, 
Is turned to gentle speech. 

** Not less, but more, than others hast thou striven ; 
Thy victories remain : 
The scars of ancient hate, long since forgiven, 
Have lost their power to pain. 

*"* Apostle pure of freedom and of right. 
Thou hadst thy one reward ; 
Thy prayers were heard, and flashed upon thy sight 
The coming of the Lord ! 

"" Now, sheathed in myrtle of thy tender songs. 
Slumbers the blade of truth ; 
Bat age's wisdom, crowning thee, prolongs 
The eager hope of youth. 

'" Another line upon thy hand I trace, 
All destinies above : 
Men know thee mOet as one that loves his race, 
And bless thee with their love ! " 

The reverent affection of the "younger poets" for 
Whittier is well expressed by E. C. Stedman in " Ad 
Vatem." Its closing lines are all we can g^ve: 

** From thee, 
Whittier, the younger singers, — whom thou seest 
Each emulous to be thy staff this day, — 
What learned they ? righteous anger, burning scorn 
Of the oppressor, love to humankind. 
Sweet fealty to country and to home. 
Peace, stainless purity, high thoughts of heaven. 
And the clear, natural music of thy song." 

Holmes's affectionate tribute «* For Whittier's Seven- 
tieth Birthday" yields these melodious lines: 
''And the'wood-thru^ of Essex, — you know whom I mean. 
Whose song echoes ^und us while he sits unseen. 
Whose heart-throbs of verse through our memories thrill 
Like a breath from the wood, like a breeze from the hill, 
So fervid, so simple, so loving, so pure, 
We hear but one strain and our verdict is sure, — 
Thee cannot elude us,— no further we search, — 
'Tis Holy Georg^ Herbert cut loose from his church !" 

Three noble sonnets to Whittier must finish this col- 
lection. The first ("The Three Silences of Molinos") 
is by Longfellow: 

'* Three Silences there are : the first of speech. 
The second of desire, the third of thought ; 
This is the lore a Spanish monk, distraught 
With dreams and visions, was the first to teach. 
These Silences, commingling each with each, 
Made up the perfect Silence, that he sought 
And prayed for, and wherein at times he caught 
Mysterious sounds from realms beyond our reach. 
O thou whose daily life anticipates 
The life to oome, and in whose thought and word 
The spiritual world preponderates, 
Hermit of Amesbury I thou too hast heard 
Voices and melodies from beyond the gates, 
And speakest only when thy soul is stirred !" 

The second sonnet is from the Southern poet and 
former political opponent of Whittier, Paul H. Hayne: 

** Cloud, wind, and sleet ! the hilk look darkly bare ; 
But yonder on a dim denuded height 
One lonely pine uplifts his foliaged might. 
Waving green glories o'er the earth's despair. 
Type of thy poet soul, he greets us there ; 
Aged in sooth, and yet his crown is bright ; 
Girdled by winter, yet beyond its blight ; 
Still of his own pure grandeur unaware. 
Tjrpe of thy soul is he — thy poet soul ; 
His spell transforms the storm winds into song, 
That, charm'd in sweeping rhythmic branch and bole, 
Lapse to the long, low music of the sea ; 
While birds, like wing'd Hopes, f url'd from wintry wrong, 
Dream of spring heavens in that deep-hearted tree !" 

The third sonnet is Lowell's, written " To Whittier 
on his Seventy-fifth Birthday": 

" New England's poet, rich in love as years, 
Her hills and vaJleys praise thee, her swift brooks 
Dance in thy verse ; to her grave sylvan nooks 
Thy steps allure us, which the wood-thrush hears 
As maids their lovers', and no treason fears ; 
Through thee her Merrimacs and Agiochooks 
And many a name uncouth win gracious looks. 
Sweetly familiar to both Englands' ears : 
Peaceful by birthright as a virgin lake. 
The lily's anchorage, which no eyes behold 
Save those of stars, yet for thy brother's sake 
That lay in bonds, thou blewst a blast as bold 
As that wherewith the heart of Roland brake, 
Far heard across the New World and the Old." 

Happy the poet who receives such tributes from his 
fellows! Happy the land that has produced such poets! 

Digitized by 




[Sept. 16, 

The New Books. 

France r^NDEu L.ouis Philippe and 
Kapoleox III.* 

It is a considerable privilege to share in the 
memories of a man who has known more or 
less intimately Balzac^ Dumas pere^ De Mus- 
set, Sue, Delacroix, Vernet, Rachel, Guizot, 
Lamartine, Louis Philippe and his family, 
Louis Napoleon and his entourage^ — in short, 
about every one notable in French literature, 
art, politics, and society, between 1880 and 
1870 ; — who had access to the gaities of the 
TuiUeries and of Compiegne, and who was an 
eye-witness to the stirring events in the Paris 
of '48, of the German war, and of the Com- 
mune. While unbosoming himself freely of 
his recollections and opinions, the author of 
this eminently spicy book, for reasons best 
known to himself, chooses to remain incognito ; 
though it is sufficiently evident that he is what 
his own countrymen would reverently term " a 
person of quality." Certainly his book is not of 
the vapid brand one usually gets from that 
sacred source. The two volumes, — the one 
covering the reign of Louis Philippe, the 
other The Empire, — are well packed with an- 
ecdote and description, and the thousand-and- 
one engaging things and nothings that form the 
mental equipment of a cultivated man of the 
world ; and we shall here lay criticism aside 
and content ourselves with the role of ^^ Jack 
Homer," — pulling out as many of our diarist's 
plums as possible for the reader's behoof. It 
should be added, as further characterizing the 
book in hand, that the author's Catholic tastes 
in the matter of society made the atmosphere 
of the Quartier-Latin no less familiar and con- 
genial to him than that of the Faubourg St. 
Germain; much of his matter being drawn 
from the less aristocratic source. 

Three names that recur pretty frequently 
among the literary notes are De Musset, Bal- 
zac, and Dumas, — men who, unlike Victor 
Hugo, Lamartine, Chateaubriand, and Sue, 
'*' did not deem it necessary to stand aloof from 
ordinary mortals." De Musset, says our 
writer, — 

« Improved upou better acquaintance. He was apt to 
strike one at first sight as distant and supercilious. He 
was neither the one nor the other, simply very reserved, 
and at the best of times very sad, not to say melan- 
choly. . . . With his tall, slim figure, auburn wavy 
hair and beard, blue eyes, and finely-shaped nose and 
mouth, De Musset gave one the impression of a dandy 

* As Enolishmak in Pakis (Notes and Recollections). In 
two volumes. New York : D. Appleton A Co. 

cavalry officer in mufti, rather than of a poet : the 
<Mi88 Byron' which Pr^ault the sculptor applied to 
him was, perhaps, not altogether undeserved, if judged 
intellectually and physically at first sight.'' 

There are several good stories touching the 
chronic impecuniosity of Balzac and Dumas, 
who were not, however, gamblers, and had not 
the terrible fits of idleness and drinking which 
left poor De Musset stranded at regular in- 
tervals. On the improvident head of Dumas it 
literally rained " writs and summonses "; while 
we find Balzac, when he was thirty-two years old 
and already the well-paid author of several 
masterpieces, writing to his mother, " Several 
bills are due, and, if I cannot find the money 
for them, I will have them protested and let 
the law take its course." " How does Balzac 
spend his money?" our writer once asked 
Mery, the poet and novelist, who had recently 
met the author of the Human Comedy strolling 
up and down before the Caf ^ de Paris between 
midnight and sunrise — an hour chosen be- 
cause, as Balzac said, ^^ I am being tracked by 
the officers, and obliged to hide myself during 
the day ": 

'< < In sops to his imagination,' was the answerf — ' in 
balloons to the land of dreams, which balloons he con- 
structs with his hard-won earnings and inflates with the 
essence of his visions, but which nevertheless will not 
rise three feet from the earth. Balzac is firmly con- 
vinced that every one of his characters has had its 
counterpart in real life, notably the characters that 
have risen from humble beginnings to great wealth ; 
and he thinks that, having worked out the secret of 
their success on paper, he can put it in practise." 

As for Dumas pere^ he would, it seems, 
have squandered the combined fortunes of the 
Rothschilds — and have then been in debt. 
He had no notion of the value of money. 
About a year after our author made his ac- 
quaintance, he called upon him at Saint-Ger- 
main, and found him in bed, dictating. His 
son had just left him, and, on seeing his vis- 
itor, the proud father exclaimed rapturously, — 

'< < C'est un cceur d'or, cet' Alexandre I ' Seeing that 
I did not ask what elicited this praise, he began telling 
me. < This morning I received six hundred and fifty 
francs. Just now Alexandre was going up to Paris, 
and he says, *< 111 take fifty francs." I did not pay at- 
tention, or must have misunderstood ; at any rate I re- 
plied, << Don't take as much as that ; leave me a hun- 
dred francs." *<What do you mean, father?" be asked; 
« I am telling you that I am going to take fifty francs.** 
" I beg your pardon," I said, " I understood you were 
going to take six hundred." ' He would have considered 
it the most natural thing in the world for his son to 
take six hundred and leave him fifty." 

Dumas the younger told a characteristic 
story of his father, which will bear repeating, 
if only for the sake of the moral it conveys. 

Digitized by 





He was present with a few friends at the first 
rehearsal of ^^ The Three Musketeers " at the 
Ambigu Comique. It was not a dress rehear- 
sal proper, and the scenery consisted only 
of a cloth and some wings. Behind one of the 
latter they had noticed, during the first six 
tableaux, the shining helmet of a fireman who 
was listening very attentively. The author 
had noticed him too. 

** About the middle of the seventh tableau the hel- 
met suddenly vanished, and the father remarked upon 
it to his son. When the act was finished Dumas went 
in search of the pompier, who did not know him. 
* What made you go away ? ' he asked him. < Because 
it did not amuse me half as much as the others,' was 
the answer. * That was enough for my father,' said the 
younger Dumas. < There and then he went to B^- 
reand's room, took off his coat, waistcoat, and braces, 
unfastened the collar of his shirt — it was the only way 
he could work — and sent for the prompt copy of the 
seventh tableau, which he tore up and Hung into the 
fire, to the consternation of B^reaud. * What are you 
doing ? ' he exclaimed. < You see what I am doing ; 
I am destroying the seventh tableau. It does not 
amuse the pompier. I know what it wants.' " 

The author of "The Mysteries of Paris" 
forms the least agreeable part of the author's 
literary recollections, and he cannot enough 
insist upon what he terms "the inveterate 
snobbishness of the man" — a quality which 
reaUy procured his expulsion from the Jockey 
Club. He was always posing, not as a 
writer, — for, like Walpole, he was half 
ashamed of the title, — but as a man of the 
world who knew nothing about literature but 
who dabbled in it in a magnificent amateur- 
ish way because his wish to benefit humanity 
had been greater than his repugnance to en- 
ter the lists with such men as Balzac and 

** After his dinner at the Caf^ de Paris, heiirould grandly 
stand on the steps smoking a cigar and listening to the 
conversation with an air of superiority without attempt- 
ing to take part in it. His mind was supposed to be 
far away, devising schemes for the social and moral 
improvement of his fellow creatures." 

His dandyism was ojffensive mainly because it 
did not sit naturally upon him ; as a member 
of the Jockey Club observed, ^^Jf. Sue est 
toujours trop habille^ trop caroase^ et surtout 
trop eperonne.^^ 

Of *' The Mysteries of Paris," George Sand 
said, while the tale was publishing, '^ It is very 
amusing, but there are too many animals. I 
hope we shall soon get out of this menagerie." 
Nevertheless she admitted that she would not 
miss an instalment for ever so much, — a feel- 
ing abundantly shared by the public, for the 
furore it created among all classes was im- 

mense. It was impossible to get a copy of the 
Debats^ in which the story appeared in serial 
form, unless one subscribed for it ; and as for 
the reading rooms, where the paper was kept, 
the proprietors frankly laughed in your face if 
you asked for it after you had paid your two 
sous admission. 

" Monsieur is joking. We have got Ave copies, and 
we let them out for ten sous each for half an hour : 
that's the time it takes to read M. Sue's story. We 
have one copy here, and if Monsieur likes to take his 
turn he may do so, though he will probably have to 
wait for three or four hours." 

The mention of George Sand recalls a 
story told the author by De Musset, of an at- 
tempt made by that nymph to ^^net" the 
painter, Eugene Delacroix. It appears that 
Mme. Sand detected, or fancied she detected, 
on the part of the painter, signs of submission 
to her all-conquering charms ; and, desiring to 
precipitate matters, she one morning entered 
the studio where the supposed victim was at 
work. She inmiediately plunged in medias 

<* < My poor £ugene I I am afraid I have got sad 
news for you.' * Oh, indeed,' said Delacroix, without 
interrupting his work, and just giving her one of his 
cordial smiles in guise of welcome. *Yes, my dear 
friend, I have carefully consulted my own heart, and 
the upshot is, I am grieved to tell you, that I feel I 
cannot and could never love you/ Delacroix kept ou 
painting. * Is that a fact ? ' he said. < Yes, and I ask 
you once more to pardon me, and to credit me for my can- 
dor — my poor Delacroix.' Delacroix did not budge 
from his easel. * Yon are angry with me, are you not ? 
You will never forgive me ? ' * Certainly I will. Only 
I want you to keep quiet for ten minutes ; I have got a bit 
of sky there which has caused me a good deal of trouble, 
it is just coming right. Go and sit down, or else take 
a little walk, and come back in ten minutes.' Of 
course George Sand did not return." 

Louis Philippe, the " Citben-King," the au- 
thor thinks, was by no means the ardent admirer 
of the bourgeoisie that he professed to be. He 
had no illusions as to their intellectual worth ; 
and the virtual ostracism of himself and his fam- 
ily by the old noblesse rankled in his mind, 
and deepened his resentment against the shop- 
keeping caste to whose ojffensive patronage he 
charged it. The King's real attitude toward 
the bourgeoisie is illustrated by an extract f ronpi 
an unpublished skit of the time, in which the 
"Citizen-Monarch" is represented as giving 
the heir-apparent a lesson in the art of gov- 

** * Do not be misled,' he says, < by a parcel of theorists, 
who will tell you that the citizen-monarchy is based 
upon the sovereign will of the people, or npon the strict 
observance of the charter; this is merely so much drivel 
from the political Rights or Lefts. . .^ Th& citizen- 

Digitized by 




[Sept. 16, 

monarchy and the art of governing consist of but one 
ihing — the capacity of the principal ruler for shaking 
hands with any and every ragamuffin and out-of-elbows 
brute he meets/ . . * How would it do, dad/ asks the 
ambitious pupil, <if, in addition to shaking hands with 
them, one inquired after their health, in the second per- 
son singular — Comment vcu tu, man vieux cochon f or, bet- 
ter still. Comment vets tUy man vieux citoyen V < It would 
do admirably,' says papa, <but it does not matter 
whether you say cochon or citoyen ; the terms are syn- 
onymous.' " 

Louis Philippe — with a civil list of 760,000 
pounds — was always haunted by a dread of 
poverty. The recollection of his early misery 
uprose before him like a nightmare, and he one 
day said to Guizot, after plaintively running 
over a long list of domestic charges, " My dear 
minister, I am telling you that my children 
will be wanting for bread." Apropos of Louis's 
early poverty, the author says : 
** I recollect that during my stay at Tr^port and £n, in 
1843, when Queen Victoria paid her visit to Louis 

Philippe, the following story was told me. Lord 

and I were quartered in a little hostelry on the Place 
du Ch&teau. One morning Lord came home laugh- 
ing till he could laugh no longer. < What do you think 
the King has done now ? ' he asked. I professed my 
inability to g«ess. * About an hour ago, he and Queen 
Victoria were walking in the garden, when, with true 
French politeness, he offered her a peach. The Queen 
seemed rather embarrassed how to skin it, when Louis 
Philippe took a large clasp-knife from his pocket. 
* When a man has been a poor devil like myself, obliged 
to live upon forty sous a day, he always carries a knife. 
I might have dispensed with it for the last few years; 
still, I do not wish to lose the habit — one does not 
know what may happen,' he said. Of course the tears 
stood in the Queen's eyes." 

Personally, Louis had many estimable qual- 
ities — more, certainly, than most of his pre- 
decessors could boast of. He was an amiable 
man, the kindest of husbands and fathers, and 
one of the most economical of monarchs, — a 
trait which betrayed him into the political sin 
of overlooking the craving of the Parisians, a 
race clamorous, like the Romans, for the pa- 
nem et circences, for court pomp and display. 
He was a witty man, and some of his mots 
have become historical. When the news of 
Talleyrand's death was brought to him, he 
asked, — 

•** * But, are you sure he is dead ? ' ♦ Very sure, sire,' was 
the reply ; < did not your majesty notice yesterday that 
he was dying?' <I did, but there is uo judging from 
appearances with Talleyrand, and I have beeu asking 
myself for the last four and twenty hours what interest 
he could possibly have in departing at this particular 
moment.' " 

The author, as a young man, saw Louis several 
times at reviews and on popular holidays, and 
was always surprised that a king of whom ev- 

eryone spoke so well in private, and whose 
domestic relations were so exceptionally pleas- 
ant, should look so careworn and depressed in 
public. He was, as he says, then too young 
to grasp the irony of the king's reply to a rela- 
tive, a few months before his accession to the 
throne : 

<< The crown of France is too cold in winter, too warm 
in summer; the sceptre is too blunt as a weapon of de- 
fense or attack, it is too short as a stick to lean upon; 
a good felt hat and a strong umbrella are at all times 
more useful." 

Louis Philippe used to say of Guizot, " He 
is so terribly respectable ; I am afraid there is 
a mistake either about his nationality or his 
respectability, for they are badly matched," — 
and this caustic sentence reflected pretty well 
the opinion of the majority of Frenchmen as 
to the eminent statesman. They regarded him 
as a rigid Puritan in private life, a sort of am- 
bulant copy-book moral, who never unbent, 
and whose slightest actions were meant by him 
as a lesson to the rest of mankind. With true 
French cynicism, the Parisians even resented 
his kindly habit of taking his mother for a 
stroll in the Park of St. Cloud on Sundays — 
a filial attention which they maintained to be 
an exhibition. Guizot regretted this errone- 
ous conception the world formed of his charac- 
ter, — which was really two-fold, the Guizot of 
public life, the imperious, combative orator of 
the Chamber, being sufficiently unlike the 
home-keeping Guizot, the tender and devoted 
son, the charming companion who captivated 
everyone with whom he came in contact. 

« * But what can I do? ' he asked. < In reality, I haven't 
the courage to be unpopular any more than other peo- 
ple; but neither have I the courage to prance about in 
my own drawing-room as if I were on wires,' — this was 
a slight slap at M. Thiers, — * nor can I write on subjects 
with which I have no sympathy ' — that was a second ; 
"and I should cut but a sorry figure on horseback, — 
that was a third; 'consequently people who, I am sure, 
wish me well,- but who will not come and see me at 
home, hold me up as a misanthrope, while I know that 
I am nothing of the kind.' " 

Our author's account of the heterogeneous 
society under the Empire is well spiced with 
anecdotes — sometimes a trifle malicious — of 
the chief actors, and his characterizations of 
the Emperor and Empress and the chiefs of 
their suite are original and vivacious. HLs 
opinion of Eugenie is decidedly unfavorable. 
Forgetful of the days when she was only Mdlle. 
de Montijo, she seems to have really fancied 
herself an aristocrat by the Grace of God, in 
the old Bourbon sense of the term. In spite 
of her reputation for amiability and charity. 

Digitized by 





ity, she was, thinks our author, cruel at heart. 
** The woman who could indulge in sentiment about the 
absence of dessert in the Saint-Lazare refectory, would 
at the end of a hunt, deliberately jump off her horse, 
plunge the gleamiug knife in the throat of the panting 
stag, and revel in the sight of blood." 

Nor was this hardihood of nature a hopeful 
sign of courage in the hour of danger. When 
the storm came, — 

"She slunk away at the supreme hour; while the prin- 
cess (Clotilde), whom she had presumed to teach the 
manners of a court, left like a princess in an open lan- 
dau, preceded by an outrider." 

The Empress's vindictiveness and imperious 
temper are weU illustrated in the following 
■ anecdote. Eugenie was really unpopular with 
the people, and when the news of the Emperor 
Maximilian's death reached Paris there were 
ominous mutterings that boded no good. "What 
do the people say ? " Napoleon asked M. Hyr- 
voix, the chief of the secret police — a man 
not given to mincing matters. 

"This time, however, M. Hyrvoix kept silent for a 
while, then replied, * The people do not say anything, 
sire.' Napoleon must have noticed the hesitating man- 
ner; for he said at once, * Yon are not telling me the 
truth. What do the people say ? ' * Well, sire, if you 
wish to know, not only the people, but everyone is 
deeply indignant and disgusted with the consequences 
of this unfortunate war. It is commented upon every- 
where in the self-same spirit. They say it is the fault 
of — ' * The fault of whom ? ' repeated Napoleon. * Sire,* 
stammered M. Hyrvoix, <in the time of Louis XVI., 
people said, " It is the fault of the Austrian woman." ' 

* Yes, go on.* * Under Napoleon III. people say, " It is the 
fault of the Spanish woman.'* * The words had scarcely 
left M. Hyrvoix's lips, when a door leading to the inner 
apartments opened, and the Empress appeared on the 
threshold. * She looked like a beautiful fury,* said M. 
Hyrvoix to his friend, from whom I have got the story. 

* She wore a white dressing-gown, her hair was waving 
on her shoulders, and her eyes shot flames. She hissed 
rather than spoke, as she bounded towards me; and, 
ridiculous as it may seem, I felt afraid for the moment. 
*You will please repeat what you just now said, M. 
Hyrvoix,* she said in a voice hoarse with passion. M. 
Hyrvoix obeyed. < The Spanish woman ! The Spanish 
woman I ' she jerked out three or four times — and I 
could see that her hands were clenched; <I have be- 
come French, but I will show my enemies that I can 
be Spanish when occasion demands it.* . . . Next 
day M. Hyrvoix was appointed Receiver-General for 
one of the departments — that is exiled to the prov- 

The author holds Eugenie responsible for 
the German war and the humiliation it brought 
upon the French ; and there is no better com- 
ment upon the then social and political regime 
than the fact that it placed a great nation at 
the mercy of a trivial woman who held her po- 
sition by the tenure of her attractiveness to a 
single member of it. £. o. J. 

George Masox of Virginia.* 

The South seems again to have entered the 
field of letters. A survey of the past two 
years will show a surprising list of works writ- 
ten by authors on the southern side of Mason 
and Dixon's line. It is an encouraging sign of 
actual reconstruction, even when, as is often 
the case, the author seems to be personally one 
of the unreconstructed. Two of the great Vir- 
ginia Anti-federalists have been presented to 
the world almost simultaneously. Patrick 
Henry's life and works f were lately published 
in three sumptuous volumes prepared with 
much care and good sense. Now we have two 
volumes covering the life and public services 
of one whose career largely paralleled that of 
Henry. George Mason, from the Stamp Act to 
the adoption of the Constitution, was Henry's 
political companion and ally. The wonderful 
fiery eloquence of the one was almost equalled 
by the shrewd sense and acute argument of the 
other. Both were vigorous friends of Inde- 
pendence, and obstinate opponents of the Con- 
stitution as it came fresh from the Philadel- 
phia Convention. Henry lived to become a 
Federalist. Mason remained a consistent Anti- 
federalist to the end. Their chief objection to 
the Constitution was the omission from it of a 
bill of rights — that special pride of a true 
Virginian's heart; together they demanded 
amendments, and held up dire and dreadful 
portents of the destruction that would ensue 
were the instrument adopted without further 
guaranties of liberty. 

George Mason played a very prominent part 
in the history of Virginia during the twenty- 
five years subsequent to the Stamp Act. Pos- 
sibly his greatest claim to fame is his author- 
ship of the Virginia Bill of Rights. In fact, 
the Constitution of the State was largely of 
his framing. Henry has been often given 
the credit of writing two sections of the Bill 
of Rights, and there has been a special con- 
troversy over the celebrated clause guaran- 
teeing religious liberty. It must be said that 
the author of these volumes makes out a very 
strong case for Mason. Henry's latest biog- 
raphers have accepted as conclusive certain 
statements of Randolph, which ^ the author 
of these volumes attempts to explain away. 
The argument for Mason is based. almost en- 

»The Life of George Mason, 1725-1 75*2. By Kate 
Mason Rowland. Including: his Speeches, Public Papers, etc., 
with Introduction by General fitzhusrh Lee. In two vol- 
umes, with portrait. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

t Reviewed in The Dial for June, 1892.— [Edr.] 

Digitized by 




[Sept. 16, 

tirely upon circumstantial evidence, which, 
however, is very cogent, and. has at least the 
e£Fect of placing one's judgment in suspense, 
yet with little hope of having the facts more 
fully disclosed. 

Mason was a member of the Philadelphia 
Convention, and took a prominent part in its de- 
liberations. It cannot be said that his influence 
was at any time predominant or comparable 
with that of Wilson, Hamilton, or his young 
colleague, Madison. Some of his letters are 
very good indications of the feeling prevalent 
in the Convention. May 20, he writes